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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2003

John Deane

This study has sought to examine the issue of 'brand image' and its potential impact on sports sponsorship. In particular, brand personality of a sports event and sponsor…

Abstract

This study has sought to examine the issue of 'brand image' and its potential impact on sports sponsorship. In particular, brand personality of a sports event and sponsor are considered in relation to sponsor-event fit and image transfer. The study proposes that if there are strong links in terms of brand personality between the Ryder Cup and IBM brands, then the stronger will be the shared 'brand image' and impact of the sponsorship relationship in the minds of consumers. For the purposes of this study it is assumed the sports event of The Ryder Cup is perceived as a 'brand' in its own right.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2012

Hyung-Seok Lee and Chang-Hoan Cho

The objective of this study is to develop a theoretical structure of sporting event personality and to build a measuring scale for that personality. This study identifies…

Abstract

The objective of this study is to develop a theoretical structure of sporting event personality and to build a measuring scale for that personality. This study identifies five sporting event personality dimensions: diligence, uninhibitedness, fit, tradition and amusement. The findings show that these personality dimensions are related to attitudes towards sporting events, which in turn lead to positive sponsorship evaluation and favourable evaluation of the sponsoring brands.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2021

Yannis Lianopoulos, Nicholas D. Theodorakis, Kostas Alexandris and Magda Papanikolaou

Given the increased competition among running events, it is important for event organizers to comprehend how they can retain a base of loyal customers. The purpose of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Given the increased competition among running events, it is important for event organizers to comprehend how they can retain a base of loyal customers. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between sport event personality and loyalty intentions of runners participating in a running event. More specifically, it examined the relationship of sport event personality dimensions with the overall image of a sporting event as well as the association of event image with runners’ loyalty intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 247 participants of an international running event. A structural equation model analysis was followed.

Findings

The results showed that three dimensions of event personality (namely, excitement, sophistication and sincerity) predicted event image, which in turn positively associated with loyalty intentions.

Practical implications

The study discusses how event managers can improve the image of their events in order to increase their customers’ loyalty levels.

Originality/value

This is one of the first endeavors that examined the role of event image, a construct that has not received much attention in the context of road races, in a model concerning event participation.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2012

Sungho Cho and Joon-Ho Kang

This empirical study examines the psychometric comparability of Aaker's Brand Personality Scale (Aaker, 1997) in sponsorship matching. It employs a structural validation…

Abstract

This empirical study examines the psychometric comparability of Aaker's Brand Personality Scale (Aaker, 1997) in sponsorship matching. It employs a structural validation protocol - the congenerity test (Ohanion, 1990) - to investigate the extent to which sports events and sponsors can be psychometrically matched. The results show that sports events and sponsors are comparable only in terms of limited numbers of the dimensions of the a priori scale. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Kostas Alexandris

The purpose of this paper is to test: the applicability of Aaker’s (1997) brand personality model in the context of mountain running races; and the influence of event

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1513

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test: the applicability of Aaker’s (1997) brand personality model in the context of mountain running races; and the influence of event personality on event involvement and loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 177 runners (n=177) at two mountain running races participated in the study and filled the brand personality (Aaker, 1997) and leisure involvement (Kyle et al., 2004a, b) questionnaires.

Findings

The confirmatory factor analysis provided support for the factorial validity of the brand personality and event involvement models. The analysis confirmed also the structural model. Four of the five personality facets (excitement, competence, ruggedness and sincerity) significantly influenced the three dimensions of event involvement, which in their turn influenced event loyalty (intention to participate and W-O-M communications).

Practical implications

The topic of brand personality is important for building brand equity and guiding market positioning in the growing running races sector. The current study provides event organizers with a tool for measuring the personality of their events. Furthermore, it explains how event personality influences the development of event involvement, which is an important variable for the development of event loyalty.

Originality/value

It contributes to the academic literature in two ways: first, the construct of brand personality has not been previously applied in the context of outdoor sport events and especially mountain running races; and second, while it has been theoretically proposed (Aaker, 1997; Keller, 2008) and empirically supported (Eisend and Stokburger-Sauer, 2013) in the general marketing literature that brand personality is associated with positive behavioral and attitudinal (e.g. brand loyalty and brand involvement) outcomes, there has been no published research to test the relationships among brand personality, involvement and loyalty in the context of outdoor sport events.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Marilyn Giroux, Frank Pons and Lionel Maltese

In the highly saturated sports industry where sport teams represent a complex offering loaded with intangible and tangible attributes, it is important to implement…

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1889

Abstract

Purpose

In the highly saturated sports industry where sport teams represent a complex offering loaded with intangible and tangible attributes, it is important to implement appropriate marketing strategies that will ultimately contribute to the development of strong brand equity. In this paper, the authors focused on the relationship between brand variables and marketing activities on the development of brand equity. More specifically, the purpose of this paper is to study the impact of brand personality on the evaluation of marketing promotional activities and the impact on the brand equity.

Design/methodology/approach

Respondents (2,400) were recruited through an online survey and data were analyzed using structural equation modeling.

Findings

The survey revealed that the congruence between the brand personality and the promotional activities has a positive impact on its evaluation and on brand equity. In addition, the results showed that consumers who consider the financial strength of the team as an important factor evaluate more positively the value of congruent and incongruent promotional activities.

Practical implications

Brand managers should maintain consistency between their brand personality and their promotional activities in order to maintain and increase their brand equity.

