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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2002

C.O. Jayeola and T.O. Akinwale

An attempt to partially replace cocoa with kola in beverage production was investigated. This was achieved by varying the level of kola in the beverage at ratios of 10:0, 7.5:2.5…

721

Abstract

An attempt to partially replace cocoa with kola in beverage production was investigated. This was achieved by varying the level of kola in the beverage at ratios of 10:0, 7.5:2.5, 5.0:5.0, 2.5:7.5, 0:10. These ratios of beverage were all characterised physicochemically as well as organoleptically and they have all proved satisfactory and acceptable; hence making kola‐cocoa beverage a feasible instant beverage.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

A.O. Obatoye, S.O. Ogunwolu and M.A. Idowu

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects of substituting cow milk with soy milk in the standard milk chocolate recipe on the physical, chemical and sensory qualities…

839

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects of substituting cow milk with soy milk in the standard milk chocolate recipe on the physical, chemical and sensory qualities of milk chocolate and obtain the best ratio of substitution.

Design/methodology/approach

Milk chocolates were produced by substituting the cow milk in the standard recipe with soy milk powder at different ratios of soy milk to cow milk. Physical and chemical analyses were carried out using the standard methods to evaluate the major raw materials and chocolate samples, and the sensory evaluation of the chocolate samples was carried out using preference and difference tests.

Findings

Soy milk contained the highest crude protein and crude fiber. The cut test results of the cocoa beans showed that the percentage of fully fermented cocoa beans was in agreement with the standard. Residimeter value (RV) of four chocolate samples (30:70, 20:80, 10:90, and 0:100) was the best. The nitrogen content and melting points of the chocolates samples were found to increase with increased inclusion of soy milk powder in the recipe. There was no significant difference (p<0.05) in taste, sweetness, smoothness, and overall acceptability of the 0:100 and 30:70; soy milk to cow milk samples.

Practical implications

Soy-chocolate will be a new chocolate product with higher melting point and lower cost than the standard milk chocolate. The selling price of chocolate will be lower and thus affordable to low-income earners. Also, there will be an increased utilization of soybean.

Originality/value

Soy-chocolate recipe is a new and additional recipe for the production of milk chocolate.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 44 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2004

S.O. Aroyeun

Cashew apple was used as a nutritional additive in the production of yogurt. The yogurt so produced (CAY‐A) had a higher vitamin C content of 53.70g/100ml than both samples B and…

678

Abstract

Cashew apple was used as a nutritional additive in the production of yogurt. The yogurt so produced (CAY‐A) had a higher vitamin C content of 53.70g/100ml than both samples B and C with values 14.1/100ml and 19.2g/100ml of vitamin C respectively. The cashew apple fortified yogurt was evaluated for physicochemical parameters like pH, refractive index, dpecific gravity, titratable acidity, ash, moisture, protein and fat and the values 4.10 (pH), 20° Brix soluble solid content, specific gravity 1.023, titratable acidity (0.78g/100ml lactic acid), 0.84 per cent ash, 77.0 per cent moisture, 3.22 per cent protein and 3.2 per cent fat were obtained. The three yogurts produced were presented to ten regular tasters of yogurt for sensory evaluations using Fan Milk yogurt as the reference sample C. Assessors were asked to identify the odd sample. This method was used to determine if ingredient substitution or some other change in the manufacturing process could result in a detectable difference in products. The result obtained indicated that the yogurt into which cashew apple had been added compared favorably with the reference sample in all the attributes evaluated and there was no significant difference at p ≤ 0.05.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 January 2010

L.E. Yahaya, O.M. Aliyu, L.A. Hammed and S.O. Aroyeun

The purpose of this paper is to determine the physicochemical characteristics of yellow and red apples cultivars of cashew. This is with a view to harnessing the quality…

630

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the physicochemical characteristics of yellow and red apples cultivars of cashew. This is with a view to harnessing the quality attributes of the different cultivars of cashew. Parameters investigated include pH, refractive index, specific gravity, vitamin C content, juice astringency, chlorophyll and juice yield.

Design/methodology/approach

The methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) are employed in assaying the physicochemical properties, while the astringency is determined spectrophotometrically according to standard methods.

Findings

Results showed that percentage juice yield increases linearly with maturity for both cultivars. A maximum of 79.5 per cent is obtained for the yellow apple cultivars, while 74.1 per cent juice yield is obtained in the red apple cultivar. The pH ranged from 3.73‐4.5 and 3.64‐4.55 for red and yellow apple cultivars, respectively, with a marked fall between seven and eight weeks after pollination (WAPo). Specific gravity and refractive index are of the order 0.999‐1.007 and 1.34‐1.89 for both selected samples. Highest refractive index is obtained in red and yellow cultivars at seven and eight WAPo. The changes in ascorbic acid followed a linear pattern and the maximum values of 249.5 mg/100 ml and 185.5 mg/100 ml are obtained for yellow and red apple cultivars, respectively. Meanwhile, the juice astringency level decreased steadily with maturity and at the ninth WAPo, values obtained are 0.47 and 0.86 mg/100 ml tannin for yellow and red apple cultivars, respectively. Generally, pH, astringency, refractive index, juice content, ascorbic acid and chlorophyll contents showed marked variations between six and eight WAPo, confirming physiological maturity and ripening in the crop species.

