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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2021

Anat Toder Alon, Avichai Shuv-Ami and Liad Bareket-Bojmel

The current study postulated that fans' social identities (derived from the team sport clubs of which they perceive themselves to be members) coexist with their personal…

Abstract

Purpose

The current study postulated that fans' social identities (derived from the team sport clubs of which they perceive themselves to be members) coexist with their personal identities (derived from views of themselves as unique, individual sport fans). The study examined the relationship between identity salience and both positive and negative aspects of fans' attitudes, emotions and behaviours.

Design/methodology/approach

Seven hundred and twelve (712) Israeli professional football fans participated in this study. The study employed a survey drawn from an Internet panel with more than fifty thousand members.

Findings

Utilizing structural equation modelling (SEM), the authors demonstrated that while social identity salience is related to positive aspects of being a sport fan (love of a favourite team and loyalty), it is also related to negative aspects of being a sport fan (hatred and perceptions of the appropriateness of fan aggression). Personal identity salience was found to be related to the decrease in negative outcomes of being a fan (hatred and perceptions of the appropriateness of fan aggression).

Research limitations/implications

Marketers and sport organizations will benefit from stimulating sport fans' personal identity salience to mitigate possible negative consequences of team affiliation.

Originality/value

The current study expands upon past sport management studies by demonstrating the existence of relationships between sport fans' identity salience and their emotions, attitudes and behaviours. The identity salience of fans is relevant from both academic and applicative perspectives.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2021

Markus Buser, Herbert Woratschek and B. David Ridpath

In this paper, Fantasy Sports (Hereafter FS) is conceptually classified as a concept of gamification for professional sport leagues. From a sporting perspective, FS is…

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, Fantasy Sports (Hereafter FS) is conceptually classified as a concept of gamification for professional sport leagues. From a sporting perspective, FS is often criticized because such online activities may be at the expense of physical activities. Otherwise, gamification can ultimately lead to economic advantages for sport leagues. To further empirically analyse this supposed juxtaposition, an empirical study is presented.

Design/methodology/approach

In the empirical study, participation and non-participation in a sport league-related FS league are analysed and the study uses a divided sample (N = 319) for a one-factor Welch-ANOVA. FS effects on sport practice (engaging in doing sport) and usage (engaging with sport) of FS players as well as on gaining and retaining fans are investigated.

Findings

Results demonstrate that participating in gamified FS experiences increases sport usage while not harming general sport practice. Furthermore, FS participation increases consumption capital as well as sport fans' loyalty and word of mouth (WOM) towards the league brand. Building on the results, league brands should foster gamified FS applications to retain their fan base and acquire new fans.

Originality/value

The authors’ theoretical contribution indicates the importance of FS as a gamified application and essential marketing tool for professional sport leagues. By introducing the terms sport practice and usage, the authors bridge the traditional logic of sport consumption with innovative approaches around engagement in and with sports. The results refute the prejudice that FS leads to less physical activity due to time substitution or displacement.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Book part
Publication date: 6 August 2020

Terry Eddy, Sarah Gee and Lamar Reams

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to gain insight into fans' perceptions, attitudes and behavioural responses toward their favourite college football team in the…

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to gain insight into fans' perceptions, attitudes and behavioural responses toward their favourite college football team in the context of a new beer sponsorship agreement. Specifically, the chapter examines differences in fans' attitudes and behaviours based on their gender, team identification and drinking habits.

Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative, cross-sectional survey design was employed. The sample was comprised of Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) workers who self-identified as college football fans. A hypothetical scenario was used as a manipulation, whereby participants were asked to imagine their favourite college football team had entered into a new alcohol sponsorship agreement while completing a questionnaire.

Findings: Highly identified fans exhibited more positive attitudes and behaviours after being presented with the hypothetical scenario than less identified fans. In terms of gender, female fans had increased attitudes toward sponsorship compared to males, and highly identified females had the most positive attitudes and behavioural intentions toward their favourite teams of any of the four subgroups in the study.

Research limitations/implications: The small sample sizes of some fan subgroups affected statistical power, which may have led to falsely insignificant findings. The range of favourite teams among the participants (50 universities) meant there was likely a high degree of variation between fans' previous experiences with beer/alcohol at college sport venues.

Originality/value: The study offers valuable insight into the intersection of sport fandom and gender in the context of alcohol sponsorship in US college sport, and is also among the first investigations of the effects of team identification on perceptions toward alcohol sponsorship.

