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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2011

Nicholas D Theodorakis, Kostas Alexandris and Yong Jae Ko

This study examines the mediating role of Overall Service Quality in the service quality-customer satisfaction relationship in the context of professional football…

Abstract

This study examines the mediating role of Overall Service Quality in the service quality-customer satisfaction relationship in the context of professional football. Quantitative data were collected from a survey of 415 spectators attending a professional football game in Greece. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was employed to examine the validity of the scale. Multiple regression analyses was used to assess the mediation effect of Overall Service Quality. Results of the CFA and alpha test supported the psychometric property of the scale. Overall Service Quality was shown to mediate the relationship between the five dimensions of service quality and fans' satisfaction.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2020

Yannis Lianopoulos, Nicholas D. Theodorakis, Nikolaos Tsigilis, Antonis Gardikiotis and Athanasios Koustelios

The concept of sport team identification has been widely used as a theoretical framework in explaining sport fan behavior. However, limited attention has been devoted to…

Abstract

Purpose

The concept of sport team identification has been widely used as a theoretical framework in explaining sport fan behavior. However, limited attention has been devoted to the consequences of distant (i.e., foreign) team identification. The purpose of the current research was to examine the way in which fans (local and distant) can increase their levels of collective and personal self-esteem due to their team identification.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were accumulated from three Greek websites (N = 742). Among them, 623 subjects were grouped as local and 119 as distant football fans. A structural invariance analysis was followed.

Findings

The results revealed how team identification, enduring team-related social connections, and basking in reflected glory are interrelated to affect collective and finally personal self-esteem. Moreover, no differences were found between local and distant fans regarding the paths from eam identification to collective self-esteem and from collective self-esteem to personal self-esteem.

Originality/value

This is one of the first endeavors to examine the psychological consequences of distant team identification and to test the invariance across local and distant fans concerning the mechanisms that their personal self-esteem can be enhanced because their psychological connection to their favorite sport team.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2018

Ran Zhou, Kyriaki Kaplanidou, Dimitra Papadimitriou, Nicholas D. Theodorakis and Kostantinos Alexandris

The purpose of this paper is to explore the sources of inspiration for active participants in sport events, and the link between inspiration sources and event-related…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the sources of inspiration for active participants in sport events, and the link between inspiration sources and event-related outcomes (i.e. life satisfaction and behavioral intentions).

Design/methodology/approach

Research questions were examined using a Greek (n=264) and a US (n=103) sample of participants of two small-scale running events. Content analysis was used to identify and code the themes of inspiration, while a multivariate analyses of variance was performed to test the inspiration group differences on life satisfaction and behavioral intentions.

Findings

The qualitative findings revealed three categories of inspiration source identified in each sample. The quantitative results showed that the interaction between inspiration source and event type had an overall effect on participants’ life satisfaction and future participation intention. Specifically, findings highlighted the different roles of inspiration on influencing life satisfaction and participation intention of short-distance (i.e. 5 and 10k) event participants than those of long-distance (i.e. marathon) runners.

Research limitations/implications

This study identifies the sources of inspiration in small-scale sport events and provides preliminary empirical evidence where inspiration source and event type jointly influence participants’ life satisfaction and behavioral intentions.

Practical implications

Understanding the sources of inspiration provides event leveraging opportunities to inspire citizens to become more active in sports. Given that the sources of inspiration vary among different segments of event participants, event managers need to adopt differential communication and promotional activities geared to the needs of these targets.

Originality/value

The study provides the first empirical work exploring the sources of inspiration among active participants in small-scale sport events.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2009

Nicholas D. Theodorakis, Athanasios Koustelios, Leigh Robinson and Achilleas Barlas

This study seeks to examine the moderating role of team identification regarding the relationship between service quality and repurchase intentions among spectators of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to examine the moderating role of team identification regarding the relationship between service quality and repurchase intentions among spectators of professional sports.

Design/methodology/approach

Quantitative data are collected from a questionnaire survey of 257 spectators attending a professional soccer game in Greece. Multiple regression analyses are used to assess the relationships among the constructs of service quality, repurchase intentions, and team identification.

Findings

Team identification is shown to moderate the relationship between service quality and repurchase intentions among spectators at this professional sports event. Both overall service quality and two specific service‐quality dimensions (“responsiveness” and “reliability”) are found to be positively associated with repurchase intentions only among respondents with low and medium team identification. No relationship is found between service quality and repurchase intentions among those with high team identification.

Practical implications

Managers of professional sports events who wish to increase attendances by improvements in service quality should first segment their customers according to degree of team affiliation. They should then design their service offerings specifically to meet the service‐quality expectations of sports fans with medium or low team identification.

Originality/value

The study provides valuable empirical evidence of the moderating role of team identification with regard to the relationship between service quality and repurchase intentions among consumers of professional sports events.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2021

Yannis Lianopoulos, Nicholas D. Theodorakis, Kostas Alexandris and Magda Papanikolaou

Given the increased competition among running events, it is important for event organizers to comprehend how they can retain a base of loyal customers. The purpose of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Given the increased competition among running events, it is important for event organizers to comprehend how they can retain a base of loyal customers. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between sport event personality and loyalty intentions of runners participating in a running event. More specifically, it examined the relationship of sport event personality dimensions with the overall image of a sporting event as well as the association of event image with runners’ loyalty intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 247 participants of an international running event. A structural equation model analysis was followed.

Findings

The results showed that three dimensions of event personality (namely, excitement, sophistication and sincerity) predicted event image, which in turn positively associated with loyalty intentions.

Practical implications

The study discusses how event managers can improve the image of their events in order to increase their customers’ loyalty levels.

