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Book part
Publication date: 4 May 2018

Khusrizal, Basyaruddin, R.D.H. Rambe and I. Setiawan

Purpose – The research was carried out in order to study the composition of minerals, content of total-K, total-Ca, total-Mg, and exchangeable of K, Ca, Mg in volcanish…

Abstract

Purpose – The research was carried out in order to study the composition of minerals, content of total-K, total-Ca, total-Mg, and exchangeable of K, Ca, Mg in volcanish ash from Sinabung volcano eruption.

Design/Methodology/Approach – The volcanic ash material in amount of 5 kg was collected from the depth of 0–20 cm and 21–41 cm. Mineral composition was determined by using line counting method; total contents of K, Ca, and Mg were measured by HCl 1N extraction, and exchangeable of K, Ca, and Mg was measured by NH4OAc 1N pH 7.0 extraction.

Purpose – The results depicted in volcanic ash layer at the depth of 0–20 cm found some minerals such as plagioclase (34%), hypersthene (9%), augite (3%), hornblende/amphibole (5%), and volcanic glass (1%). These minerals were also found in different amounts at a depth of 21–41 cm. Hypersthene and amphibole were higher and augite was lower at a depth of 0–20 cm than 21–41 cm. The total content of K, Ca, and Mg was found to be 2.27%, 8.12%, and 2.28%, respectively, at a depth of 0–20 cm. The exchangeable of K, Ca, and Mg was found in an amount of 1.89 me/100 g, 20.71 me/100 g, and 1.62 me/100 g, respectively. The total content of K, Ca, and Mg was not available to plants but could potentially be as a source of plant nutrient after weathering while exchangeable form can be uptaken by plant directly.

Research Limitations/Implications – Based on the composition of the minerals, total, and exchangeable of K, Ca, and Mg that the material of volcanic ash, it could potentially be used as source of fertilizers.

Originality/Value – The composition of primary minerals contained in volcanic ash and to know the amount of elements K, Ca, and Mg-associated minerals either in total or exchange.

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Proceedings of MICoMS 2017
Type: Book
ISBN:

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The Definitive Guide to Blockchain for Accounting and Business: Understanding the Revolutionary Technology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-865-0

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Book part
Publication date: 18 February 2013

A.N. Sarkar

Purpose – To review the performance and growth of mining industry in India against current global vision and trend of the industrial growth internationally. Also, to…

Abstract

Purpose – To review the performance and growth of mining industry in India against current global vision and trend of the industrial growth internationally. Also, to evolve the strategic policy for evaluating Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) programme initiatives taken by the Indian mining industry at large as well as the impacts thereof, with special reference to affected and most vulnerable mining belts in India.Design/methodology/approach – An attempt has been made in the chapter to have a holistic sectoral review of the overall performance of the mining industry in India for the past one decade, as well as its claimed impact on improvement of ecological quality and socio-economic growth in the mining belts. The chapter reviews the state of the impact of ‘CSR’ initiatives and programmes on environment as well as the mining community in terms of stakeholders’ involvement and protection of rights in developing socio-economic business equity. The chapter also critically analyses the policy dimensions – including mining industry's operational framework, which can attribute towards developing future strategy for sustainable development of the mining industry at large, through evolving a series of reform processes, adequately backed up by innovative CSR policy and programme initiatives, together with well-defined implementation, monitoring, evaluation strategies and standards.Findings – The mining industries in India have a huge potential for growth to support the other industries for which bulk of the raw materials are derived from this industrial segment. Several research and developmental studies conducted by different organisations spread across the globe have convincingly been able to link the prospect of industrial growth and long-term sustainability with the stakeholders’ participatory and proactive roles along with those of the industry for holistic and integrated socio-economic development of the mining areas. This has been possible through careful designing of the CSR programmes and initiatives by several mining companies in India (with varying degree of success and failures) with close monitoring and performance evaluation of the impact of the programmes in ecological, economical and sustainability terms against certain pre-designed standards. Such standards – as they are constantly evolving – should inter alia include ethical and transparency dimensions to ensure total involvement of the local community in the mining-affected areas. Proper compensation mechanisms and socio-economic growth of the mining community will not only improve productivity, but will also take care of ecological and economic safeguard of the mined coal blocks that are highly vulnerable to ecological degradation and economic exploitation. As for future strategy for sustainable industrial growth of the mining industry in India, there should be constant monitoring and evaluation of the various provisions of the various Acts related to mining, minerals, metals, energy, power, environment, etc. that are constantly under review and reforms processes with a view to guiding the future strategy. International co-operation in the mining sector will go a long way for sustainable growth and development of the mining industry in India for boosting the economic growth of the country.Research limitations/implications – Future research on the theme should focus on identification of replicable and sustainable model of CSR practices in the mining industry by developing illustrative business models on the basis of global experiences. Sustainability reporting and identification of better qualitative as well as quantitative parameters, tools and techniques to study the impact of CSR practices on the socio-economic growth of the affected mining community should be the focus of future research.Social implications – The findings (serving as messages) of this piece of research will certainly have an impact on society. This in turn, will, hopefully influence public attitudes, and by implications, it will also influence (corporate) social responsibility or environmental issues.Originality/value of the chapter – The chapter is innovative and, among other things, addresses some of recently reported burning issues affecting the interests of the mining industry on one hand, and the national economy of the affected countries on the other.

