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Article
Publication date: 20 May 2019

Marko Perić and Nataša Slavić

Sporting events are the core of sport tourism. However, when it comes to business models (BM) in the context of event sport tourism, that is, how value is created and…

Abstract

Purpose

Sporting events are the core of sport tourism. However, when it comes to business models (BM) in the context of event sport tourism, that is, how value is created and delivered at events, there is an obvious lack of research. The purpose of this paper is to deepen the understanding of BMs in the specific context of event sport tourism.

Design/methodology/approach

Focusing on trail-running sport events which are rapidly growing in popularity, the paper assesses actual events relative to the existing conceptual BM framework by using the analytical possibilities of the multiple-case study and by applying the interview and observation methods.

Findings

The results indicate that the core logic of the examined event-related sport tourism practices is very similar, although there are some significant differences. In addition, this study raises questions concerning potential modifications within the applied framework. Primarily, these relate to the partner network being identified as a second-order theme and an independent BM category and, communication with stakeholders (primarily with competitors), as a key process within the event BM.

Originality/value

This paper focuses on under-researched topics in the context of tourism, that is, the BM concept in relation to event sport tourism in general and trail-running sport tourism in particular. The paper provides a better understanding of the BM concept as a whole, and trail-running event sport tourism suppliers could benefit from the research findings by potentially avoiding business mistakes.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Kostas Alexandris

The purpose of this paper is to test: the applicability of Aaker’s (1997) brand personality model in the context of mountain running races; and the influence of event

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test: the applicability of Aaker’s (1997) brand personality model in the context of mountain running races; and the influence of event personality on event involvement and loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 177 runners (n=177) at two mountain running races participated in the study and filled the brand personality (Aaker, 1997) and leisure involvement (Kyle et al., 2004a, b) questionnaires.

Findings

The confirmatory factor analysis provided support for the factorial validity of the brand personality and event involvement models. The analysis confirmed also the structural model. Four of the five personality facets (excitement, competence, ruggedness and sincerity) significantly influenced the three dimensions of event involvement, which in their turn influenced event loyalty (intention to participate and W-O-M communications).

Practical implications

The topic of brand personality is important for building brand equity and guiding market positioning in the growing running races sector. The current study provides event organizers with a tool for measuring the personality of their events. Furthermore, it explains how event personality influences the development of event involvement, which is an important variable for the development of event loyalty.

Originality/value

It contributes to the academic literature in two ways: first, the construct of brand personality has not been previously applied in the context of outdoor sport events and especially mountain running races; and second, while it has been theoretically proposed (Aaker, 1997; Keller, 2008) and empirically supported (Eisend and Stokburger-Sauer, 2013) in the general marketing literature that brand personality is associated with positive behavioral and attitudinal (e.g. brand loyalty and brand involvement) outcomes, there has been no published research to test the relationships among brand personality, involvement and loyalty in the context of outdoor sport events.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Kostantinos Alexandris, Nicholas Theodorakis, Kiki Kaplanidou and Dimitra Papadimitriou

The purpose of this paper is twofold: to investigate if the three service quality dimensions (service environment, interaction and outcome quality), proposed by Brady and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: to investigate if the three service quality dimensions (service environment, interaction and outcome quality), proposed by Brady and Cronin (2001), influence the development of event loyalty, among runners of the “‘Alexander the Great’ International Marathon”, and to test if running loyalty moderates the relationship between event quality and event loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 368 runners participated in the study and filled the Sport Event Quality Questionnaire (Theodorakis et al., 2015) and an adjusted version of the Leisure Involvement Questionnaire (Kyle et al., 2010).

Findings

The results indicated that only the service environment and outcome dimensions contributed significantly to the prediction of event loyalty, while, and in contrast to other sport services, interaction quality was not shown to be an important determinant for the development of event loyalty. Furthermore, running involvement was shown to play a moderating role in the relationship between event quality and event loyalty. Service quality is more important for the development of event loyalty among low- than high-involved runners. The theoretical and applied implications of these results are discussed.

Research limitations/implications

The study provided results on how high- and low-involved runners perceive event quality, and for which of these groups the event quality is an important antecedent for the development of event loyalty.

