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Book part
Publication date: 2 September 2019

B. Janakiraman

Low interest rates around the world due to adaptive monetary policy regulations for some time a source of concern for the banking sector and depositors of the bank. In…

Abstract

Low interest rates around the world due to adaptive monetary policy regulations for some time a source of concern for the banking sector and depositors of the bank. In this environment, interest rates have raised concerns about nominal deposit interest rates which cannot be lowered below zero without destroying bank customers. Bank loans are becoming less vulnerable to lower interest rates on deposits approaching zero, indicating that the financial channel is weakened when interest rates are close to zero. Demographic pressures associated with longer life expectancy, China's gradual integration into global financial markets and changes in supply and asset requirements are attributed as reasons for low interest rates. Volatility of CPI inflation, interest rates on bank deposits attracting income tax and discontented depositors due to lower rates are cited as reasons for the suffering of bank depositors. This chapter thus discusses the impact of negative rate on economic growth and bank customers besides discussing the future trends of negative interest rates.

Details

The Impacts of Monetary Policy in the 21st Century: Perspectives from Emerging Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-319-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 November 2022

Yung-Ting Chuang and Ching-Hsien Wang

The purpose of this paper is to propose a mobile and social-based question-and-answer (Q&A) system that analyzes users' social relationships and past answering behavior…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a mobile and social-based question-and-answer (Q&A) system that analyzes users' social relationships and past answering behavior, considers users' interest similarity and answer quality to infer suitable respondents and forwards the questions to users that are willing to give high quality answers.

Design/methodology/approach

This research applies first-order logic (FOL) inference calculation to generate question/interest ID that combines a users' social information, interests and social network intimacy to choose the nodes that can provide high-quality answers. After receiving a question, a friend can answer it, forward it to their friends according to the number of TTL (Time-to-Live) hops, or send the answer directly to the server. This research collected data from the TripAdvisor.com website and uses it for the experiment. The authors also collected previously answered questions from TripAdvisor.com; thus, subsequent answers could be forwarded to a centralized server to improve the overall performance.

Findings

The authors have first noticed that even though the proposed system is decentralized, it can still accurately identify the appropriate respondents to provide high-quality answers. In addition, since this system can easily identify the best answerers, there is no need to implement broadcasting, thus reducing the overall execution time and network bandwidth required. Moreover, this system allows users to accurately and quickly obtain high-quality answers after comparing and calculating interest IDs. The system also encourages frequent communication and interaction among users. Lastly, the experiments demonstrate that this system achieves high accuracy, high recall rate, low overhead, low forwarding cost and low response rate in all scenarios.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a mobile and social-based Q&A system that applies FOL inference calculation to analyze users' social relationships and past answering behavior, considers users' interest similarity and answer quality to infer suitable respondents and forwards the questions to users that are willing to give high quality answers. The experiments demonstrate that this system achieves high accuracy, high recall rate, low overhead, low forwarding cost and low response rate in all scenarios.

Article
Publication date: 2 December 2022

Stephen K. Kim and Pushpinder Gill

This study aims to study research on franchise chain performance that has focused on franchisors’ efforts to align their interests with those of franchisees to address…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to study research on franchise chain performance that has focused on franchisors’ efforts to align their interests with those of franchisees to address partner uncertainty. In contrast, the question of what a franchisor should do to address another type of uncertainty and task uncertainty remains understudied. The authors suggest a franchisor’s coordination as a key means of alleviating task uncertainty and ongoing support and plural form as two mechanisms of coordination. The authors also posit that aligned interests between the franchisor and the franchisee improve, whereas one-sided interest impedes, chain performance. Furthermore, providing greater ongoing support or deploying plural form amplifies the positive effect of aligned interests on chain performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors relied on secondary data to test the hypotheses. The authors collected data for analysis from Bond’s franchisee guide and Nation’s Restaurant News restaurant database. They also tested the framework by analyzing 17-year, panel data of 71 restaurant chains operating in the USA and Canada using system generalized method of moments.

Findings

Results show that aligning interests does improve chain performance, but that the positive effect is amplified when aligned interests are matched with a chain’s provision of ongoing support or use of plural form.

Originality/value

The authors explicate why it is not enough to address the misaligned interests or lack of coordination alone; a chain manager needs to address both of these problems together. In addition, the authors explicate how two franchisee coordination mechanisms – ongoing support and plural form – help a chain augment the beneficial effect of aligning interests on chain performance. Without solving the twin problems of misaligned interests and coordination simultaneously, a chain is unlikely to achieve its full performance potential.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 November 2022

Mohamad Mehdi Mojahedi Moakhar, Mahmoud Esavi, Amir Khademalizadeh and Fathollah Tari