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International Business, Sustainability and Corporate Social Responsibility
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-625-5

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Article
Publication date: 28 April 2020

Florence Malongane, Lyndy Joy McGaw and Fhatuwani Nixwell Mudau

The present study was carried out to determine (1) essential minerals, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, moisture and ash of four selected South African herbal teas and…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study was carried out to determine (1) essential minerals, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, moisture and ash of four selected South African herbal teas and (2) the effect of blending bush tea with other known commercial herbal teas.

Design/methodology/approach

The method used to determine moisture and ash contents followed that of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Nine minerals were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined by Folin–Ciocalteu assay and aluminum chloride colorimetric assay, respectively.

Findings

The results of the study demonstrated that bush tea had a high ash content of 8.01% and special tea (9.23%), while honeybush (1.96%) and rooibos tea (2.17%) exhibited a low ash percentage. The mineral content was higher in bush tea and special tea than in rooibos tea and honeybush tea except for sodium, which was higher in rooibos tea. The blending of bush tea with special tea improved its potassium content from 22,937.00 mg/kg to 23,379.20 mg/kg. Blending bush tea with rooibos tea at a ratio of 25:75 increased the flavonoid content to 12.21 µg/mL.

Research limitations/implications

The results of the nutrients composition cannot be generalized as it is influenced by other factors such as soil type and seasons.

Social implications

Increasing the commercialization of indigenous teas.

Originality/value

The results of the study suggest that bush tea and special tea are nutritionally comparable with South African commercial herbal teas. Thus, the consideration for commercialization of these teas is crucial.

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British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2002

Chongbin Zhao, Ge Lin, B.E. Hobbs, Yuejun Wang, H.B. Mühlhaus and A. Ord

We present the finite element simulations of reactive mineral‐carrying fluids mixing and mineralization in pore‐fluid saturated hydrothermal/sedimentary basins. In…

Abstract

We present the finite element simulations of reactive mineral‐carrying fluids mixing and mineralization in pore‐fluid saturated hydrothermal/sedimentary basins. In particular we explore the mixing of reactive sulfide and sulfate fluids and the relevant patterns of mineralization for lead, zinc and iron minerals in the regime of temperature‐gradient‐driven convective flow. Since the mineralization and ore body formation may last quite a long period of time in a hydrothermal basin, it is commonly assumed that, in the geochemistry, the solutions of minerals are in an equilibrium state or near an equilibrium state. Therefore, the mineralization rate of a particular kind of mineral can be expressed as the product of the pore‐fluid velocity and the equilibrium concentration of this particular kind of mineral. Using the present mineralization rate of a mineral, the potential of the modern mineralization theory is illustrated by means of finite element studies related to reactive mineral‐carrying fluids mixing problems in materially homogeneous and inhomogeneous porous rock basins.

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Engineering Computations, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 31 October 2018

Natalia Ewa Zalewska, Maja Mroczkowska-Szerszeń, Joerg Fritz and Maria Błęcka

This paper aims to characterize the mineral composition of Martian surfaces based on Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES; Mars Global Surveyor) as measured in the infrared…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to characterize the mineral composition of Martian surfaces based on Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES; Mars Global Surveyor) as measured in the infrared thermal range. It presents modeling and interpreting of TES spectral data from selected Martian regions from which the atmospheric influences had been removed using radiative transfer algorithm and deconvolution algorithm. The spectra from the dark area of Cimmeria Terra and the bright Isidis Planitia were developed in Philip Christensen’s and Joshua Bandfield’s publications, where these spectra were subjected to spectral deconvolution to estimate the mineral composition of the Martian surface. The results of the analyses of these spectra were used for the modeling of dusty and non-dusty surface of Mars. As an additional source, the mineral compositions of Polish basalts and mafic rocks were used for these surfaces as well as for modeling Martian meteorites Shergottites, Nakhlites and Chassignites. Finally, the spectra for the modeling of the Hellas region were obtained from the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) – (Mars Express) and the mineralogical compositions of basalts from the southern part of Poland were used for this purpose. The Hellas region was modeled also using simulated Martian soil samples Phyllosilicatic Mars Regolith Simulant and Sulfatic Mars Regolith Simulant, showing as a result that the composition of this selected area has a high content of sulfates. Linear spectral combination was chosen as the best modeling method. The modeling was performed using PFSLook software written in the Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Additional measurements were made with an infrared spectrometer in thermal infrared spectroscopy, for comparison with the measurements of PFS and TES. The research uses a kind of modeling that successfully matches mineralogical composition to the measured spectrum from the surface of Mars, which is the main goal of the publication. This method is used for areas where sample collection is not yet possible. The areas have been chosen based on public availability of the data.