Practical implications

Investigating the moderating role of involvement on the relationship between service quality and loyalty has also applied value. While committed runners have been traditionally seen as a key target group for event marketing professionals, the majority of runners in city marathons today are more leisure oriented. The increase in the number of leisure runners is actually the reason for the rapid growth of city marathons in the last few years. Meeting the needs of these leisure runners and increasing their loyalty levels is therefore a key task for marathon marketers today.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature, as for the first time it explores the moderating role of involvement on the relationship between service quality and loyalty in the context of a sport event.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2021

Yannis Lianopoulos, Nicholas D. Theodorakis, Kostas Alexandris and Magda Papanikolaou

Given the increased competition among running events, it is important for event organizers to comprehend how they can retain a base of loyal customers. The purpose of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Given the increased competition among running events, it is important for event organizers to comprehend how they can retain a base of loyal customers. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between sport event personality and loyalty intentions of runners participating in a running event. More specifically, it examined the relationship of sport event personality dimensions with the overall image of a sporting event as well as the association of event image with runners’ loyalty intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 247 participants of an international running event. A structural equation model analysis was followed.

Findings

The results showed that three dimensions of event personality (namely, excitement, sophistication and sincerity) predicted event image, which in turn positively associated with loyalty intentions.

Practical implications

The study discusses how event managers can improve the image of their events in order to increase their customers’ loyalty levels.

Originality/value

This is one of the first endeavors that examined the role of event image, a construct that has not received much attention in the context of road races, in a model concerning event participation.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2018

Ran Zhou, Kyriaki Kaplanidou, Dimitra Papadimitriou, Nicholas D. Theodorakis and Kostantinos Alexandris

The purpose of this paper is to explore the sources of inspiration for active participants in sport events, and the link between inspiration sources and event-related…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the sources of inspiration for active participants in sport events, and the link between inspiration sources and event-related outcomes (i.e. life satisfaction and behavioral intentions).

Design/methodology/approach

Research questions were examined using a Greek (n=264) and a US (n=103) sample of participants of two small-scale running events. Content analysis was used to identify and code the themes of inspiration, while a multivariate analyses of variance was performed to test the inspiration group differences on life satisfaction and behavioral intentions.

Findings

The qualitative findings revealed three categories of inspiration source identified in each sample. The quantitative results showed that the interaction between inspiration source and event type had an overall effect on participants’ life satisfaction and future participation intention. Specifically, findings highlighted the different roles of inspiration on influencing life satisfaction and participation intention of short-distance (i.e. 5 and 10k) event participants than those of long-distance (i.e. marathon) runners.

Research limitations/implications

This study identifies the sources of inspiration in small-scale sport events and provides preliminary empirical evidence where inspiration source and event type jointly influence participants’ life satisfaction and behavioral intentions.

Practical implications

Understanding the sources of inspiration provides event leveraging opportunities to inspire citizens to become more active in sports. Given that the sources of inspiration vary among different segments of event participants, event managers need to adopt differential communication and promotional activities geared to the needs of these targets.

Originality/value

The study provides the first empirical work exploring the sources of inspiration among active participants in small-scale sport events.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1998

Jonathan Liu, Ashok Srivastava and Hong Seng Woo

This paper presents the findings of a literature review and survey conducted on sport sponsorship in the UK. The paper seeks to establish relevant material published that…

Abstract

This paper presents the findings of a literature review and survey conducted on sport sponsorship in the UK. The paper seeks to establish relevant material published that addresses the issue of the transferability of techniques and skills from sports to business. The findings of the literature review highlighted the close relationship between the two mediums. The results of the sponsorship questionnaire showed evidence of the transference of mutually beneficial skills between the organisations offering the assistance, and the sporting organisation receiving the funding. The survey indicated that a majority of sports sponsoring organisations offered more than just monetary assistance to their beneficiaries. Sponsors also assisted with the management of specific events, and operated the complicated software and computer equipment required for the smooth running of the sporting activity. These organisations supplied the sports with key personnel, and highly skilled staff who were experts in their respective fields in marketing, public relations, corporate hospitality, and management.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2015

Chrysostomos Giannoulakis, Chien-Hsin Wang and Nathan Felver

In a currently western-dominated body of literature, the purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the relationship between motivation, experience, and satisfaction…

Abstract

Purpose

In a currently western-dominated body of literature, the purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the relationship between motivation, experience, and satisfaction through a structural equation model. This empirical examination was performed in the context of a mega-sporting event (i.e. Asian Games), while considering sample characteristics and the cultural setting of a Middle Eastern host country (i.e. Qatar).

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was disseminated to 12 competition and non-competition venues of the 15th Asian Games in Doha, Qatar. There was a convenience sample of 392 volunteers.

Findings

Three-factor identification for volunteer motivation (external, purposive, and event related) with 48.76 percent variance explained. One-factor identification for volunteer experience with 66.08 percent of the variance explained. Two-factor identification for volunteer satisfaction (recruitment and training, communication and support) with 68.93 percent of variance explained. The sport volunteer satisfaction model fit data well (root mean square error of approximation=0.04, non-normed fit index=0.98, comparative fit index=0.99, standardized root mean squared residual=0.03). Motivation was positively and significantly related to experience. In turn, experience was positively and significantly related to satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations included the utilization of a convenience and homogeneous sample (approximately 78 percent were Asian males), and the fact the retention construct was not included in the model. Results indicated the need to further the utilization of modeling approaches in examining psychometric properties of sport event volunteers, as well as expand the knowledge of how eastern cultures perceive the concept of volunteerism.