The purpose of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 reviews the literature on the subject matter, focusing on western economic literature and the Islamic economic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 reviews the literature on the subject matter, focusing on western economic literature and the Islamic economic paradigm, including the Quran, Sunnah, jurisprudence and Islamic philosophy thinking, to illustrate the origins of the Islamic approach to monetary systems. The money interest rate and its studies are explained, and the role of money and credit in the production function is considered. Then, it is shown that money maintains the demand for money in the overlapping generation model, as well as the consumption behavior of households. It is followed by an explanation of general Pareto optimality and the role of the money interest rate in inefficiency and nonoptimality for households and firms. Finally, Section 4 concludes the paper.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper studies the effects of money issuance and bank creation on Pareto optimality. In explaining the origins of the Islamic approach to monetary systems, the literature review, it focuses on western economics’ literature and Islamic economics paradigms such as the Quran, sunnah, jurisprudence and Islamic philosophy thinking. In modeling section, the authors show how banks’ fractional reserve credit is profitable. The authors also examine how the introduction of the money interest rate can change the Pareto optimality. In this regard, the comparison between two situations, namely, financing by the stock of money and borrowing in the credit market, indicates that welfare is reduced by the creation system and is inefficient (or nonoptimal). The result is that no money and no credits are created. The provision of this system compensates money by increasing the real money supply or deflation. To ensure Pareto optimality, it has been proven in the field of microfoundation that there should be no fixed money contracts and no money interest rates. It is necessary that the interest rate on consumption credit is zero or Qarz-al-Hasna is broken. Moreover, profit sharing is offered in the production sector.

Findings

As a result, the authors proved mathematically that the money interest rate must be zero to ensure productivity and Pareto optimality. On the other hand, the introduction of money or credit through loanable money leads to inefficiency, both in production and households and in the general equilibrium. The inflation generated by the credit system stimulates the change in the price level and perpetuates this inefficiency. Thus, if the authors want to return to the optimality condition, the interest rate on consumption credit must be zero or Qarz-al-Hasna is breached. However, the behavior of the fractional banking system and the credit mechanism teaches us that the money interest rate is an integral part of credit and loanable funds. Thus, the elimination of the money interest rate from the banking system without bank creation is implausible. Finally, to ensure Pareto optimality, it has been mathematically proven in the field of microfoundation that there should be no fixed money contracts and no money interest rate. It is necessary that the interest rate on consumption credit is zero, or Qarz-al-Hasna is broken. Moreover, profit sharing is offered in the production sector. The result is that no money and credit are created. The provision of this system compensates money by increasing the real money supply or deflation.

Originality/value

The capitalist theory of the definition of interest plays a decisive role in economic science. In this context, the authors are dealing with different vocabularies and terms for the interest rate. These different vocabularies have their origin in the different economic situations and especially determine the thinking of the schools. Because of the relationship between future and spot, the authors have to transform the variable “level” into the variable “interest rate” in the dynamic space. Finally, the exact explanations for the movement and evaluation of the economy are revealed by the correlation of the different interest rates.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 15 September 2022

Peterson K. Ozili

This paper analyzes global interest in Internet information about decentralized finance (DeFi), embedded finance (EmFi), open finance (OpFi), ocean finance (OcFi) and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper analyzes global interest in Internet information about decentralized finance (DeFi), embedded finance (EmFi), open finance (OpFi), ocean finance (OcFi) and sustainable finance (SuFi) and the relationship among them.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper used a comparative methodology based on regression and correlation analyses to assess global interest in Internet information about DeFi, EmFi, OpFi, OcFi and SuFi.

Findings

The findings reveal that global interest in Internet information about EmFi was more popular in Asian and European countries. Global web search for Internet information about OcFi decreased during the financial crisis while global web search for Internet information about OpFi and EmFi increased during financial crisis years. Global web search for Internet information about DeFi, SuFi and EmFi increased during the pandemic years. There is a significant and positive correlation between interest in DeFi, EmFi, OcFi and SuFi. Also, there is a significant and negative correlation between interest in EmFi and interest in OpFi. The regression coefficient matrix shows that OpFi, EmFi, OcFi, DeFi and SuFi are significantly related.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first paper that analyses the association between interest in DeFi, EmFi, OpFi, OcFi and SuFi. Thus, this study addressed an important knowledge gap in the literature by exploring people’s interest in Internet information about DeFi, EmFi, OpFi, OcFi and SuFi.

Details

Asian Journal of Economics and Banking, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2615-9821

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 21 September 2022

Sang Won Lee, Su Bok Ryu, Tae Young Kim and Jin Q. Jeon

This paper examines how the macroeconomic environment affects the determinants of prepayment of mortgage loans from October 2004 to February 2020. For more accurate…

Abstract

This paper examines how the macroeconomic environment affects the determinants of prepayment of mortgage loans from October 2004 to February 2020. For more accurate analysis, the authors define the timing of prepayment not only before the loan maturity but also at the time when 50% or more of the loan principal is repaid. The results show that, during the global financial crisis as well as the recent period of low interest rates, macroeconomic variables such as interest rate spreads and housing prices have a different effect compared to the normal situation. Also, significant explanatory variables, such as debt to income (DTI) ratio, loan amount ratio and poor credit score, have different effects depending on the macroenvironment. On the other hand, in all periods, the possibility of prepayment increases as comprehensive loan to value (CLTV) increases, and the younger the age, the shorter the loan maturity. The results suggest that, in the case of ultralong (40 years) mortgage loans recently introduced to support young people purchasing houses, the prepayment risk can be, at least partially, migrated by offsetting the increase in prepayment by young people and the decrease in prepayment due to long loan maturity. In addition, this study confirms that the accelerated time failure model compared to the logit model and COX proportional risk model has the potential to be more appropriate as a prepayment model for individual borrower analysis in terms of the explanatory power.