Originality/value

This is one of the first endeavors that examined the role of event image, a construct that has not received much attention in the context of road races, in a model concerning event participation.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Yanni Afthinos, Nicholas D. Theodorakis and Pantelis Nassis

Aims to identify the aspects of service delivery deemed most important by the users of Greek fitness centers and to examine whether their desires differ according to the…

Abstract

Purpose

Aims to identify the aspects of service delivery deemed most important by the users of Greek fitness centers and to examine whether their desires differ according to the type of fitness center they use as well as according to certain demographic and motivation patterns.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was based on the QUESC instrument developed by Kim and Kim. A total of 346 individuals who were members of public and private fitness centers in Athens/Greece completed the questionnaires. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was conducted for each item of the instrument in order to examine whether different groups had different desires for service delivery. Where a difference between group means was identified, Duncan's multiple range tests were performed to determine which means were significantly different.

Findings

The aspects of service delivery desired more by sports centers users refer to the tangible elements of the facilities, the personnel attitudes and abilities, attributes related to the cost of participation and items related to the programming and scheduling of services provided. The findings also suggest that significant differences of desires exist between males and females as well as between users of public and private sports centers.

Research limitations/implications

The sample of the fitness centers was convenient rather than statistical. The reason was that there is no official agency in Greece with a complete list of fitness centers.

Practical implications

This paper is a useful source of information for fitness centers management to identify their customers’ wants, take action to improve service delivery, and establish standards of performance to address the identified customers’ needs.

Originality/value

This paper sought to address questions on the way certain demographic variables and patterns of use might affect sports centers’ users’ desires, so that an information package can be applied in making marketing decisions for improving sports centers service delivery.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Kostantinos Alexandris, Nicholas Theodorakis, Kiki Kaplanidou and Dimitra Papadimitriou

The purpose of this paper is twofold: to investigate if the three service quality dimensions (service environment, interaction and outcome quality), proposed by Brady and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: to investigate if the three service quality dimensions (service environment, interaction and outcome quality), proposed by Brady and Cronin (2001), influence the development of event loyalty, among runners of the “‘Alexander the Great’ International Marathon”, and to test if running loyalty moderates the relationship between event quality and event loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 368 runners participated in the study and filled the Sport Event Quality Questionnaire (Theodorakis et al., 2015) and an adjusted version of the Leisure Involvement Questionnaire (Kyle et al., 2010).

Findings

The results indicated that only the service environment and outcome dimensions contributed significantly to the prediction of event loyalty, while, and in contrast to other sport services, interaction quality was not shown to be an important determinant for the development of event loyalty. Furthermore, running involvement was shown to play a moderating role in the relationship between event quality and event loyalty. Service quality is more important for the development of event loyalty among low- than high-involved runners. The theoretical and applied implications of these results are discussed.

Research limitations/implications

The study provided results on how high- and low-involved runners perceive event quality, and for which of these groups the event quality is an important antecedent for the development of event loyalty.

Practical implications

Investigating the moderating role of involvement on the relationship between service quality and loyalty has also applied value. While committed runners have been traditionally seen as a key target group for event marketing professionals, the majority of runners in city marathons today are more leisure oriented. The increase in the number of leisure runners is actually the reason for the rapid growth of city marathons in the last few years. Meeting the needs of these leisure runners and increasing their loyalty levels is therefore a key task for marathon marketers today.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature, as for the first time it explores the moderating role of involvement on the relationship between service quality and loyalty in the context of a sport event.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2001

Nicholas Theodorakis, Chris Kambitsis and Athanasios Laios

This paper attempts to examine the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction in spectator sports. The relationship between these two constructs is…

Abstract

This paper attempts to examine the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction in spectator sports. The relationship between these two constructs is examined, first, by a review of the literature to date and, second, by the results of almost 200 questionnaires completed by spectators at two professional basketball games in Athens, Greece. The results of the questionnaire study are examined and, in conclusion, the implications and limitations of the study are discussed. Areas for further research are also suggested.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2002

Chris Kambitsis, Yvonne Harahousou, Nicholas Theodorakis and Giannis Chatzibeis

This research attempted to investigate why sport themes are used in advertisements, and the motives that lead companies and advertisers to use sport celebrities and sport…

Abstract

This research attempted to investigate why sport themes are used in advertisements, and the motives that lead companies and advertisers to use sport celebrities and sport concepts in advertisements. The detailed examination of the fieldwork took place in Sydney, prior to and during the 2000 Olympic Games. Printed media were observed for a period of five to six months. Many parameters were taken into consideration comparing three monthly magazines and two daily newspapers in order to gain knowledge and provide answers to the fundamental questions. In addition, two famous athletes, a sport manager and an advertising executive were interviewed. Furthermore the outcome of the research showed that Olympic Games did not play a catalyst role in sport advertisement issues in the particular print media. It also concluded that the selection procedures that advertising companies followed, in order to select athletes, were not based only on their achievements but mostly were related to their personalities.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2004

Athanasios Koustelios, Nicholas Theodorakis and Dimitris Goulimaris

This study examines role conflict, role ambiguity, and job satisfaction among Greek physical education teachers, and the extent to which role conflict and role ambiguity…

Abstract

This study examines role conflict, role ambiguity, and job satisfaction among Greek physical education teachers, and the extent to which role conflict and role ambiguity predict job satisfaction. All members of the sample of 61 physical education teachers were employed in Greek “Sport for all” programs. The standard multiple regression analysis shows that role conflict and role ambiguity are significant predictors of job satisfaction. This paper concludes with suggestions directed to the General Secretariat of Sports in Greece with a view to redesigning the work of physical education teachers in “Sport for all” programs.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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