Details

Sport, Alcohol and Social Inquiry
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-842-0

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Book part
Publication date: 20 September 2021

Keith D. Parry, Jessica Richards, Jo Batey and Aila Khan

Australian cricket has traditionally been an exemplar of hyper-masculine sporting conservatism. However, cricket, as with a number of Australian sports, has recently…

Abstract

Australian cricket has traditionally been an exemplar of hyper-masculine sporting conservatism. However, cricket, as with a number of Australian sports, has recently introduced an elite women's league. Despite growth in participation and funding of women's cricket, it remains poorly understood at the elite level and particularly its fans. Drawing on the concept of gender-bland sexism (Musto et al., 2017), we investigate differences in fan engagement and perceptions of men's and women's cricket matches. Through a case study of Australian Women's Big Bash cricket team the ‘Sydney Sixers’, this chapter explores how women's cricket was experienced on match-day by fans, as well as perceptions of the value and quality of attending women's professional cricket. We first undertook participant observation at matches to understand how women's cricket was delivered, experienced and engaged with by fans. These observations informed a survey which was distributed to club members. Our findings suggest that there continue to be noticeable differences in the presentation of women's matches when compared to their male equivalents, providing evidence for the presence of gender-bland sexism in areas other than sports media.

Details

The Professionalisation of Women’s Sport
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-196-6

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Article
Publication date: 21 December 2020

Hüseyin Köse, Metin Argan and David P. Hedlund

The purpose of this research is to develop and validate a scale to measure the perceived orientation of sport organizations toward their fans, and subsequently, to test…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to develop and validate a scale to measure the perceived orientation of sport organizations toward their fans, and subsequently, to test its relationship with six outcomes based on data from the fanbases of three distinct sport teams.

Design/methodology/approach

Using interviews and focus groups, important elements of fans' perceptions of their relationship with sport organizations are identified. After creating items based on the results of the interviews and focus groups, EFA, CFA and SEM procedures are used to create and test a multidimensional scale of perceived fan orientation.

Findings

Using EFA and CFA procedures, an 11-item, four-dimension scale of perceived fan orientation is validated, including components measuring (1) hosting events and campaigns for fans, (2) communicating information to fans, (3) interacting with fans when requests and problems arise and (4) providing preferential treatment to fans. The SEM results provide evidence of the impact of fan orientation on multiple measured outcomes for three professional football teams.

Research limitations/implications

This research is limited to three professional football teams in Turkey. However, the development of the multidimensional perceived fan orientation (PERFANOR) scale provides sport organizations' management and personnel with information about the relationship fans desire.

Practical implications

Sport managers, marketers and front-line staff are recommended to undertake activities to improve the relationship between the organization, team and its fans.

Originality/value

The principles and practices of relationship marketing and service quality often include discussions of the importance of “putting fans first,” however until now, no multidimensional scale existed in sport which measures the perceived fan orientation of a sport organization.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2021

Tamar Icekson, Anat Toder Alon, Avichai Shuv-Ami and Yaron Sela

The growing proportion of older fans and their potential economic value have increased the need for an improved understanding of age differences in fan behaviour. Building…

Abstract

Purpose

The growing proportion of older fans and their potential economic value have increased the need for an improved understanding of age differences in fan behaviour. Building on socioemotional selectivity theory, the current study examines the impact of age differences on fan hatred as well as on the extent to which fans actually engage in aggressive activities and fans' perceptions of the levels of appropriateness of certain physical and verbal acts of aggression.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used an online panel-based survey that offered access to a real-world population of sport fans. The participants were 742 fans of professional football (soccer).

Findings

Results from structural equation modelling indicated that older fans reported lower levels of fan hatred, lower self-reported aggression and lower acceptance of physical and verbal aggression. Moreover, fan hatred partially mediated the relationship between age and levels of aggression and between age and acceptance of verbal aggression. In addition, fan hatred fully mediated the relationship between age and acceptance of physical aggression.

Originality/value

The current study makes two important contributions. First, it demonstrates that sport clubs may particularly benefit from understanding the potential but often neglected importance of older sport fans in relation to the problematic phenomenon of fan aggression. Second, it offers a thorough theoretical account of the manner in which fan hatred plays a significant role in the relationships between age and fan aggressiveness.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 23 July 2020

Brian H. Yim and Kevin K. Byon

The purpose of this study was to examine the millennial fans decision-making process in connection with various sport consumption behaviors (i.e. game attendance, TV…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to examine the millennial fans decision-making process in connection with various sport consumption behaviors (i.e. game attendance, TV viewing, participation in online activities, and participation in social media activities) using a modified model of goal-directed behavior (i.e. Sport Fan MGB).

Design/methodology/approach

We collected data using Amazon Mechanical Turk (N = 222) to test the hypothesized model. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine the psychometric properties of the measurement model, and structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Sport Fan MGB was found have good psychometric properties. In addition, the findings indicate that the Sport Fan MGB explained various millennial fan behaviors (i.e., event attendance, TV viewing, online activity participation, and social media activity participation).

Originality/value

This paper examined the validity of the Sport Fan MGB and improved the predictability of the millennial fans' sport consumption behavior decision-making process.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 30 April 2020

Jennifer L. Harker and Jonathan A. Jensen

The purpose of this research is to extend current knowledge regarding rivalry communication among sport consumers to better understand how rivals behave with one another…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to extend current knowledge regarding rivalry communication among sport consumers to better understand how rivals behave with one another when they communicate.

Design/methodology/approach

This national survey of US sport consumers used a novel approach to explore whether and with whom rivals discuss National Football League (NFL) game outcomes. The survey captured both uniplex and multiplex data by asking respondents to name rival discussants with whom they had recently interacted, and the fan behaviors they exchanged with those named rival discussants.

Findings

Through use of this novel data collection approach, new findings were uncovered related to blasting, glory out of reflective failure, schadenfreude and the influence of team identification on the exchange of rivalry fan behaviors. The results of the uniplex and multiplex data analyses uniquely showcase the ways in which social identity theory combines with team identification to enact rivalry behavior.

Originality/value

This research is the first to precisely dichotomize the psychological antecedents from the communicated behavior between rival fans. Results reveal the precise ways in which team identification influences discordant communication between rival fans, which differs from past research in an interesting new way.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 2 April 2020

Joana César Machado, Carla Carvalho Martins, Frederico Correia Ferreira, Susana C. Silva and Paulo Alexandre Duarte

Social network sites are key marketing tools that allow brands to connect and engage with consumers. However, there is still a lack of evidence of their value for football…

Abstract

Purpose

Social network sites are key marketing tools that allow brands to connect and engage with consumers. However, there is still a lack of evidence of their value for football brands. This research aims to understand the motivations for fans to engage with their favourite football brands on Facebook and Instagram.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was performed, resulting in 214 valid responses. As the social media strategy followed by the football brand analysed was built around games, the authors divided fans into two groups based on the main method in which the club's games are watched: in stadium versus mediated. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore the relationship between motivations and fans' engagement, through content consumption and contribution, on Facebook and Instagram. Analysis was performed first with the whole sample and then by group (stadium attendance vs mediated attendance fans).

Findings

The findings show that social influence, entertainment, searching for information and rewards are the most relevant motivations for consumers to engage with brand-related content on Facebook. Entertainment, rewards and social influence are the main motivations influencing consumer interactions on Instagram. Group moderation was only confirmed in the impact of social influence on Facebook page content consumption.

Originality/value

The results provide valuable insights into the social media marketing activities of sports brands, which will assist brand managers to develop strategies for effectively stimulating engagement with the different groups of fans.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 14 April 2020

Avichai Shuv-Ami, Anat Toder Alon, Sandra Maria Correia Loureiro and Hans Ruediger Kaufmann

This study, an empirical research, aims to construct and validate a new love-hate scale for sports fans and tested its antecedents and consequences.

Abstract

Purpose

This study, an empirical research, aims to construct and validate a new love-hate scale for sports fans and tested its antecedents and consequences.

Design/methodology/approach

The scale was designed and validated in three separate empirical survey studies in the context of Israeli professional basketball. In Phase 1, the authors verified the factorial validity of the proposed scale using exploratory factor analysis. In Phase 2, the authors conducted a confirmatory factor analysis using structural equation modeling. In Phase 3, the authors tested the nomological network validity of the scale.

Findings

The findings show that fans' involvement, loyalty and fandom significantly predicted their love–hate, which in turn significantly predicted self-reported fan aggression, fans' acceptance of fan aggression, price premium and frequency of watching games.

Research limitations/implications

The model was tested on a relatively small sample of fans within a single country. This lack of generalizability should be addressed in future studies by examining the model in other sports contexts and countries.

Practical implications

This study suggests that understanding the properties of the love–hate measure may assist team sports clubs in identifying, preventing and controlling potential fan aggression.

Originality/value

The study provides three incremental contributions above and beyond existing research: it develops and validates a scale for measuring the phenomenon of sports fans' love and hate as mixed emotions; it makes it possible to capture the variations in the magnitude of fans' love–hate; and it relates fans' love–hate to important attitudinal and behavioral outcomes.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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