Originality/value

The results contribute to the literature by investigating the impact of brand personality on the evaluation of promotional activities. Also, it examines an important factor (financial consciousness) that could influence how fans react in front of an incongruent promotional activity. This research brings a better understanding of the impact of brand personality on marketing strategies and brand equity.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Ann Mitsis and Civilai Leckie

The purpose of this paper is to validate Tsiotsou’s (2012) sport team brand personality scale in a new country (Australia) and segment (Generation Y) and extend its use…

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1629

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to validate Tsiotsou’s (2012) sport team brand personality scale in a new country (Australia) and segment (Generation Y) and extend its use from sport teams to individual athletes. This paper also explores the scale’s predictive power in an athlete’s role model influence.

Design/methodology/approach

An online panel survey with 560 responses from Australian Generation Y consumers was obtained. Structural equation modelling was used to test and validate the scale.

Findings

This paper confirmed the sport team brand personality scale can be applied to an individual athlete. Three dimensions of the scale, namely, competitiveness, morality and authenticity, were found to have predictive power in an athlete’s role model influence. Authenticity was the strongest predictor, followed by morality and competitiveness.

Practical implications

Individual athlete brand personality is powerful in influencing how Australian Generation Y consumers identify with their favourite athlete as a role model. These insights assist brand and marketing managers to use athletes as part of their communication strategies regarding brand and product endorsements.

Originality/value

This research addresses Tsiotsou’s (2012) call to test the robustness and external validity of the sport team brand personality scale and to empirically test how the scale can predict outcomes. The authors succeeded in validating and extending the sport brand personality scale to an individual athlete level in a new country and consumer segment. The scale was found to have predictive power in an athlete’s role model influence.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

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Article
Publication date: 31 January 2020

Barbara Masiello, Enrico Bonetti and Francesco Izzo

This paper aims to understand how festival brand personality is built and managed in the social media environment by explaining the intended (by the organizers) festival…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to understand how festival brand personality is built and managed in the social media environment by explaining the intended (by the organizers) festival brand personality and how this concept is communicated and perceived by social media users.

Design/methodology/approach

A multi-method research design was used. Initially, a qualitative analysis based on the free-listing psychological meaning approach was adopted. Then, a content analysis of 23,717 Facebook posts and tweets was performed through NVivo11. Finally, the resulting data were examined through a non-parametric statistical analysis.

Findings

The results show an “internal brand personality gap” (between the intended and communicated brand personality) and an “external brand personality gap” (between the communicated and perceived brand personality). The findings also highlight the existence of an “ultimate brand personality on social media,” which represents a collective and dynamic construct that is co-created by the organization and its customers through interaction and the key role of the customers’ experiences.

Research limitations/implications

The findings contribute to a theory of event brand personality and its management on social media by showing a case with multiple identities.

Practical implications

Implications for the organizers of festivals and non-sport events are discussed to reduce internal and external gaps and better understand the “fit/unfit problem” when dealing with brand personality on social media.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to a research area that is in its infancy because it is one of the first attempts to analyze festival brand personality and its relationship with social media.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2012

Rodoula Tsiotsou

The purpose of the study is to develop a reliable measure of sport team personality that incorporates the relevant dimensions/traits consumers attribute to their sport teams.

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3546

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to develop a reliable measure of sport team personality that incorporates the relevant dimensions/traits consumers attribute to their sport teams.

Design/methodology/approach

Initially, content analysis of sport teams' web sites and magazines were used to identify the items of the scale. Following this a survey research method was used to gather data from consumers. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on a sample of 301 consumers.

Findings

The analyses of the data resulted in a sport team personality scale consisting of five dimensions: competitiveness, prestige, morality, authenticity, and credibility

Practical implications

Sport brand managers can use the scale for benchmarking purposes and for examining how their sport teams/brands are perceived by sport consumers in terms of the five dimensions identified in this research.

Originality/value

The study expands the concept of brand personality to sport services and provides insights into the main dimensions of sport brands' personality. This is the first study that develops a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the personality of sport teams.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 8 November 2019

Richard Rutter, John Nadeau, Ulf Aagerup and Fiona Lettice

The purpose of this paper is to explore the brand relationships between a mega-sports event, the Olympic Games, and its branded main sponsors, using the lens of brand personality.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the brand relationships between a mega-sports event, the Olympic Games, and its branded main sponsors, using the lens of brand personality.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses the internet-based website communications of the sponsor and event brands to assess congruence in brand personality identity exhibited in the communications of sponsors and how these relate to the event brand itself. A lexical analysis of the website text identifies and graphically represents the dominant brand personality traits of the brands relative to each other.

Findings

The results show the Olympic Games is communicating excitement as a leading brand personality dimension. Sponsors of the Olympics largely take on its dominant brand dimension, but do not adapt their whole brand personality to that of the Olympics and benefit by adding excitement without losing their individual character. The transference is more pronounced for long-running sponsors.

Practical implications

Sponsorship of the Olympic Games does give brands the opportunity to capture or borrow the excitement dimension alongside building or reinforcing their own dominant brand personality trait or to begin to subtly alter their brand positioning.

Originality/value

This study is the first to examine how the sponsor’s brand aligns with the event being sponsored as a basis for developing a strong shared image and associative dimensions complimentary to the positioning of the brand itself.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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