Search results

1 – 10 of over 1000
Article
Publication date: 1 February 2006

S.O. Aroyeun, J.O. Ogunbayo and A.O. Olaiya

Lack of good post‐harvest storage of cocoa pods has been responsible for the low commercial quality of cocoa beans. This study aims to evaluate the effect of modified…

1481

Abstract

Purpose

Lack of good post‐harvest storage of cocoa pods has been responsible for the low commercial quality of cocoa beans. This study aims to evaluate the effect of modified packaging and storage time of cocoa pods on the corresponding commercial qualities of cocoa beans.

Design/methodology/approach

Preweighed cocoa pods obtained from the experimental station of the Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan, Nigeria were stored under three modified packaging conditions, namely: black non transparent polythene film (BNTPEF), transparent polythene film (TPEF) and NA (normal atmosphere environment).

Findings

The study found that there was a rise in the mean temperatures of samples in all the storage environments up to the 12th day of storage, after which the mean temperature declined until the end of the storage period. Cocoa butter fat, bean weights, severity of decay and mould growths depended on the type of packaging and storage time.

Originality/value

At p<0.05 the use of modified packaging of cocoa pods significantly affects the commercial values of the beans. The best of these qualities was conserved in the TPEF.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 108 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 November 2022

Bismark Amfo, Adinan Bahahudeen Shafiwu and Mohammed Tanko

The authors investigated cocoa farmers' access to subsidized fertilizer in Ghana and implications on productivity.

Abstract

Purpose

The authors investigated cocoa farmers' access to subsidized fertilizer in Ghana and implications on productivity.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data were sourced from 435 cocoa farmers. Cragg hurdle and two-step Tobit model with continuous endogenous regressors/covariates were applied for the drivers of cocoa farmers' participation in fertilizer subsidy programme and productivity. Propensity score matching (PSM), inverse-probability weights (IPW) and augmented inverse-probability weights (AIPW) were applied for productivity impact assessment of fertilizer subsidy.

Findings

All the farmers were aware of fertilizer subsidy for cocoa production in Ghana. Farmers became aware of fertilizer subsidy through extension officers, media and other farmers. Half of cocoa farmers benefitted from fertilizer subsidy. Averagely, cocoa farmers purchased 292 kg of subsidized fertilizer. Many socio-economic, farm-level characteristics and institutional factors determine cocoa farmers' participation in fertilizer subsidy programme, quantity of subsidized fertilizer obtained and productivity. Beneficiaries of fertilizer subsidy recorded higher cocoa productivity than non-beneficiaries. Hence, fertilizer subsidy for cocoa production in Ghana leads to a gain in productivity.

Practical implications

There should be more investments in fertilizer subsidy so that all cocoa farmers benefit and obtain the required quantities.

Originality/value

The authors provide new evidence on cocoa productivity gain or loss emanating from fertilizer subsidy by combining different impact assessment techniques for deeper analysis: PSM, IPW and AIPW.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

Expert briefing
Publication date: 6 September 2022

The 2020 introduction of the Living Income Differential (LID) -- a USD400 per tonne premium on all cocoa sales from Ghana and Ivory Coast -- aimed at improving the…

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB272537

ISSN: 2633-304X

Keywords

Geographic
Topical
Book part
Publication date: 1 September 2008

Amanda Berlan

This chapter contrasts the representation of Third World farmers in Fair Trade marketing campaigns with data drawn from long-term fieldwork involving cocoa producers in…

Abstract

This chapter contrasts the representation of Third World farmers in Fair Trade marketing campaigns with data drawn from long-term fieldwork involving cocoa producers in Ghana and evidence provided by older anthropological monographs on these communities. In doing so, it practically illustrates the disparity between global assumptions and local perspectives on production and consumption. The key contention underlying this chapter is that the representation of producers as needy, helpless, and disgruntled with multinational corporations is deeply problematic. Such a representation reveals a significant and somewhat concerning discrepancy between the lives of farmers and the narratives displayed in Western campaigns for trade justice. By using fieldwork data and earlier anthropological literature showing the determination, ingenuity, and far-sighted strategies of cocoa farmers in Ghana, this chapter demonstrates that producers in the Third World are not the passive and helpless individuals they are sometimes portrayed as.