Practical implications

Volunteers at the Asian Games were satisfied due to the fact that their event-related motives were actually fulfilled. Participants’ overall satisfaction levels were high since their experience with the event was also positive. Initially, satisfied volunteers could encourage additional volunteer involvement. An extended community-based volunteer pool could be utilized for a plethora of events in Qatar, thus supporting the country’s aspiration for becoming a hub for international sport events.

Originality/value

The authors tested empirically the interrelationship between volunteer motivation, experience, and satisfaction through a structural equation model in a Middle Eastern mega-sporting event.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2005

Bill Merrilees, Don Getz and Danny O'Brien

The paper aims to explore a major issue in international marketing: how to build a global brand in a way that makes a strong local connection.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to explore a major issue in international marketing: how to build a global brand in a way that makes a strong local connection.

Design/methodology/approach

Using qualitative research methods on a single case, the Brisbane Goodwill Games, the processes used in the staging of this major sport event are analyzed. In particular, the stakeholder relations employed by the marketing department of the Goodwill Games Organization are investigated and a process model is developed that explains how a global brand can be built locally.

Findings

A major outcome of the paper is a revision to the four‐step Freeman process to make it more proactive; and three major principles for effective stakeholder management are articulated. The findings demonstrate that stakeholder analysis and management can be used to build more effective event brands. Stakeholder theory is also proposed as an appropriate and possibly stronger method of building inter‐organizational linkages than alternatives such as network theory.

Originality/value

Previous literature has generally dealt with the global brand issue in terms of the standardization versus adaptation debate, and the extent to which the marketing mix should be adapted to meet local needs in foreign countries. This research provides a unique extension to this literature by demonstrating how the brand itself needs to be modified to meet local needs.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 39 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2019

Christopher Dick

To date, research on sponsorship considers the effects of only positive or only negative sponsorship information on consumers’ attitudes toward the sponsor brand. However…

Abstract

Purpose

To date, research on sponsorship considers the effects of only positive or only negative sponsorship information on consumers’ attitudes toward the sponsor brand. However, in practice, sometimes mixed information (positive and negative) is available that influences consumers’ sponsor evaluations. To mirror the information situation of the real world, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how the valence of sponsorship information (only positive vs mixed vs only negative) and the strength of sponsorship information (weak vs strong) influence the consumers’ attitudes toward the sponsor brand.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses an experimental research design (n=210). Data were collected among students of a German university.

Findings

The results reveal that when the strength of information was weak, attitudes in the mixed information condition were not significantly worse than in the only positive condition and significantly better than in the only negative condition. In addition, when the strength of information was strong, attitudes in the mixed information condition were significantly worse than in the only positive condition and significantly better than in the only negative condition.

Practical implications

This study offers several practical recommendations regarding the sponsors’ evaluation of their investments and the decision to maintain or exit the sponsorship of a controversial object.

Originality/value

This study expands the research on the effects of available sponsorship information on consumers’ sponsor evaluation. The present research highlights the effects of different types of sponsorship information on consumers’ attitudes and considers the strength of information as a boundary condition of these effects.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Book part
Publication date: 30 July 2020

Nicolien van Luijk, Audrey R. Giles and Lyndsay M. C. Hayhurst

To critically consider the role that environmental sustainability plays in Sport for Development and Peace's (SDP) conceptualization of development in Indigenous…

Abstract

To critically consider the role that environmental sustainability plays in Sport for Development and Peace's (SDP) conceptualization of development in Indigenous communities in Canada. To do this, the chapter presents a critical analysis of one of the most prominent SDP organizations in Canada, Right To Play (RTP), and its relationship with extractives companies that support RTP initiatives.

In the first part of the chapter, we discuss the role of environmental sustainability in SDP approaches around the globe. In the second part, a textual analysis of RTP's documents is conducted to consider how environmental sustainability plays a role in its promotion of development in Indigenous communities throughout Canada.

Key findings of the research are presented and critically analyzed. The textual analysis of RTP documents shows that there is currently little consideration of environmental sustainability in the promotion and description of RTP's programs that operate in Indigenous communities in Canada. In addition, RTP's connections to extractives companies raise questions about the potential future directions.

The limitations of a textual analysis approach are discussed and the need for future research in this area is outlined with specific reference to how SDP programs might promote environmental sustainability.

Details

Sport and the Environment
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-029-5

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