Design/methodology/approach

The infrared spectra of the Martian surface were modeled by applying the linear combination of the spectra of selected minerals, which then are normalized against the measured surface area with previously separated atmosphere. The minerals for modeling are selected based on the expected composition of the Martian rocks, such as basalt. The software used for this purpose was PFSLook, a program written in C++ at the Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences, which is based on adding the spectra of minerals in the relevant percentage, resulting in a final spectrum containing 100 per cent of the minerals.

Findings

The results of this work confirmed that there is a relationship between the modeled, altered and unaltered, basaltic surface and the measured spectrum from Martian instruments. Spectral deconvolution makes it possible to interpret the measured spectra from areas that are potentially difficult to explore or to choose interesting areas to explore on site. The method is described for mid-infrared because of software availability, but it can be successfully applied to shortwave spectra in near-infrared (NIR) band for data from the currently functioning Martian spectroscopes.

Originality/value

This work is the only one attempting modeling the spectra of the surface of Mars with a separated atmosphere and to determine the mineralogical composition.

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Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 91 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2019

Samanthi Silva and Stefan Schaltegger

The necessity to assess and manage supply chains to be free from social problems such as human and labour rights abuses has become particularly apparent since the…

Abstract

Purpose

The necessity to assess and manage supply chains to be free from social problems such as human and labour rights abuses has become particularly apparent since the introduction of conflict minerals regulations in the United States (Dodd-Frank Act) and the European Union. Similarly, stakeholders demand that products are free from social problems. Ever more companies are therefore challenged to assess and manage social issues in their supply chains. At the same time, the increasing literature on assessment and management of social issues is disperse and an overview missing. This paper aims to provide an overview of the existing literature on social assessment and management approaches relating to conflict minerals and connected to social issues in supply chains.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of the academic literature on social assessment and management of conflict minerals to provide an overview is currently missing. This paper addresses this gap by systematically reviewing the existing research literature on approaches for the social assessment and management of conflict minerals from a supply chain perspective.

Findings

The systematic literature review found 21 social assessment and 30 social management approaches with reference to conflict minerals, with the most referenced approach being the OECD guidelines. Overall, the conflict mineral related literature discusses rather general social assessment and management approaches, such as codes of conduct, while the effectiveness of the approaches is not analysed in depth. The paper finds that an analysis of the effectiveness and interlinkages of different approaches is missing. The large variety of social and human rights issues addressed in the academic literature ranges from corruption to violence, going beyond the scope of regulations focused on conflict minerals. This indicates that regulations on conflict minerals and the consequences for management are seen as a specific case with wider implications for future regulations and the necessity for management to solve social problems in supply chains in an effective way.

Research limitations/implications

The review paper is conceptual and develops a framework to classify social assessment and management approaches for conflict minerals, drawing on the supply chain management literature.

Practical implications

The overview reveals that research refers to broader social assessment and management approaches indicating wider implications for assessing and managing social issues in supply chains in general, irrespective of whether they are conflict mineral related. Research has, however, so far not addressed the effectiveness and interlinkages between social assessment and management approaches. The aim of the emerging regulations, however, is to foster more effective management of social issues in supply chains. Management is therefore challenged to develop and implement innovative approaches to effectively reduce social problems in supply chains beyond conflict minerals. Conclusions are drawn for management and research.

Social implications

The paper highlights the need for collaboration with NGOs, industry associations and suppliers, recommending to engage in supplier development.

Originality/value

The paper conducts the first systematic review of academic literature on conflict mineral related social assessment and management approaches. A framework is proposed to classify social assessment and management approaches based on supply chain management literature. While conflict minerals often represent a small fraction of components in a product, they can have huge and costly implications for companies, which require (potentially) large changes for the sourcing and supply strategy of a company. Conflict mineral regulations represent the first attempt to regulate social and human rights abuses in supply chains holding companies responsible for misconduct caused by suppliers abroad.