Details

Hidden Hands in the Market: Ethnographies of Fair Trade, Ethical Consumption, and Corporate Social Responsibility
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-059-9

Book part
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Bob Doherty

Gender equality and women’s empowerment are considered core development objectives (SDG 5) and instrumental in achieving other SDGs such as economic growth and food…

Abstract

Gender equality and women’s empowerment are considered core development objectives (SDG 5) and instrumental in achieving other SDGs such as economic growth and food security and improved health and education. Cocoa is seen as a ‘man’s crop’ and there is entrenched gender bias in its value chain. However, women play a crucial role in the tending and post-harvesting of cocoa which are key to the price paid. This chapter investigates, via a 20-year in-depth case study, the partnership between Fair Trade Social Enterprise Divine Chocolate Ltd and Kuapa Kokoo (KK) cocoa farmer’s cooperative in Ghana. The case takes an in-depth look at women’s role in the cocoa value chain and how their strategic interests, practical needs and power can be addressed.

The Divine–Kuapa Kooko partnership, which implemented a clear resourced gender equality strategy, has made a positive contribution to reducing inequality, empowering women cocoa farmers and improving their rights. Setting quotas for women’s representation at all levels of KK’s structure has improved the strategic interests of women cocoa farmers and transformed the political structures of the cooperative. Also setting gender equality as part of the KK’s constitution enhances the empowerment and power of women cocoa farmers. Providing equal access to training and resources also enhances the practical capabilities of women.

The chapter proposes a framework of how to achieve improvements in gender quality and women’s empowerment. This case will assist other organisations who have targeted Sustainable Development Goal 5 of gender equality and women’s empowerment as part of their strategy.

Details

Entrepreneurship and the Sustainable Development Goals
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-375-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2022

John Kwesi Buor

Change in the economic status of a low-income country is accompanied by an expected increase in investment and economic activities along with land degradation and…

Abstract

Purpose

Change in the economic status of a low-income country is accompanied by an expected increase in investment and economic activities along with land degradation and biodiversity loss. This study aims to explore Ghana's transition from a low-income to a lower-middle income economy, and the impact of the accompanying rise in extractive activities on the upstream cocoa supply chain (CSC) and its supporting ecosystem.

Design/methodology/approach

The author conducted interviews and made critical observations on Ghana's upstream CSC. Grounded theory (GT) and system dynamics (SD) methodologies were employed to extract and analyze themes from the data gathered. Causal loop diagrams were derived from the analyzed data to provide insight into the possible long-term structural behavior of the upstream CSC due to the change in Ghana's economic status.

Findings

The findings suggest that continuous increase in land capture by open-cast mining and logging concessionaires, poor environmental law enforcement and farmer discontentment could cause a decline in cocoa production and biodiversity.

Originality/value

This research could stimulate the identification of a most effective alternative policy (such as agroecological farming) to improve the living standards of upstream CSC partners and reduce biodiversity loss. The models herein could serve as a learning/demonstration tool for researchers, academia and policymakers when brainstorming students, or during stakeholder (community/society) engagement/consultation sessions, to discuss policy decisions and their consequences. The model approach could also be helpful when designing strategic land-use policies. This could improve understanding of the complex interdependent relationships and the consequences of land degradation, loss of biodiversity and rural livelihood from a system thinking perspective.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 December 2021

Bismark Amfo, James Osei Mensah and Robert Aidoo

The study assessed welfare of migrant and non-migrant labourers on cocoa farms in Ghana, using multidimensional poverty index (MPI) with four dimensions (education…

Abstract

Purpose

The study assessed welfare of migrant and non-migrant labourers on cocoa farms in Ghana, using multidimensional poverty index (MPI) with four dimensions (education, health, dietary diversity, living standards) and 21 indicators. Specifically, we examined and compared non-monetary welfare of migrant and non-migrant labourers on cocoa farms in Ghana by adopting MPI approach. Also, we explored the factors affecting labourers' welfare.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 400 labourers was used. Qualitative and quantitative data were used. Quantile regression was used to investigate factors affecting labourers' deprivation in the different domains of non-monetary welfare.

Findings

Labourers on cocoa farms are generally deprived in all the welfare indicators. Apart from having low education, labourers were underfed and lived under poor conditions. Though both migrants and non-migrants were multidimensionally poor, welfare of the later was higher than the former. Welfare of migrants and non-migrants on cocoa farms are influenced by similar factors: secondary occupation, income, credit accessibility, nature of contract and distance to social amenities.

Research limitations/implications

For migrants, permanent status improves welfare. To improve labourers' welfare for enhanced productivity, cocoa farmers should provide permanent/long-term contracts for labourers and government should provide social amenities in cocoa-producing communities.

