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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2001

Daniel C. Funk, Daniel F. Mahony, Makoto Nakazawa and Sumiko Hirakawa

A 30-item Sport Interest Inventory (SII) was developed and validated for measuring ten unique motives related to consumer interest at an international sporting event…

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1071

Abstract

A 30-item Sport Interest Inventory (SII) was developed and validated for measuring ten unique motives related to consumer interest at an international sporting event. Spectators (N=1,321) attending five different US venues during the 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup were administered the SII. Analysis revealed that sport and team interest, excitement, supporting women's opportunity in sport, aesthetics and vicarious achievement explained 35 per cent of the variance in spectators' interest in the event. Results provide sport marketers with consumer-based marketing strategies, particularly for women's sport.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2010

Kevin K Byon, Michael Cottingham and Michael S Carroll

This study examines the relationship between spectator motivation and sports consumption behaviours in the context of an adaptive sport. Respondents were spectators from…

Abstract

This study examines the relationship between spectator motivation and sports consumption behaviours in the context of an adaptive sport. Respondents were spectators from five matches held in the Midwest United States involving registered United States Quad Rugby Association teams. The Motivation Scale for Sport Consumption (MSSC; Trail & James, 2001) was adapted to measure spectator motivation and predict repatronage intentions and online media consumption among wheelchair rugby spectators. Results indicated that two spectator motivation factors, physical skill and knowledge, were related to repatronage intentions. In addition, knowledge and vicarious achievement were found to be related to online media consumption.

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International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2009

Sebastian Uhrich and Joerg Koenigstorfer

This conceptual article presents a theoretical approach to understanding the atmosphere at sports stadiums. Using the environmental psychology behavioural model proposed…

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1060

Abstract

This conceptual article presents a theoretical approach to understanding the atmosphere at sports stadiums. Using the environmental psychology behavioural model proposed by Mehrabian & Russell (1974), and taking into account recent findings in consumer research, we develop a comprehensive framework for investigating this atmosphere. The framework highlights the role of emotions elicited by different stimuli in sports stadiums. We also suggest a number of direct and indirect influences on behavioural outcomes, caused by the emotional reactions and personal predispositions of spectators - influences that are of economic relevance. The proposed framework also forms a starting point for future empirical studies.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2019

Yanling Duan, Bing Liu and Yan He

The paper aims to examine the relationships among marathon spectator motivation, satisfaction and behavioral intention in China.

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1047

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to examine the relationships among marathon spectator motivation, satisfaction and behavioral intention in China.

Design/methodology/approach

Date were collected from three Chinese marathon races. The paper presents the conceptual model of the study and adopted a mixed method to identify the motivations of marathon spectators; structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the measurement and substantive models; regression analysis was used to detect the specific effects of the various spectator motivations on spectator satisfaction and behavioral intention.

Findings

The paper provides empirical evidences about how marathon spectator motivation affects the behavioral intention. The research results from a path analysis of the spectator motivation–satisfaction–behavioral intention model show that: spectator motivation has significant positive effects on behavioral intention, the indirect path dominates the total effect of motivation on behavioral intention via satisfaction as a mediating variable; satisfaction is positively associated with behavioral intention, and it plays mediate role between spectator motivation and behavioral intention. The result of regression analysis indicates that various spectator motivations have different influences on the satisfaction and behavioral intention, motives of excitement and diversion have significant effect on satisfaction and behavioral intention, but socialization motive is not significantly associated with the satisfaction and behavioral intention.

Originality/value

This paper first fulfills an identified need to explore mass sports event spectator motivations and its influential mechanism on behavioral intention among Chinese marathon races by survey. It contributes greatly to the literature of mass sports spectator motivation and consumption theory, provides important managerial implications for Chinese sports organizations as to how to improve spectator orientation degree.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2015

Wonseok (Eric) Jang, Yong Jae Ko and Sylvia M Chan-Olmsted

No psychometrically sound measurement scale exists to effectively measure sports team reputation. The current study proposed and developed the Spectator-based Sports Team…

Abstract

No psychometrically sound measurement scale exists to effectively measure sports team reputation. The current study proposed and developed the Spectator-based Sports Team Reputation (SSTR) by considering the most important stakeholder groups - spectators. The results indicated that SSTR had a positive and direct impact on team identification and trust towards a team. The most significant theoretical contribution of this study is the conceptualisation and development of the SSTR scale, with a multi-dimensional approach from the spectator perspective.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2015

Christopher Hautbois and Patrick Bouchet

It has become common for academics and sports marketing professionals to study and explain the heterogeneity and complexity of sports spectators' behaviours and attitudes…

Abstract

It has become common for academics and sports marketing professionals to study and explain the heterogeneity and complexity of sports spectators' behaviours and attitudes, with numerous works addressing this topic But these surveys are more about fans of professional sports clubs (soccer, basketball, baseball, hockey, etc) who attend regular season games in their favourite teams' home stadium or arena. To our knowledge, very few studies have been conducted into spectators of national teams. It is these spectators who are of the focus of this paper.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2013

Jason P Doyle, Thilo Kunkel and Daniel C Funk

The results from this study extend previous research by empirically testing the involvement based Psychological Continuum Model (PCM) segmentation procedure on sports

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1146

Abstract

The results from this study extend previous research by empirically testing the involvement based Psychological Continuum Model (PCM) segmentation procedure on sports spectators. To date, the procedure has only been verified using sports participants, although the PCM was developed with a broader range of sports consumers in mind. The validity of the procedure is confirmed using two online surveys, which gather data from spectators at both the league (n=761) and team (n=623) level. A three-step segmentation procedure then places respondents into the PCM stages - awareness, attraction, attachment and allegiance. ANOVA tests indicate that the four groups significantly differ from one another on attitudinal and behavioural measures for both league and team spectators. Findings suggest that the PCM is an appropriate framework to investigate fan development at both league and team levels. Thus sports marketers are provided with a research segmentation tool capable of helping them to better understand their heterogeneous consumer bases and thus guide marketing decisions.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2011

Yong Jae Ko, James Zhang, Kevin Cattani and Donna Pastore

The purpose of this study is to enhance understanding of service quality at major spectator sports events by developing a conceptual framework and measurement scale…

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5793

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to enhance understanding of service quality at major spectator sports events by developing a conceptual framework and measurement scale specifically designed for assessment of spectators' perceptions of event quality.

Design/methodology/approach

Utilising a comprehensive literature review and detailed qualitative preliminary procedures, a comprehensive model of event quality for spectator sports (MEQSS) and a measurement scale of event quality in spectator sports (SEQSS) are developed. The models are then tested using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling using data from a quantitative survey of a convenience sample of spectators at a major league baseball game in the United States.

Findings

The proposed model is shown to fit the data well. Reliability and validity of the SEQSS are established through a pilot test and the substantive survey.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of the study are limited by the sample being restricted to a single sports event in the United States. Further studies in other settings using larger samples are desirable.

Practical implications

The study provides a valid and reliable conceptual framework and measurement tool that can be used to ascertain the quality perceptions of consumers of major spectator sports events. Managers can use this framework and measurement scale as a diagnostic tool to identify strengths and weaknesses in their services, this providing guidance for potential areas of improvement.

Originality/value

This study extends the literature on service quality by providing a unique conceptual framework and measurement scale for major spectator sports events.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2013

Ryan T Wang and Kyriaki Kaplanidou

This study examines the impact of sport-induced emotions on spectators' purchase intentions towards event sponsors. Spectators who experience positive emotions evoked by a…

Abstract

This study examines the impact of sport-induced emotions on spectators' purchase intentions towards event sponsors. Spectators who experience positive emotions evoked by a home team victory are found to exhibit stronger purchase intentions towards sponsors regardless of the sponsor's ability to improve spectator emotions. Those who experience negative emotions following home team defeat show heightened purchase intentions towards sponsors perceived capable of improving their negative feelings. Purchase intention decreases when sponsors cannot assist in upwardly managing the negative feelings of spectators. Theoretical and managerial implications for sponsors of spectator sports are provided.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2010

Kyriaki (Kiki) Kaplanidou and Mark E Havitz

Situational involvement (SI) and enduring involvement (EI) are important predictors of spectator sports tourist behaviours. For this study, onsite and web surveys were…

Abstract

Situational involvement (SI) and enduring involvement (EI) are important predictors of spectator sports tourist behaviours. For this study, onsite and web surveys were utilised to help understand how SI and EI levels, with both event and destination, may vary according to the primary and secondary trip purpose of a spectator sports tourist. Results revealed differences between the two groups only within certain aspects of SI and EI with the destination.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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