Details

Journal of Derivatives and Quantitative Studies: 선물연구, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1229-988X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 6 October 2022

Peterson K. Ozili

This paper presents an overview of embedded finance. It identifies the applications, use case examples, benefits and challenges of embedded finance. The paper also…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper presents an overview of embedded finance. It identifies the applications, use case examples, benefits and challenges of embedded finance. The paper also analyzes global interest in embedded finance and compares it with interest in related finance concepts such as open finance, open banking, decentralized finance, financial innovation, Fintech and digital finance.

Design/methodology/approach

Granger causality test and two-stage least square regression were used to assess interest over time in embedded finance.

Findings

The empirical result show that interest in embedded finance increased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic. The United States, the United Kingdom and India witnessed the highest interest in embedded finance compared to other countries. There is bi-directional Granger causality between interest in information about embedded finance and interest in information about financial innovation. There is uni-directional Granger causality between interest in information about embedded finance and interest in information about digital finance and open finance. The findings also reveal that interest in decentralized finance and open finance are significant determinants of interest in embedded finance. On the other hand, interest in embedded finance is a significant determinant of interest in digital finance, decentralized finance, Fintech and open banking. Also, interest in embedded finance is significantly correlated with interest in digital finance, decentralized finance, open banking and Fintech.

Originality/value

Presently, there is little academic interest in embedded finance despite the fact that embedded finance is part of the on-going digital finance revolution. This paper fills this gap in the literature by assessing the benefits, use case, challenges of embedded finance.

Details

Journal of Internet and Digital Economics, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2752-6356

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 6 November 2015

Hans van Ees, Kaspar van den Ham, Theo J. B. M. Postma and Kees Verschoor

Defaults in corporations, financial institutions and semipublic organizations have resulted in (corporate) governance Codes and Law provisions that aim to improve…

Abstract

Purpose

Defaults in corporations, financial institutions and semipublic organizations have resulted in (corporate) governance Codes and Law provisions that aim to improve governance, risk management and policy making by executive and non-executive directors of involved boards in The Netherlands and across the globe. The aim of this chapter is to discuss how semipublic organizations deal with public interest and the contribution of multiple stakeholder team production theory (MSTP) to effectively deal with the issue of how to include interests of different stakeholders and the general public interest in the governance of and policy making by boards of semipublic organizations. This includes the identification, raising awareness and analysis of various interests and their implications.

Methodology/approach

The authors use a literature review and their own experience.

Findings

Based on our literature review and experience converging in a case study design, we hold that a semipublic organization’s exposure to public interests and how it deals with that will remain a critical issue.

Practical implications

We develop a research approach for dealing with stakeholders’ and the public interest and conclude that a governance perspective grounded in team production theory allows for a much better focused incorporation of possibly conflicting stakeholder interests, including public stakeholder interests and stakeholder commitment and cooperation than the dominant control perspective that is currently prevailing.

Originality/value

We contribute to the literature by arguing that the combined MSTP approach offers a pre-eminent approach to influence and shape board behaviour, an increased awareness of interests of different stakeholders coalescing in the public interest and an alternative, complementary view on decision-making by boards viewed as a team.

Details

Contingency, Behavioural and Evolutionary Perspectives on Public and Nonprofit Governance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-429-4

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Farley Grubb

The British North American colonies were the first western economies to rely on legislature-issued paper monies as an important internal media of exchange. This system…

Abstract

The British North American colonies were the first western economies to rely on legislature-issued paper monies as an important internal media of exchange. This system arose piecemeal. In the absence of banks and treasuries that exchanged paper monies at face value for specie monies on demand, colonial governments experimented with other ways to anchor their paper monies to real values in the economy. These mechanisms included tax-redemption, land-backed loans, sinking funds, interest-bearing notes, and legal tender laws. I assess and explain the structure and performance of these mechanisms. This was monetary experimentation on a grand scale.

Details

Research in Economic History
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-276-7

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2016

Carlo Cristiano

Marshall, Pigou, and Keynes on one side of the Atlantic, and Fisher on the other, had different approaches to the quantity theory of money. But they shared its basic…

Abstract

Marshall, Pigou, and Keynes on one side of the Atlantic, and Fisher on the other, had different approaches to the quantity theory of money. But they shared its basic framework, with the result that theoretical discussions did not prevent some degree of mutual support on policy proposals. If a divergence there was, at this stage, this pertained the feasibility of Fisher’s proposals, because Fisher’s enthusiasm for reform could find no match at Cambridge. This notwithstanding, and although in varying degrees, Marshall, Pigou, and Keynes were sympathetic with Fisher’s battle for “stable money.” Indeed, a fragment from the Keynes Papers shows that, at a very early stage of his career, