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Book part
Publication date: 2 August 2021

Veronika Rozhenkova

Over the last few decades, internationalization has become one of the major aspects of many universities’ development agenda. Such internationalization initiatives as…

Abstract

Over the last few decades, internationalization has become one of the major aspects of many universities’ development agenda. Such internationalization initiatives as study abroad and dual degree programs create greater academic mobility; however, they frequently present a risk of potential brain drain. Brain drain is commonly defined as the emigration of well-educated and skilled individuals from their home to another country, with less developed countries suffering from this phenomenon to a greater extent. Higher education institutions and national governments across the world have been trying to retain these individuals through improving the system of higher education, and increasing job advancement and research opportunities. This chapter examines the phenomenon of brain drain as well as its current trends and implications in the higher education sector. It pays particular attention to the case of Russia with its increased emigration of highly educated and skilled professionals over the last two decades, while also drawing on examples from other countries’ policies and practices. The chapter explores different programs and initiatives introduced on institutional and governmental levels to address the issue of brain drain in the context of internationalization of higher education.

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Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2020
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-907-1

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1994

Naveed Saleem and Abbas N. Azad

Brain drain inflicts serious economic and social hardships on developing countries. Consequently, these countries resort to such measures as governmental regulations and…

Abstract

Brain drain inflicts serious economic and social hardships on developing countries. Consequently, these countries resort to such measures as governmental regulations and economic incentives, which aim to slow down emigration of their skilled professionals. However, these measures prove generally ineffective. Furthermore, predictive research on brain drain finds only further increase in, rather than any decline of, the exodus of skilled professionals from developing countries, which exacerbates the brain drain problem. This paper advocates the use of expert systems to alleviate the scarcity of expertise caused by brain drain. The use of expert systems for this purpose appears logical, because these systems have been successfully used to combat similar problems in developed countries.

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International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2011

Davood Salmani, Gholamreza Taleghani and Ali Taatian

The purpose of this paper is to study brain drain as a social problem and elaborate a five‐dimensional social justice model as the main cause of brain drain. The paper…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study brain drain as a social problem and elaborate a five‐dimensional social justice model as the main cause of brain drain. The paper explores the effects of distributional justice, emotional justice, procedural justice, transactional justice, and informational justice on brain drain intention.

Design/methodology/approach

The method of research is survey method. This research is functional in terms of target and is descriptive. Moreover, the research is a field study from the information gathering perspective; and from the aspect of relationship between variables, it has casual type.

Findings

The results of this study demonstrate that justice is a critical issue among the scientific elites of Iranian society. This study demonstrates the existence of a negative relationship between social justice and intention to emigrate (brain drain) in Iran.

Research limitations/implications

Despite the lack of precise statistical information in this area, the paper seeks to critically analyze the brain drain phenomenon in Iran. The use of questionnaire meant that more in‐depth analysis was not possible to obtain.

Practical implications

It is important to prevent elite emigration, particularly since elites represent vital cultural, social, and economic capital. In relation to informational justice, which is not likely to act as a single cause of brain drain but acts in concert with other factors, it should be recalled that communication plays a vital role.

Originality/value

Surprisingly, no empirical research has yet been done in Iran to examine possible relationship between occurrence and/or the rate of the talent flow and social justice.

Details

Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-7983

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2020

Antonios Panagiotakopoulos

The study explores the reasons why talented people leave Greece and go abroad using a qualitative approach to data collection in order to get a deep understanding on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The study explores the reasons why talented people leave Greece and go abroad using a qualitative approach to data collection in order to get a deep understanding on the actual reasons of brain drain in Greece, which affects the sustainability of domestic businesses and the overall economic development of the country.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative approach was adopted consisting of 80 interviews with business and IT professionals, healthcare professionals and academics of various disciplines that live and work in the United Kingdom, Germany, United States and Australia. Data were collected over a three-year period (May 2015–May 2018).

Findings

The results showed that the vast majority of respondents decided to leave their home country due to the prevalent cultural mindset of most Greek citizens, government policymakers and employers in Greece. In particular, 65% of respondents decided to live and work abroad due to the deep crisis of social values in the country and the high political corruption, while just 35% pointed to purely financial and other work-related reasons (e.g. low salaries, poor working conditions, no employment prospects, lack of job security) as the key ones for leaving the country. Essentially, the respondents argued that the individualist cultural values that have been predominant in the Greek society for years now have become evident in political action causing several problems such as social injustice and poverty.

Research limitations/implications

The findings have important implications both for those who hold governmental posts and the remaining citizens of Greece. Both government officials and citizens should re-examine their roles, values and ideals. The blame for the extensive brain drain in the country cannot be put only on the political parties that ruled the country during the last decades; the people who elected them are also responsible. The country seems to remain trapped in a crisis of social values that parents and the formal education system in Greece have cultivated for years now. In that respect, formal education in the country should be transformed radically in order to act as an important agency inculcating the new generations with a sense of duty in shaping a democratic political culture that emphasizes equality and condemns egalitarian practices.

Originality/value

The scant evidence around this topic is based on quantitative research that fails to explore in much depth the reasons of brain drain in the country. Previous studies revealed that the phenomenon of brain drain in Greece has been predominantly caused by the poor financial performance of the country during the last decade. This has been further supported by the claims of several policymakers who argue that the Greek crisis has been a fiscal one. However, the present study sheds new light and unmasks the root cause of brain drain in Greece stressing that the country essentially faces a crisis of values and a corrupted civic culture.

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World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

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Book part
Publication date: 2 May 2018

Yew Wah Chow and Lorena Mathien

Contemporary international migrations are changing the global labor landscape. However, not all labor migration results are beneficial. Some home countries lose a great…

Abstract

Contemporary international migrations are changing the global labor landscape. However, not all labor migration results are beneficial. Some home countries lose a great amount of home-educated labor to host countries that offer better working and living conditions, consequently lowering the available amount of critically needed intellectual capital for national utility. Ideally, host countries seeking workers should strive to develop a national policy that maximize “brain gain” by attracting workers with complimentary skills and knowledge to fill local employment gaps. Conversely, donor countries that send workers abroad should develop policies that minimize its brain drain by encouraging their skilled citizens to return home after acquiring enhanced skills and knowledge, thus taking advantage of “brain circulation” effects. Therefore, a nation’s best interest, either a host or donor country, may be best served through the development of protocols that minimize friction during the migration process for preferred migrants. Using Malaysia, as an example, we argue that the recognition of dual citizenship would be the appropriate prescription in reducing the “Great Brain Drain” problem afflicting the local labor market. This recognition serves several purposes: (1) provide labor with economic opportunities while retaining their ability to adjust to political climate by taking advantage of the global mobility of talent with favorable immigration policies; (2) increase Malaysia’s financial and human capital stock by leveraging its diasporas; and (3) alleviate friction in the migration process between Malaysia and host countries that will smooth travel between countries and increase economic transactions back to the country in the form of social and economic remittances. This paper examines this allowance and discusses the implications of a potential Malaysian dual-citizenship policy.

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Environment, Politics, and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-775-1

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2018

Hanna Kim and Ryan Michael Allen

The purpose of this paper is to examine how the Chinese Central Government’s plan to alleviate brain drain, called the Thousand Talents Plan, has been glocalized by three…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how the Chinese Central Government’s plan to alleviate brain drain, called the Thousand Talents Plan, has been glocalized by three major local governments: Shanghai, Tianjin, and Guangdong.

Design/methodology/approach

The lens of glocalization pays special attention to the impact of local reactions to global forces. Materials from the Recruitment Program of Global Experts for three major cases were examined for glocal characteristics. An analysis of each case was carried out to compare the strategies and implementations to explore the individual glocalizations and larger national similarities.

Findings

The findings show that each of the localities has distinct regional variations in their strategies: Shanghai utilized its economic prowess, Tianjin focused on clustering experts, and Guangdong maximized its geographic proximity to Hong Kong. At the same time, all three policies were still rooted in human capital development theory, with a keen emphasis to attracting migrants with greater propensity for staying long term in China.

Originality/value

The study of brain drain is important because it is a problem that plagues communities around the world, especially non-western societies. While China’s tactics to combat brain drain have been examined, the consideration of glocalization in the cases of Shanghai, Tianjin, and Guangdong have not been carried out.

Details

International Journal of Comparative Education and Development, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2396-7404

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2008

Virginia Bodolica and Martin Spraggon

The purpose of this paper is to explore multiple cases of Moldovan women who individually initiated and involved in work arrangements with Italian employers. The main…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore multiple cases of Moldovan women who individually initiated and involved in work arrangements with Italian employers. The main purpose is to examine the international employment experiences of female migrants by identifying the challenges they face in a foreign country and building a comprehensive typology of female migrant workers.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical work consists of field notes gathered through direct observations and semi‐structured interviews conducted with five Moldovan women while they were still working in Italy. The content analysis of the interviews reveals how Moldovan workers perceive their foreign experience and the ways it influences their personal development.

Findings

The paper suggests that such brain mobility concepts as brain drain, brain waste and optimal brain drain represent the distinguishing characteristics of our interviewees who are citizens of a transitional economy. Imaginary trip, frustrating encounter, identity consolidation and self‐actualization are identified as four consecutive stages through which the self‐initiated migration experience develops over the time. The resulting variations in migrants' behaviours and mind‐sets create a typology of female workers based on their desperateness to migrate (planner vs despairer), their failure to tolerate the frustrating encounter (surrenderer), their attitudes towards personal development (conformist vs rejuvenator) and their ability to transcend their own limitations (highflyer). The paper describes the double identity strangeness along with other aspects which differentiate self‐initiated experiences from expatriate assignments.

Research limitations/implications

The use of a limited number of case studies prevents concluding whether and to what extent the findings apply to all female migrant workers from other transitional economies. This limitation could be clarified in a future study on larger samples of female respondents involved in self‐initiated employment arrangements in Italy or in other developed countries.

Practical implications

At the organizational level, the findings allow employers and human resource managers in the destination country to distinguish different types of migrant workers and better understand their particular needs in order to facilitate their intra‐firm integration.

Originality/value

Using a gender analysis highlighted in the international migration literature, this research makes a contribution towards creating a solid knowledge base on Moldovan migrant women – a widely underexplored group of migrant workers – and their involvement in labour market processes in Italy.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2012

William Harvey

This paper seeks to address two research questions: first, to what extent do highly skilled migrants intend to make personal business and financial investments in their…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to address two research questions: first, to what extent do highly skilled migrants intend to make personal business and financial investments in their home countries, and second, what factors influence them to invest in their home countries?

Design/methodology/approach

The results are based on face‐to‐face and telephone interviews which took place between September, 2008 and March, 2009 with 64 highly skilled British migrants working in Vancouver, Canada. Respondents were asked a combination of open‐ and closed‐ended questions.

Findings

The results of this study find that the vast majority of respondents are not investing in or intending to return to their home country, which indicates that they contributing to brain circulation in a limited extent.

Practical implications

The paper argues that governments and organisations in the home country can play an important role in facilitating brain circulation in Europe.

Originality/value

Much of the academic literature suggests that the brain drain has now transformed into brain gain. The findings of this study do not support this shift because most of the sample of British expatriates in Vancouver are not intending to invest in or return to Europe. This is significant because highly skilled migrants could be better utilised as resources by European governments and organisations.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Nina Neubecker

The purpose of this paper is to break down south-north migration along both the skill and the occupational dimension and thus to distinguish and compare several types of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to break down south-north migration along both the skill and the occupational dimension and thus to distinguish and compare several types of south-north migration and brain drain.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents south-north migration rates by occupational category at two distinct levels of disaggregation according to International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988 (ISCO-88). The data sets combine information about the labor market outcomes of immigrants in Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) countries around the year 2000 provided by the Database on Immigrants in OECD Countries by the OECD with employment data for the developing migrant-sending countries from the International Labour Organization.

Findings

The incidence of south-north migration was highest among Professionals, one of the two occupational categories generally requiring tertiary education, and among clerks and legislators, senior officials and managers. At the more disaggregated level, physical, mathematical and engineering science (associate) professionals, life science and health (associate) professionals, as well as other (associate) professionals exhibited significantly larger brain drain rates than teaching (associate) professionals. The data also suggest non-negligible occupation-education mismatches due to the imperfect transferability of skills acquired through formal education because south-north migrants with a university degree worked more often in occupational categories requiring less than tertiary education compared to OECD natives. The employment shares of most types of professionals and technicians and associate professionals, as well as of clerks and corporate managers were significantly smaller in the migrant-sending countries compared to the receiving countries.

Originality/value

The constructed data sets constitute the first comprehensive data sets on south-north migration by ISCO-88 major and sub-major occupational category for cross-sections of, respectively, 91 and 17 developing countries of emigration.

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Alexander Chepurenko

– The purpose of this paper is to explain the current role of foreign foundations in the cross-border mobility of Russian elite scientists.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain the current role of foreign foundations in the cross-border mobility of Russian elite scientists.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology is based on a combination of a quantitative survey (December 2004-February 2005) of former Russian Humboldtians and qualitative research (expert interviews in 2005 and in 2012, respectively) of Russian alumni of the Alexander von Humboldt foundation (Germany).

Findings

For Russian elite researchers participating in academic mobility, in 2000s it is rather cross-border mobility’ brain circulation’ rather than “brain drain” a dominant form of academic mobility typical. Even in 2000s, western foundations still played a significant while twofold role – promoting emigration of for a small part of Russian elite researchers, on the one hand, while and getting access to top-level labs, etc. and to international academic chains of excellence for the majority of them, on the other. Coming back to the home country, affiliation with foreign foundations reduces the dependence of Russian elite researchers on hierarchical structures within the national state science system and promotes project teams and network forms of interaction their career. However, Russian scientists dependence on foreign funding affect both the scope of research and their academic status (mostly – second-level positions within research projects, etc.). Among the reasons to for leave leaving Russia it is primarily the desire to remain have closer access to their academic community and the equipment to do on the top level in research. The paper formulates some measures to foster incentives to stay in Russia and respectively to support re-emigration of elite researchers, in form of world class research labs and strengthening the motivation of senior researchers to work in the home country.

Research limitations/implications

Research limitations consist in using of only one of the alumni networks of several western foundations database.

Originality/value

The paper is unique as regards the empirical results; its value consists in their organizational, social and political implications.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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