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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Kostantinos Alexandris, Nicholas Theodorakis, Kiki Kaplanidou and Dimitra Papadimitriou

The purpose of this paper is twofold: to investigate if the three service quality dimensions (service environment, interaction and outcome quality), proposed by Brady and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: to investigate if the three service quality dimensions (service environment, interaction and outcome quality), proposed by Brady and Cronin (2001), influence the development of event loyalty, among runners of the “‘Alexander the Great’ International Marathon”, and to test if running loyalty moderates the relationship between event quality and event loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 368 runners participated in the study and filled the Sport Event Quality Questionnaire (Theodorakis et al., 2015) and an adjusted version of the Leisure Involvement Questionnaire (Kyle et al., 2010).

Findings

The results indicated that only the service environment and outcome dimensions contributed significantly to the prediction of event loyalty, while, and in contrast to other sport services, interaction quality was not shown to be an important determinant for the development of event loyalty. Furthermore, running involvement was shown to play a moderating role in the relationship between event quality and event loyalty. Service quality is more important for the development of event loyalty among low- than high-involved runners. The theoretical and applied implications of these results are discussed.

Research limitations/implications

The study provided results on how high- and low-involved runners perceive event quality, and for which of these groups the event quality is an important antecedent for the development of event loyalty.

Practical implications

Investigating the moderating role of involvement on the relationship between service quality and loyalty has also applied value. While committed runners have been traditionally seen as a key target group for event marketing professionals, the majority of runners in city marathons today are more leisure oriented. The increase in the number of leisure runners is actually the reason for the rapid growth of city marathons in the last few years. Meeting the needs of these leisure runners and increasing their loyalty levels is therefore a key task for marathon marketers today.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature, as for the first time it explores the moderating role of involvement on the relationship between service quality and loyalty in the context of a sport event.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 21 May 2021

Li Keng Cheng, Hsien-Long Huang and Ching-Chi Lai

The number of people using running apps has increased. Accordingly, a growing number of sports brands are launching running apps in hopes of improving their connection…

Abstract

Purpose

The number of people using running apps has increased. Accordingly, a growing number of sports brands are launching running apps in hopes of improving their connection with consumers and thereby enhancing consumers' brand preference and purchase intention. This study adopted an integrated perspective to explore the effects of perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and self-expression on consumers' continued use of running apps.

Design/methodology/approach

Convenience sampling was conducted among consumers in Taiwan (n = 251). Structural equation modeling using AMOS 21 was performed to analyze the data.

Findings

The study results revealed that (1) users' perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and self-expression significantly positively affected continuance intention, and (2) continuance intention was significantly positively correlated with word-of-mouth (WOM) and brand intimacy. Furthermore, the study confirmed the moderating effect of consumers' relationship norms on the correlation between continuance intention and WOM and brand intimacy.

Originality/value

Amid the increasing emphasis on self-expression, almost all running apps endeavor to enable users to share their achievements, such as accumulated mileage and routes. However, research has rarely focused on whether these features influence consumers' continued use of running apps and whether these influences in turn affect consumers’ attitudes toward a brand. Therefore, this study explored the effect of self-expression on the continued use of running apps.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2010

Caroline Chatwin

In Britain, the last two decades have seen a considerable increase in focus on service users' involvement in the provision of services that directly affect them…

Abstract

In Britain, the last two decades have seen a considerable increase in focus on service users' involvement in the provision of services that directly affect them, particularly where service users originate from a hard to reach population such as drug users. While the National Treatment Agency and drug and alcohol action teams often extol the virtues of the involvement of drug users in their service provision, participation of this type does not come without problems of its own. Experience of drug user involvement in service provision is much more established in Europe and this article seeks to utilise European examples in illustrating the potential pitfalls of such a strategy. Case studies are examined from three countries: the Netherlands, where drug policy is relatively liberal and drug user groups have been established since the 1970s; Denmark, where drug policy is fairly well balanced between repression and tolerance and drug user groups have been established since the 1990s; and Sweden, where drug policy is relatively repressive and drug user groups are only just emerging. Salient points from these case studies are then used to form the discussion, relating European experiences to the situation in Britain.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

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Article
Publication date: 18 November 2013

Santoshi Sengupta and Santosh Dev

Business process outsourcing (BPO) industry in India is progressing with an unparalleled velocity. Although, much research has taken place time and again elaborating on…

Abstract

Purpose

Business process outsourcing (BPO) industry in India is progressing with an unparalleled velocity. Although, much research has taken place time and again elaborating on attrition, which is a menace to this industry, not much of work has been done on retention. The present study aims to explore the dimensions of retention in a comprehensive manner. The paper identifies the main factors that lead to retention, compares these dimensions across various demographic characteristics and develops a regression model to find out the contribution of the factors to the long term sustenance of employees in a BPO.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was completed by 500 BPO employees located in the National Capital region of India. It measured their perception towards the importance of factors that are responsible for their sustenance in the organization. Data was analyzed using tests like factor analysis, descriptive stats, correlation and regression.

Findings

Four major dimensions of retention were extracted. Of the four job-related dimensions and five personal characteristics, intrinsic motivation factor, employee involvement factor, age and education are the primary determinants of employee retention. It was also found that there is a difference in perception of BPO employees towards the importance of these job-related retention dimensions.

Research limitations/implications

Due to selection of only a few facets of job characteristics, and limited geographical area of data collection, generalization of the study findings is limited. Future replication studies with more job characteristics and wider geographical selection in other related subject areas are also recommended.

Practical implications

Research findings will contribute to the body of knowledge in the BPO literature on employee retention programs and educate BPO employers on the organizational benefits associated with loyal, committed workers. Study implications will contribute towards industry's continual pursuit for growth, prosperity and profitability.

Originality/value

The present study explores novel dimensions of employee retention and makes a major contribution to the relative influence of job and personal characteristics in the BPO industry.

Details

Strategic Outsourcing: An International Journal, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8297

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 April 2021

Wonseok (Eric) Jang, Young Jun Kim, Kyungro Chang and Taehee Kim

Based on the limited-capacity model of motivated mediated message processing (LC4MP), this study aims to examine the effects of different camera types on the viewing…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the limited-capacity model of motivated mediated message processing (LC4MP), this study aims to examine the effects of different camera types on the viewing experiences of sports consumers and their intention to follow social media channels, depending on their level of sports involvement.

Design/methodology/approach

The design for this experiment utilized 2 (highly involved vs less involved sports consumers) × 2 (high-tech vs non-high-tech cameras) between-subjects design. Overall, 289 US-based sports consumers participated in this experiment.

Findings

The results indicate that sports videos recorded by high-tech cameras lead to greater perceived novelty than those recorded by non-high-tech cameras, thus enhancing sports consumers' intention to follow social media channels, especially when consumers are highly involved with the target sports. However, sports consumers who are less involved with particular sports become distracted during their viewing experiences when high-tech cameras are used to broadcast games; these consumers' intentions to follow social media channels are not strengthened.

Originality/value

Previous studies have focused mainly on the positive effects of high-tech cameras on the viewing experiences of sports consumers. Based on the LC4MP, the authors extend the existing literature not only by examining the mechanism that underpins the positive effects of high-tech cameras, but also by identifying a situation where the use of high-tech cameras results in a negative viewing experience for sports consumers.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Kostas Alexandris

The purpose of this paper is to test: the applicability of Aaker’s (1997) brand personality model in the context of mountain running races; and the influence of event…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test: the applicability of Aaker’s (1997) brand personality model in the context of mountain running races; and the influence of event personality on event involvement and loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 177 runners (n=177) at two mountain running races participated in the study and filled the brand personality (Aaker, 1997) and leisure involvement (Kyle et al., 2004a, b) questionnaires.

Findings

The confirmatory factor analysis provided support for the factorial validity of the brand personality and event involvement models. The analysis confirmed also the structural model. Four of the five personality facets (excitement, competence, ruggedness and sincerity) significantly influenced the three dimensions of event involvement, which in their turn influenced event loyalty (intention to participate and W-O-M communications).

Practical implications

The topic of brand personality is important for building brand equity and guiding market positioning in the growing running races sector. The current study provides event organizers with a tool for measuring the personality of their events. Furthermore, it explains how event personality influences the development of event involvement, which is an important variable for the development of event loyalty.

Originality/value

It contributes to the academic literature in two ways: first, the construct of brand personality has not been previously applied in the context of outdoor sport events and especially mountain running races; and second, while it has been theoretically proposed (Aaker, 1997; Keller, 2008) and empirically supported (Eisend and Stokburger-Sauer, 2013) in the general marketing literature that brand personality is associated with positive behavioral and attitudinal (e.g. brand loyalty and brand involvement) outcomes, there has been no published research to test the relationships among brand personality, involvement and loyalty in the context of outdoor sport events.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Abstract

Details

Running, Identity and Meaning
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-367-0

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2021

Yannis Lianopoulos, Nicholas D. Theodorakis, Kostas Alexandris and Magda Papanikolaou

Given the increased competition among running events, it is important for event organizers to comprehend how they can retain a base of loyal customers. The purpose of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Given the increased competition among running events, it is important for event organizers to comprehend how they can retain a base of loyal customers. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between sport event personality and loyalty intentions of runners participating in a running event. More specifically, it examined the relationship of sport event personality dimensions with the overall image of a sporting event as well as the association of event image with runners’ loyalty intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 247 participants of an international running event. A structural equation model analysis was followed.

Findings

The results showed that three dimensions of event personality (namely, excitement, sophistication and sincerity) predicted event image, which in turn positively associated with loyalty intentions.

Practical implications

The study discusses how event managers can improve the image of their events in order to increase their customers’ loyalty levels.

Originality/value

This is one of the first endeavors that examined the role of event image, a construct that has not received much attention in the context of road races, in a model concerning event participation.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2017

Jerzy Cieślik and André van Stel

The purpose of this paper is to predict future career paths of university students, distinguishing between paid employment, running one’s own independent business and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to predict future career paths of university students, distinguishing between paid employment, running one’s own independent business and running a family business. The main predictor is the students’ current mode of entrepreneurial exposure, both in terms of the students running their own business, and in terms of their parents running their own business.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a comprehensive survey held in May 2013 among 1,490 business and law students of Kozminski University in Warsaw, Poland. To predict future career expectations in ten years’ time, multinomial logit regressions were employed.

Findings

The authors find that, among students with a family business background, those students who are actively involved in their parents’ business are significantly more likely to pursue joining the family firm, rather than starting their own business.

Practical implications

In order to stimulate business succession, universities with a large proportion of students with family business background may consider launching dedicated programs promoting the interest of students in the businesses run by their parents.

Originality/value

The authors investigate to what extent active participation of university students in their parents’ business is associated with a higher probability to pursue a career in family business. The research has important implications in light of the increasing difficulty in Europe to find successors for family businesses.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2013

Veronika Schwarzenberger and Kenneth Hyde

This study investigates the role that sports brands play in building group identity within a niche sports subculture, via research from two different trail running events…

Abstract

This study investigates the role that sports brands play in building group identity within a niche sports subculture, via research from two different trail running events. Participants exhibit some of the characteristics of an activity-based subculture of consumption, and brands play a role in building group identity. A key factor that drives a serious leisure pursuit to become an activity-based subculture of consumption is identified as high levels of socialising among participants.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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