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Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Hamid Ashraf and Frederick Cawood

The fundamental purpose of this research is to compare Pakistan’s mineral policy instrument with that of leading developing minerals-based economies and to highlight the…

Abstract

Purpose

The fundamental purpose of this research is to compare Pakistan’s mineral policy instrument with that of leading developing minerals-based economies and to highlight the gaps. Mineral resources development can act as an engine for country growth and have the potential to transform economies and societies. The extent to which such transformation takes place varies depending upon the method of their use.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper conducts a gap analysis between Pakistan and leading developing minerals-based economies to identify key policy gaps. Two basic principles were kept in mind with the choice of countries: first, only developing countries were considered and, second, at least two countries had to be Islamic. Eight developing countries Chile, Mexico, Brazil, Peru, India, South Africa, Kazakhstan and Turkey were selected.

Findings

The most important finding of the exercise is that Pakistan’s mineral sector is lacking an enabling institutional, fiscal and regulatory framework for the optimal development of its mineral resources.

Practical implication

Pakistan’s mineral resources have the potential to expand its economy and benefit its citizens. For this to happen, Pakistan must first establish what beneficiation is realistically expected from its mineral resources and, second, formulate a mineral policy based on leading practices to attract mining investment and aim for a sector contribution to gross domestic product of 5 per cent.

Originality/value

This paper presents original work on how Pakistan should formulate its mineral policy to extract maximum benefit from its mineral resources.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2012

Olaniyi Amos Fawole and Umezuruike Linus Opara

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit is highly valued for its delicious edible arils and health benefits. In this study, a comparative study on elemental composition of…

Abstract

Purpose

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit is highly valued for its delicious edible arils and health benefits. In this study, a comparative study on elemental composition of seven pomegranate cultivars was determined in the fruit rind, mesocarp and arils.

Design/methodology/approach

The concentrations of major elements (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cl and Na) and trace elements (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, B, Ni, Co, Cr, Pb, Cd, Se, Al, As, Li, Sr, Ti and V) were determined using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP‐OES) calibrated with different concentrations of standard solutions of the minerals.

Findings

The highest amounts of N, P, S and Cl were found in Bhagwa cultivar, while Arakta, Ruby and Wonderful had the highest amount of Mg, Ca, and Na, respectively. P, Fe, Zn, Ti, V were more in quantity in the edible portion, while the other mineral elements were in larger proportions or in some cases were only found (Co, Al, As) in the non‐edible fractions of fruit. Among the major mineral elements investigated, P had the highest covering of the RDA, ranging from 6.78 to 8.53 per cent contribution to the RDA, followed by K (4.530‐4.95 per cent RDA), S (1.25‐1.54 per cent RDA), Ca (1.04‐1.54 per cent RDA), Mg (4.33‐5.26 per cent RDA), and Na (0.15‐0.17 per cent RDA).

Practical implications

Knowledge of the relative contributions of mineral elements in the edible fruit part (arils) to RDA will assist in nutrition planning against mineral deficiency.

Originality/value

Pomegranate fruit contains edible and non‐edible portions, and this study provided the first detailed report on the distribution of a wide range of trace and major mineral elements in the three parts of the fruit. This study also showed that the edible portion (arils) of pomegranate fruit is a good dietary source of essential nutrients such as K, Ca, Mg, and Se, while the non‐edible parts may provide valuable sources of minerals for other food and bioprocess industries.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 114 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2019

Hamid Ashraf and Frederick Cawood

The purpose of this paper is to develop a mineral policy development framework for Pakistan based on seven key elements derived from the gap analysis of Pakistan’s current…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a mineral policy development framework for Pakistan based on seven key elements derived from the gap analysis of Pakistan’s current framework with leading developing minerals-based economies. Pakistan is gifted with significant mineral resources that have the potential to lift its economy and bring prosperity to its citizens. For this to happen, Pakistan must formulate a mineral policy based on leading practices to attract mining investment for economic growth.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper develops a new mineral policy framework from the lessons derived from the gap analysis conducted in the first paper of this research. These lessons are called the “elements of development” which, after evaluation with the existing framework, will provide the suggested strategic fit measures for the formulation of the new mineral policy framework for Pakistan.

Findings

A new mineral policy framework is proposed based on seven key enablers, namely, institutional framework, stable political economy, legal framework, regulatory framework, fiscal framework, stakeholder participation and sustainable development. A new organisational structure of the Ministry is also proposed based on the generally accepted organisational structure of tiers, implementation and regulatory bodies.

Practical implications

The key constraints for Pakistan’s mineral sector are as follows: the sector is lacking an enabling institutional framework for efficient access to mineral resources and lacks an enabling fiscal and regulatory framework including secure mineral rights system for mining to enhance the economic attractiveness of the sector.

Originality/value

This paper presents original work on the development of a new mineral policy framework for Pakistan to extract maximum benefit from its mineral resources.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

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