Originality/value

Cashew farmers and industrialists will know the best time to harvest the crop when the quality is at its peak.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 112 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

S.O. Aroyeun, O. Olubamiwa and M.A.K. Ogunjobi

Tea and herb teas are popular beverages with potential health benefits. This study evaluates the potential for the development of wine using infused tea leaves as a raw material.

1272

Abstract

Purpose

Tea and herb teas are popular beverages with potential health benefits. This study evaluates the potential for the development of wine using infused tea leaves as a raw material.

Design/methodology/approach

Tea leaves of clones 318 and 143 obtained from the Mambilla Highland of the Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria Ibadan, were infused in hot water and used in wine production. Processed tea bags from Unilever Plc, Nigeria (LP) were used as the control. All the three infusions were fermented for 120 hours at 30°C.

Findings

The pH, total solids, and the specific gravity of the musts showed a marked decrease with concomitant increase in titratable acidity. Macro elements of the tea leaves indicated significant differences in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium between clones. The different physiology of the tea clones was responsible for the varied tannins of the wines. Sensory evaluation of the wines showed that there were significant differences, p<0.05 value, among wines samples in all the attributes evaluated.

Originality/value

The taste of the wines produced from tea leaves and the aroma compared favourably with other commercially known tropical fruit wines used in the assessment, although there is need for further work on the improvement of the colour of the tea wines.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 107 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2006

S.O. Ogunwolu and C.O. Jayeola

Chocolates imported into Nigeria melt at tropical room temperature, causing bloom formation in storage. This situation may be responsible for the low consumption of chocolate in…

1570

Abstract

Purpose

Chocolates imported into Nigeria melt at tropical room temperature, causing bloom formation in storage. This situation may be responsible for the low consumption of chocolate in Nigeria. This study therefore focused on the production and evaluation of thermo‐resistant chocolate that is not heat labile at tropical ambient temperature.

Design/methodology/approach

Studies were carried out in two stages. The first stage was the incorporation of cornstarch at different percentages of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 per cent and the second stage was the use of gelatin at 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 per cent.

Findings

At 10 per cent inclusions of cornstarch and gelatin, the two non‐conventional chocolates melted at temperatures between 40‐50°C, compared to that of conventional milk chocolate which melts at temperatures between 25‐33°C.

Originality/value

The two non‐conventional chocolates compared favourably with the conventional milk chocolate in terms of colour, taste, smoothness and overall acceptability. However, the non‐conventional chocolate was found to be thermo‐stable at tropical ambient temperatures. The production of these thermo‐resistant chocolates will allow the wide distribution, display and consumption of chocolate in the tropics, especially Nigeria.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 108 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 November 2022

Samuel Ayofemi Olalekan Adeyeye, Olusola Timothy Bolaji, T.A. Abegunde, Helen O. Emun and Rasheed Adesina Oyenubi

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the quality and sensory properties of cookies produced from wheat flour using avocado puree as fat substitute.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the quality and sensory properties of cookies produced from wheat flour using avocado puree as fat substitute.

Design/methodology/approach

Cookies were produced from wheat flour using avocado puree as fat substitute in ratio 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, respectively. The formulation of margarine and avocado puree blends was done by using D-Optimal Mixture Design. In all, 20 samples were produced from each substitution level and analyses were done in triplicates to obtain mean values using standard methods. Means were separated by Duncan’s multiple range test, and significances were accepted at less than 5% confidence level (p < 0.05). Proximate and functional analyses were conducted on the flour samples, while cookie samples were subjected to proximate and sensory analyses.

Findings

The results of this study revealed that the values of loose bulk density, packed bulk density, oil absorption density, water absorption capacity, swelling power, solubility and dispersibility of the flours at p < 0.05 are 0.3–0.4 g/ml, 0.5–0.7 g/ml, 16.9%–94.0%, 39.7%–80.6%, 461.2%–618.2%, 6.0%–29.8% and 69.0%–82.8%, respectively. The moisture, protein, fat, total dietary fiber, total ash and carbohydrate contents of the cookies at p < 0.05 are 3.6%–16.7%, 6.5%–9.9%, 2.5%–19.2%, 1.7%–1.9%, 1.1%–3.0% and 65.0%–70.7%, respectively. The taste, color, crispiness, texture and overall acceptability of the cookies at p < 0.05 are 7.4–7.8, 6.9–7.5, 7.2–7.9, 7.3–7.7 and 7.4–8.3, respectively. The sensory scores showed that panelists preferred the taste, crispiness and texture of the cookies produced from wheat flour using avocado puree as fat substitute at varying proportion. The sensory characteristics of sample WF4 (100% avocado puree) were rated overall best in all the parameters tested followed by sample WF3 (75% avocado puree). Hence, this study established the possibility of producing cookies from wheat flour using avocado puree as fat substitute without a negative impact on the sensory characteristics and the consumers’ acceptability.

