Search results

1 – 10 of over 1000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 February 2006

S.O. Aroyeun, J.O. Ogunbayo and A.O. Olaiya

Lack of good post‐harvest storage of cocoa pods has been responsible for the low commercial quality of cocoa beans. This study aims to evaluate the effect of modified…

Abstract

Purpose

Lack of good post‐harvest storage of cocoa pods has been responsible for the low commercial quality of cocoa beans. This study aims to evaluate the effect of modified packaging and storage time of cocoa pods on the corresponding commercial qualities of cocoa beans.

Design/methodology/approach

Preweighed cocoa pods obtained from the experimental station of the Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan, Nigeria were stored under three modified packaging conditions, namely: black non transparent polythene film (BNTPEF), transparent polythene film (TPEF) and NA (normal atmosphere environment).

Findings

The study found that there was a rise in the mean temperatures of samples in all the storage environments up to the 12th day of storage, after which the mean temperature declined until the end of the storage period. Cocoa butter fat, bean weights, severity of decay and mould growths depended on the type of packaging and storage time.

Originality/value

At p<0.05 the use of modified packaging of cocoa pods significantly affects the commercial values of the beans. The best of these qualities was conserved in the TPEF.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 108 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 5 July 2021

Pedro Lafargue, Michael Rogerson, Glenn C. Parry and Joel Allainguillaume

This paper examines the potential of “biomarkers” to provide immutable identification for food products (chocolate), providing traceability and visibility in the supply…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines the potential of “biomarkers” to provide immutable identification for food products (chocolate), providing traceability and visibility in the supply chain from retail product back to farm.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses qualitative data collection, including fieldwork at cocoa farms and chocolate manufacturers in Ecuador and the Netherlands and semi-structured interviews with industry professionals to identify challenges and create a supply chain map from cocoa plant to retailer, validated by area experts. A library of biomarkers is created using DNA collected from fieldwork and the International Cocoa Quarantine Centre, holders of cocoa varieties from known locations around the world. Matching sample biomarkers with those in the library enables identification of origins of cocoa used in a product, even when it comes from multiple different sources and has been processed.

Findings

Supply chain mapping and interviews identify areas of the cocoa supply chain that lack the visibility required for management to guarantee sustainability and quality. A decoupling point, where smaller farms/traders’ goods are combined to create larger economic units, obscures product origins and limits visibility. These factors underpin a potential boundary condition to institutional theory in the industry’s fatalism to environmental and human abuses in the face of rising institutional pressures. Biomarkers reliably identify product origin, including specific farms and (fermentation) processing locations, providing visibility and facilitating control and trust when purchasing cocoa.

Research limitations/implications

The biomarker “meta-barcoding” of cocoa beans used in chocolate manufacturing accurately identifies the farm, production facility or cooperative, where a cocoa product came from. A controlled data set of biomarkers of registered locations is required for audit to link chocolate products to origin.

Practical implications

Where biomarkers can be produced from organic products, they offer a method for closing visibility gaps, enabling responsible sourcing. Labels (QR codes, barcodes, etc.) can be swapped and products tampered with, but biological markers reduce reliance on physical tags, diminishing the potential for fraud. Biomarkers identify product composition, pinpointing specific farm(s) of origin for cocoa in chocolate, allowing targeted audits of suppliers and identifying if cocoa of unknown origin is present. Labour and environmental abuses exist in many supply chains and enabling upstream visibility may help firms address these challenges.

Social implications

By describing a method for firms in cocoa supply chains to scientifically track their cocoa back to the farm level, the research shows that organizations can conduct social audits for child labour and environmental abuses at specific farms proven to be in their supply chains. This provides a method for delivering supply chain visibility (SCV) for firms serious about tackling such problems.

Originality/value

This paper provides one of the very first examples of biomarkers for agricultural SCV. An in-depth study of stakeholders from the cocoa and chocolate industry elucidates problematic areas in cocoa supply chains. Biomarkers provide a unique biological product identifier. Biomarkers can support efforts to address environmental and social sustainability issues such as child labour, modern slavery and deforestation by providing visibility into previously hidden areas of the supply chain.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 1 September 2008

Amanda Berlan

This chapter contrasts the representation of Third World farmers in Fair Trade marketing campaigns with data drawn from long-term fieldwork involving cocoa producers in…

Abstract

This chapter contrasts the representation of Third World farmers in Fair Trade marketing campaigns with data drawn from long-term fieldwork involving cocoa producers in Ghana and evidence provided by older anthropological monographs on these communities. In doing so, it practically illustrates the disparity between global assumptions and local perspectives on production and consumption. The key contention underlying this chapter is that the representation of producers as needy, helpless, and disgruntled with multinational corporations is deeply problematic. Such a representation reveals a significant and somewhat concerning discrepancy between the lives of farmers and the narratives displayed in Western campaigns for trade justice. By using fieldwork data and earlier anthropological literature showing the determination, ingenuity, and far-sighted strategies of cocoa farmers in Ghana, this chapter demonstrates that producers in the Third World are not the passive and helpless individuals they are sometimes portrayed as.

Details

Hidden Hands in the Market: Ethnographies of Fair Trade, Ethical Consumption, and Corporate Social Responsibility
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-059-9

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 27 January 2021

Esther Gyedu-Akoto, Eric Kumi Asare, Stephen Yaw Opoku, Abu Mustapha Dadzie and Emmanuel Ofosu-Agyei

Roasted coffee provides a complex blend of different flavours which produce a range of sensory qualities. With the development of protocols for the production of fresh…

Abstract

Purpose

Roasted coffee provides a complex blend of different flavours which produce a range of sensory qualities. With the development of protocols for the production of fresh juices, jams and marmalades from cocoa and cashew pulp juices at Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, this paper aims to study the effects of roasted coffee powder on fermented cocoa and cashew juices to diversify the uses of these two juices.

Design/methodology/approach

Cocoa and cashew juices were fermented with the incorporation of 2% roasted coffee powder using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast starter. The fermenting juices were monitored by measuring pH, temperature, specific gravity and titratable acidity. At the end of the fermentation, the juices were poured into clean, sterilized containers to mature. They were then analysed for their physicochemical, microbiological and sensory qualities. These were repeated with cocoa and cashew juices without coffee powder to determine the effects of the roasted coffee on the fermented juices.

Findings

The addition of roasted coffee powder to cocoa and cashew juices did not have any significant effect on the fermentation performance of the juices. Three out of the four juices took a total of 13 days to complete fermentation with an average final specific gravity of 0.99. The quality of the fermented juices was not compromised by microbial activities. However, the addition of roasted coffee powder reduced the alcohol content of fermented cocoa juice from 9.0 to 5.0% and that of cashew from 11.0% to 7.5%. Sensory analysis using untrained panellists, who were ordinary consumers, showed significant differences among the four fermented juices in terms of appearance, taste and aroma. Their mean scores for coffee aroma ranged from 0.3 to 2.0 with coffee incorporated fermented juices having higher rankings.

Originality/value

These findings have shown the possibility of processing cocoa and cashew juices, which under normal circumstances would have been discarded along their value chains, into coffee-flavoured wines. They are also important to cocoa, cashew and coffee farmers, processors, as well as wine enthusiasts.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Bob Doherty

Gender equality and women’s empowerment are considered core development objectives (SDG 5) and instrumental in achieving other SDGs such as economic growth and food…

Abstract

Gender equality and women’s empowerment are considered core development objectives (SDG 5) and instrumental in achieving other SDGs such as economic growth and food security and improved health and education. Cocoa is seen as a ‘man’s crop’ and there is entrenched gender bias in its value chain. However, women play a crucial role in the tending and post-harvesting of cocoa which are key to the price paid. This chapter investigates, via a 20-year in-depth case study, the partnership between Fair Trade Social Enterprise Divine Chocolate Ltd and Kuapa Kokoo (KK) cocoa farmer’s cooperative in Ghana. The case takes an in-depth look at women’s role in the cocoa value chain and how their strategic interests, practical needs and power can be addressed.

The Divine–Kuapa Kooko partnership, which implemented a clear resourced gender equality strategy, has made a positive contribution to reducing inequality, empowering women cocoa farmers and improving their rights. Setting quotas for women’s representation at all levels of KK’s structure has improved the strategic interests of women cocoa farmers and transformed the political structures of the cooperative. Also setting gender equality as part of the KK’s constitution enhances the empowerment and power of women cocoa farmers. Providing equal access to training and resources also enhances the practical capabilities of women.

The chapter proposes a framework of how to achieve improvements in gender quality and women’s empowerment. This case will assist other organisations who have targeted Sustainable Development Goal 5 of gender equality and women’s empowerment as part of their strategy.

Details

Entrepreneurship and the Sustainable Development Goals
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-375-9

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 31 December 2020

Bismark Amfo, James Osei Mensah and Robert Aidoo

Poor working conditions among migrant labourers on cocoa farms may be commonplace. This could affect labour productivity and cocoa industry performance. The paper…

Abstract

Purpose

Poor working conditions among migrant labourers on cocoa farms may be commonplace. This could affect labour productivity and cocoa industry performance. The paper investigates migrants' satisfaction with working conditions on cocoa farms in Ghana and the key drivers of satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employed a five-point Likert scale to evaluate migrants' satisfaction with remuneration, working hours, welfare, health and safety, contract and freedom. Using primary data from 400 migrants and non-migrants in four cocoa districts, multivariate probit regression was employed to evaluate the determinants of satisfaction with working conditions.

Findings

Migrant labourers are generally satisfied with their working hours, nature of contract and freedom they enjoy. However, they are unsatisfied with their remuneration, welfare and health/safety conditions on cocoa farms. All things being equal, secondary occupation, nature of contract, number of farmers served by labourer, annual earnings, farm ownership, education and expectations before migration influence migrants' satisfaction with working conditions.

Practical implications

To improve satisfaction with working conditions and productivity, migrants on cocoa farms should be given protective working gear, long-term or renewable contracts and they should be encouraged to engage in secondary occupations.

Originality/value

Unlike previous studies that focussed on working conditions in the formal sector, this study explores migrants' satisfaction with working conditions in the informal agricultural sector. Also, the study examines labourers' satisfaction with six subcomponents of working conditions compared to previous studies that employed a univariate analytical approach to examine working conditions.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 48 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Expert briefing
Publication date: 6 August 2020

However, with COVID-19-related disruptions weakening chocolate demand, and expectations for another tumble in cocoa’s world market price, the Ivorian Coffee and Cocoa

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 20 October 2020

Tawiah Kwatekwei Quartey-Papafio, Saad Ahmed Javed and Sifeng Liu

In the current study, two grey prediction models, Even GM (1, 1) and Non-homogeneous discrete grey model (NDGM), and ARIMA models are deployed to forecast cocoa bean…

Abstract

Purpose

In the current study, two grey prediction models, Even GM (1, 1) and Non-homogeneous discrete grey model (NDGM), and ARIMA models are deployed to forecast cocoa bean production of the six major cocoa-producing countries. Furthermore, relying on Relative Growth Rate (RGR) and Doubling Time (Dt), production growth is analyzed.

Design/methodology/approach

The secondary data were extracted from the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) database. Grey forecasting models are applied using the data covering 2008 to 2017 as their performance on the small sample size is well-recognized. The models' performance was estimated through MAPE, MAE and RMSE.

Findings

Results show the two grey models fell below 10% of MAPE confirming their high accuracy and forecasting performance against that of the ARIMA. Therefore, the suitability of grey models for the cocoa production forecast is established. Findings also revealed that cocoa production in Côte d'Ivoire, Cameroon, Ghana and Brazil is likely to experience a rise with a growth rate of 2.52, 2.49, 2.45 and 2.72% by 2030, respectively. However, Nigeria and Indonesia are likely to experience a decrease with a growth rate of 2.25 and 2.21%, respectively.

Practical implications

For a sustainable cocoa industry, stakeholders should investigate the decline in production despite the implementation of advanced agricultural mechanization in cocoa farming, which goes further to put food security at risk.

Originality/value

The study presents a pioneering attempt of using grey forecasting models to predict cocoa production.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 4 September 2020

Iqbal Irfany, Peter John McMahon, Jenny-Ann Toribio, Kim-Yen Phan-Thien, Muhamad Amin Rifai, Sigit Yusdiyanto, Grant Vinning, David I. Guest, Merrilyn Walton and Nunung Nuryartono

The aim of this study was to evaluate determinants of four diversification practises by cocoa smallholders in West Sulawesi, Indonesia: (1) growing other crops, (2…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study was to evaluate determinants of four diversification practises by cocoa smallholders in West Sulawesi, Indonesia: (1) growing other crops, (2) keeping livestock, (3) off-farm work for wages (4) off-farm self-employment, and the impact of diversification on welfare of community members.

Design/methodology/approach

Household interviews (n = 116) conducted in two subdistricts (Anreapi and Mapilli) of Polewali-Mandar District, West Sulawesi, provided quantitative data on household characteristics, crop and livestock production, income sources, expenditure and credit access. Two villages per subdistrict were included in the study, each producing cocoa as the main crop but differing in their proximity to a market town. Logistic regression was applied to identify determinants of diversification by households. Multiple linear regression (MLR) models evaluated the impact of diversification practices and other explanatory variables on two proxies of welfare (or household wealth): per capita value of durable assets (household assets other than land or livestock) and per capita expenditure for each household.

Findings

Mean per capita cocoa production in the sample was low (51 kg dry beans/annum). The mean dependency ratio (proportion of household occupants age <18 and >64) was 35%, with an average of five occupants per household. Household heads were predominantly male (95%), averaging 46 yo and 7 years of formal education. Most households (72%) depended on loans, but only 24% accessed formal loans. Significant determinants of diversification practices were access to formal credit for self-employment and subdistrict for livestock, with Mapilli subdistrict households more likely to keep livestock. Household predictors in the MLR accounted for 28% variation of the dependent, per capita value of durable goods. Off-farm self-employment and raising livestock significantly improved welfare, but growing other crops or off-farm work for wages had little effect. Other household variables demonstrated to have significant positive effects on welfare were education of the household head, proximity to a market town and land area per household.

Research limitations/implications

The study was restricted to a relatively small sample size (n = 116). Studies including panel data or larger numbers of households could enable the identification of further determinants of diversification.

Practical implications

The study demonstrates that diversification has the potential to improve rural livelihoods, but that obstacles, especially formal credit access, may deter poorer households from diversifying their income sources.

Social implications

Programs and policies that facilitate access to formal finance by smallholders could encourage diversification into small business and improve livelihoods in cocoa-dependent communities.

Originality/value

In the light of the decline in cocoa farm productivity in West Sulawesi, the study demonstrates the potential benefits, as well as limitations, of income diversification by smallholders.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 47 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Expert briefing
Publication date: 1 November 2019

West African Cocoa.

1 – 10 of over 1000