Originality/value

Most previous welfare studies focused on farmers, with little attention paid to welfare of labourers on cocoa farms. We examined and compared the factors that affect migrant and non-migrant labourers' welfare on cocoa farms in Ghana. Moreover, we adopted the MPI (non-monetary) approach to assess labourers' welfare, instead of the expenditure and income approaches prevalent in literature.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 49 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 February 2022

Richard Kwasi Bannor, Helena Oppong-Kyeremeh, Bismark Amfo and Ada Adoley Allotey

The authors investigate cocoa farmers' willingness and motivation to participate in agritourism entrepreneurship in Ghana.

Abstract

Purpose

The authors investigate cocoa farmers' willingness and motivation to participate in agritourism entrepreneurship in Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data were obtained from 583 cocoa farmers. Contingent valuation method, ordered probit and truncated regressions were employed.

Findings

Cocoa farmers' willingness to participate in agritourism was high. The minimum fee farmers were willing to charge per tourist per day ranged from US$0.870 to US$6.957. Agritourism products farmers were willing to offer to tourists are interaction with rural folks, indigenous cuisine, quality locally stored drinking water, indigenous primary healthcare and on-site restrooms. Cocoa farmers' motivations to participate in agritourism are income generation, alternative livelihood strategy and education. Education, being a native, farm size, motorable roads to farm, and distance to farm influence minimum fee farmers were willing to accept to participate in agritourism.

Research limitations/implications

Agritourism could be considered in rural and tourism development policies of developing countries.

Originality/value

The authors investigate cocoa farmers' participation in agritourism, motivations and determinants of willingness to participate.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 82 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 August 2021

James P. Hess

The purpose of this paper is to examine the macro-, meso- and micro-level approaches to building sustainability in Ghana's timber, cocoa and goldmining industries s Ghana…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the macro-, meso- and micro-level approaches to building sustainability in Ghana's timber, cocoa and goldmining industries s Ghana works to align sustainability efforts with the sustainable development goals proposed by the United Nations.

Design/methodology/approach

Using qualitative content analysis, a synthesis of contemporary literature on Ghana's timber, cocoa and gold mining industries was conducted to provide a descriptive evaluation of sustainability efforts in those industries.

Findings

At the macro-level, Ghana continues to invest in infrastructure, privatize industries and develop an urban development agenda to encourage foreign direct investment (FDI); improved forest management and green building policies and reduction of galamsey are also implemented. At the meso-level, the timber industry encourages land reclamation and green building technologies; the cocoa industry works to replenish lost trees, develop supply-chain partnerships, and encourage certifications; the goldmining industry works to regulate informal mining and reduce galamsey and the use of toxins in exploration. At the micro-level, alignment has developed between the micro- and meso-levels in the timber and cocoa industries, whereas micro-level players in the timber industry are less successful, given its large, unregulated informal sector.

Originality/value

Existing literature is missing discussion on the alignment of macro-, meso- and micro-level approaches to sustainability in Ghana's timber, cocoa and gold mining industries with attention to the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals as the premise for the work.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 September 2021

Nazir Muhammad Abdullahi, Qiangqiang Zhang, Saleh Shahriar, Sokvibol Kea and Xuexi Huo

This paper aims to derive the time-varying relative export competitiveness (REC) of the Nigerian cocoa sector against Nigeria’s share of world agricultural exports…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to derive the time-varying relative export competitiveness (REC) of the Nigerian cocoa sector against Nigeria’s share of world agricultural exports (REC_WA) and world merchandise exports (REC_WM) from 1995 to 2018. By concentrating on different factors such as demand and supply capacity, price factors and exchange rate, the authors examine the determinants of REC.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors calculated three different REC indexes. The authors also developed the relative symmetric export competitiveness index for comparative advantage calculation and avoiding the possible bias. The determinants of REC for Nigerian cocoa were captured using the short-run regression (SRR) model.

Findings

The study showed that Nigeria’s cocoa exports are still competitive despite experiencing some declining stages. Based on the SRR model, higher per capita income had a positive effect on the REC, while higher domestic prices significantly reduced the REC of cocoa. Further, the African Growth Opportunity Act agreement adversely affected the REC of cocoa.

Originality/value

This study provides a foundation for future research and enhances the literature on agricultural trade. This research makes a few contributions both from a scientific and a policy perspective. First, it is the first study on the REC analysis for the Nigerian cocoa industry. Second, a wide range of comparisons of REC among the world’s largest cocoa exporters was provided following implications of the various economic policies and local policy strategies. Third, the latest 24-year data sets were covered.

1 – 10 of over 1000