Practical implications

The cookies produced from this study are not meant for vegetarians because eggs were added in the formulations and recipes but could be valuable to ovo-vegetarians that may take food with eggs without restriction. The major challenge of this study was that avocados are very expensive in much of the world, so this is only suitable and viable where there is an excess of the fruit.

Originality/value

This study examined the use of avocado puree as fat substitute in cookie production. Effects of avocado puree on proximate composition and functionality of cookies produced from wheat flour were also determined. This approach was novel, and it will encourage the use of avocado for value-added in industrial food production.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 53 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 October 2009

Ayantunji Gbadamosi, Ojo Olukayode Iwaloye and David Bamber

Given the diversity which exists among various groups of consumers, the purpose of this paper is to explore students' consumption of non‐alcoholic beverages in Nigeria.

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Abstract

Purpose

Given the diversity which exists among various groups of consumers, the purpose of this paper is to explore students' consumption of non‐alcoholic beverages in Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

Three focus groups and 20 in‐depth interviews were conducted with students in three universities located in Lagos, Nigeria.

Findings

Initial findings indicate that these students' consumption of non‐alcoholic beverages is influenced in many ways. Nevertheless, the most striking of these influences are found to be convenience of purchase, along with availability, price, health concerns, and culture/social reasons.

Originality/value

The main contribution of the study lies in the relevance of segmentation, targeting, and positioning activities of business organisations in respect of marketing of non‐alcoholic beverages. Based on the findings, the empirical study will serve as a valuable input to marketers in their planning, analysis, and implementation of appropriate marketing strategies to students vis‐à‐vis the highlighted influences on their consumption of this category of food. It will thus serve as a tool for creating competitive advantage in this prevailing volatile business environment.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 39 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Ishmael Owiredu, Damian Laryea and John Barimah

– The aim of this paper is to promote the utilization and diversification of cashew nuts through its use as a substitute for wheat flour in biscuit production.

409

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to promote the utilization and diversification of cashew nuts through its use as a substitute for wheat flour in biscuit production.

Design/methodology/approach

Wheat flour was substituted with cashew nut flour (CNF) at levels of 0, 20, 30 and 40 percent in the production of biscuit. The products obtained were subjected to proximate, mineral and sensory analysis.

Findings

There was a significant increase in protein and fat contents from 7.75 and 22.11 percent to 12.89 and 32.11 percent, respectively, when CNF increased, whiles carbohydrate decreased from 66.67 to 48.04 percent. A significant increase in magnesium (27.93-97.03 mg/100 g), sodium (198.11-228.02 mg/100 g), phosphorus (55.90-149.00 mg/100 g), potassium (290.40-990.00 mg/100 g), zinc (0.72-2.00 mg/100 g) and iron (0.28-1.00 mg/100 g) was also observed as CNF increased. Sensory analysis revealed that there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the 20 and 30 percent substituted samples, in terms of overall acceptability. Therefore, wheat flour could be substituted with CNF up to 30 percent in the production of biscuit.

Originality/value

This study was done to ascertain the potential use of CNF as a substitute for wheat flour and a nutrient enrichment in biscuit production, in order to diversify its use; since it still remains an underutilized raw material in Ghana.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 27 September 2022

Olusegun Emmanuel Akinwale and Olusoji James George

The mass exodus of the professional healthcare workforce has become a cankerworm for a developing nation like Nigeria, and this worsens the already depleted healthcare systems in…

4236

Abstract

Purpose

The mass exodus of the professional healthcare workforce has become a cankerworm for a developing nation like Nigeria, and this worsens the already depleted healthcare systems in underdeveloped nation. This study investigated the rationale behind medical workers' brain-drain syndrome and the quality healthcare delivery in the Nigerian public healthcare sector.

Design/methodology/approach

To stimulate an understanding of the effect of the phenomenon called brain drain, the study adopted a diagnostic research design to survey the public healthcare personnel in government hospitals. The study administered a battery of adapted research scales of different measures to confirm the variables of interest of this study on a probability sampling strategy. The study surveyed 450 public healthcare sector employees from four government hospitals to gather pertinent data. The study used a structural equation model (SEM) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) to analyse the collected data from the medical personnel of government hospitals.

Findings

The findings of this study are significant as postulated. The study discovered that poor quality worklife experienced by Nigerian medical personnel was attributed to the brain-drain effect and poor healthcare delivery. The study further demonstrated that job dissatisfaction suffered among the public healthcare workforce forced the workforce to migrate to the international labour market, and this same factor is a reason for poor healthcare delivery. Lastly, the study discovered that inadequate remuneration and pay discouraged Nigerian professionals and allied healthcare workers from being productive and ultimately pushed them to the global market.

Originality/value

Practically, this study has shown three major elements that caused the mass movement of Nigerian healthcare personnel to other countries of the world and that seems novel given the peculiarity of the Nigerian labour market. The study is original and novel as much study has not been put forward in the public healthcare sector in Nigeria concerning this phenomenon.

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