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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2013

Neda Lotfi Yagin, Reza Mahdavi and Zeinab Nikniaz

Although black tea is commonly consumed in Iran, within the last years the popularity of green tea, especially green tea bags, has dramatically increased due to all…

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Abstract

Purpose

Although black tea is commonly consumed in Iran, within the last years the popularity of green tea, especially green tea bags, has dramatically increased due to all scientific papers reporting that green tea has benefit impacts on human health. Considering the postulated role of increased dietary oxalate intake on calcium oxalate stone formation, this paper aimed to study the oxalate content of most popular green and black tea bags consumed in Iran.

Design/methodology/approach

Five green tea samples and ten black tea samples were purchased from various markets in Tabriz, Iran. The oxalate content of each sample after infusion for five minutes was measured in triplicate using an enzymatic assay. Statistical analysis used: the ANOVA with Tukey's post‐hoc test, and also an independent t‐test were used for statistical analysis.

Findings

The oxalate concentration in different brands of green tea bags ranged from 0.73 to 1.75 and from 3.69 to 6.31 mg/240 ml for black tea bags. There were significant differences in oxalate content of different brands, both in green and black tea bags (P<0.001). The mean oxalate content of green and black tea samples also differed significantly from each other (P<0.001).

Originality/value

From the oxalate point of view, consumption of green and black tea bags infusions several times per day may not pose significant health risks in kidney stone patients and susceptible individuals.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 43 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2006

Lee Jolliffe

The purpose of this paper is to show how tea relates to hospitality in both the home and commercial contexts. Tea, when taken out of the home situation, represents a…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show how tea relates to hospitality in both the home and commercial contexts. Tea, when taken out of the home situation, represents a service product with a resultant revenue stream that has the potential to be more than a “cuppa”.

Design/methodology/approach

This viewpoint reviews related literature and management strategies.

Findings

Identifies from a practitioner viewpoint the possibilities for using tea to increase profits within the hospitality business.

Practical implications

Argues that tea drinking is pivotal to a wide array of hospitality events and that its potential to generate revenue is often underestimated.

Originality/value

An original look at a very old service.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 March 2012

Paul Hewlett and Emma Wadsworth

The aim of this paper is to determine lifestyle factors associated with different drink choices as past research has suggested some differences.

4561

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to determine lifestyle factors associated with different drink choices as past research has suggested some differences.

Design/methodology/approach

Caffeinated tea and coffee consuming habits in a South Wales sample were investigated by postal questionnaire. Multiple regression was used to determine odds ratios for demographic, health and lifestyle factors associated with drink patterns. There were 7,979 questionnaire respondents, 58 per cent of whom were female. Their mean age was 45.61 years (SD =18.00, range =16‐97).

Findings

Caffeinated tea/coffee consumption was associated with both alcohol and smoking behaviours. The results also suggested that non‐consumers of caffeinated tea or coffee were not a homogeneous group, as different demographic and lifestyle profiles were identified for: those that did not drink tea or coffee at all; and those that drank only decaffeinated tea or coffee.

Research limitations/implications

Future caffeine research may need to consider whether a broad distinction based on caffeine consumption or non‐consumption alone is always appropriate.

Originality/value

The findings suggest some differences within the caffeinated drink consuming population, including demographic profiles relating to whether consumers drank tea or coffee. They add to the data already available in comparing not only caffeine versus no caffeine, but also characteristics associated with different caffeinated drinks.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 114 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 October 2012

Olusegun Aroyeun, Gerald Iremiren, Samuel Omolaja, Feyisara Abiodun Okelana, Olayiwola Olubamiwa, R.R. Ipinmoroti, Amos Oloyede, Semiu Ogunwolu Olalekan, Daniel Andrew, Christiana Olayinka Jayeola, Fatai Abiola Sowunmi and Lukman Ola Odumbaku

The purpose of this paper is to describe a project designed with the aim of developing a black and green tea processing technology for Nigerian farmers and evaluate the…

265

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe a project designed with the aim of developing a black and green tea processing technology for Nigerian farmers and evaluate the conformance of the quality of the processed tea to the recommended international standard.

Design/methodology/approach

Locally processed and graded black teas were collected from Kakara and Bangoba for analysis. Different grades analyzed were Dust 1, Pekoe fanning (PF), broken pekoe (BP) and Fibre. Green tea was also processed from 21 tea clones selected from the Cocoa Research Institute, Kusuku Station tea plantation located at 1,840 m above mean sea level and analyzed for quality characteristics. The methods used for the quality of black and green teas analysis were in accordance with ISO standard: ISO 9768 method (revised) was used for determining % water extract, ISO 5498 for crude fibre, ISO 1575 for % total ash, and ISO 1577 for acid insoluble ash. Other additional quality parameters evaluated for black tea were theaflavins (TF), thearubigins (TR) and colour brightness (C Br) from another set of 17 clones using flavonost methods. Conformance to ISO standard were assessed in all tea locally processed by the farmers, in comparison to the ones processed under controlled conditions.

Findings

The results obtained in this study revealed that 59.2 per cent of the tea analyzed conformed to ISO 9768, 81.5 per cent to ISO 5498, 77.8 per cent to ISO 1575 and 96.3 per cent to ISO 1576 and 100 per cent conformed to ISO 1577 and 85.2 per cent to ISO 1578 respectively. In all, only 33 per cent of the processed tea conformed to international standard for black or green tea physical parameters. As for black tea, clones which conformed to correct TF, TR, CBR are UNK, 367, 19, 74, 354, 368, 369, 353, 357, 143, 14 and 108 respectively.

Practical implications

The paper shows that production of green tea and black tea can be done locally without loss of quality if good manufacturing practices and hygiene practices are followed.

Originality/value

The use of clonal materials sourced locally that conformed to ISO standard from Nigeria could create new products (black and green tea) with high economic values to the farmers.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1979

B.L. Wedzicha

Tea is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. The economic importance of an annual world production of tea estimated to be in the region of 1–1·5 million tonnes…

Abstract

Tea is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. The economic importance of an annual world production of tea estimated to be in the region of 1–1·5 million tonnes has resulted in considerable attention being paid to the understanding of the chemical and physical changes which take place during tea manufacture. The three main types of tea, black, green and instant tea, are made by processing the young shoot or flush, comprising the terminal bud and two adjacent leaves of the tea plant (Camellia sinesis), shown opposite.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 79 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Maysoon AlHafez, Fadi Kheder and Malak AlJoubbeh

The purpose of this paper was to determine total polyphenols (TP), total flavonoids (TF) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in five commercial tea extracts and in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to determine total polyphenols (TP), total flavonoids (TF) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in five commercial tea extracts and in their infusions at various temperatures (95-60°C) and brewing times (5-30 min).

Design/methodology/approach

TP was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method, TF by the aluminium chloride colorimetric method and EGCG by HPLC method.

Findings

The results showed that White tea – Silver needle had the highest content of TP and EGCG when extracted, but its infusions had very poor concentrations of these compounds. Green tea infusion was better source of TP and EGCG than white or black tea, although its extract did not contain a very high amount of TP compared to the latter two types. Black tea extract had a relatively high content of TP and TF in its extract. Its infusions as well contained higher concentrations of TP than white tea, but lower concentrations of EGCG than all studied teas.

Originality/value

Increasing infusion time and temperature does not necessarily increase the concentration, according to the results. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on comparing these types of tea, especially the white tea, with other well-known teas under various infusion conditions. The extraction of the white tea leaves was also not found in previous works.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 44 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1985

The hot beverage market, made up of tea, ground and instant coffee, cocoa and drinking chocolate, and malted food drinks, exceeded £1 billion in 1984. Tea and coffee are

Abstract

The hot beverage market, made up of tea, ground and instant coffee, cocoa and drinking chocolate, and malted food drinks, exceeded £1 billion in 1984. Tea and coffee are worth about the same, just under £500m each, but tea is still the nation's most popular drink. Each Briton consumes six cups of hot drinks a day and just under four cups are tea. Tea outranks coffee in cups drunk by over 2 to 1, and 215,000 tons of tea are imbibed each year. ‘Hot Beverages in the UK’ is the second in the Drink Market Updates series by the Market Information Service at the Leatherhead Food Research Association. This report gives information on market shares, market sizes, consumption patterns and future trends in instant and ground coffee, packet tea and tea bags, and food drinks. The hot beverage market is expanding only in a few specialised areas, in particular, ground coffee, premium instant coffee and speciality teas. Currently worth only £168m between them, they are unlikely to make a great impact on the total market for some time.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 85 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2011

Matt A. Barreto, Betsy L. Cooper, Benjamin Gonzalez, Christopher S. Parker and Christopher Towler

With its preference for small government and fiscal responsibility, the Tea Party movement claims to be conservative. Yet, their tactics and rhetoric belie this claim. The…

Abstract

With its preference for small government and fiscal responsibility, the Tea Party movement claims to be conservative. Yet, their tactics and rhetoric belie this claim. The shrill attacks against Blacks, illegal immigrants, and gay rights are all consistent with conservatism, but suggesting that the president is a socialist bent on ruining the country, is beyond politics. This chapter shows that Richard Hofstadter's thesis about the “paranoid style” of American politics helps characterize the Tea Party's pseudo-conservatism. Through a comprehensive analysis of qualitative interviews, content analysis and public opinion data, we find that Tea Party sympathizers are not mainstream conservatives, but rather, they hold a strong sense of out-group anxiety and a concern over the social and demographic changes in America.

Details

Rethinking Obama
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-911-1

Book part
Publication date: 9 March 2021

Shrabanti Maity and Anup Sinha

India is one of the largest tea producers and consumers in the world. Around 70% of Indian tea is consumed by domestic consumers. The world famous Darjeeling and Assam tea

Abstract

India is one of the largest tea producers and consumers in the world. Around 70% of Indian tea is consumed by domestic consumers. The world famous Darjeeling and Assam tea are India’s pride. Once India was the top exporter of tea in the global market, currently, it is lagging behind China, Kenya, and Sri Lanka. In the global arena, Indian tea is facing stiff competition from China, Kenya, and Sri Lanka. With this backdrop, the present study aims to investigate twin objectives. First, the changing growth pattern of India’s tea export is investigated. Along with this, the impacts of trade openness on India’s tea export are also scrutinized. The entire study is conducted based on the secondary data, compiled from the various issues of Handbook of Statistics on Indian Economy published by Reserve Bank of India. The data are compiled for the period 1987–1988 to 2018–2019. The investigation of the first objective is facilitated by the Poirer’s Spline function approach. On the contrary, for the exploration of the second objective, we have calculated the “trade openness index.” The study concludes that initially with trade openness Indian tea industry was benefitting but the growth rate of tea export gets reduced over time. It is surprising that in the post-EXIM-2002–2007 phase the rate of growth of India’s tea exports has declined sharply. The study ends with suitable policy prescriptions.

Details

Global Tariff War: Economic, Political and Social Implications
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-314-7

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 8 August 2022

Suat Akyürek and Özcan Özdemir

Along with the changing needs and expectations of tourists, their demands for special interest tourism types have also increased. In this context, tea tourism is accepted…

Abstract

Along with the changing needs and expectations of tourists, their demands for special interest tourism types have also increased. In this context, tea tourism is accepted as one of the notable tourism types in recent years. For this reason, it is important to examine the behavior of tourists participating in tea tourism and to provide services accordingly. However, studies on the experiences of tourists participating in tea tourism are still insufficient. The purpose of this study is to determine the memorable experience components of tourists participating in tea tourism. In this context, data were collected using semistructured interviews, participant observation, and online tourist comments. According to the findings, the memorable experience components of tourists participating in tea tourism activities are divided into four themes. These themes are: information about tea, tea-related environments, the taste of tea, and interaction. At the conclusion part of the study, some suggestions were made to the marketers, managers, and operators related to tea tourism according to the determined themes.

Details

Contemporary Approaches Studying Customer Experience in Tourism Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-632-3

Keywords

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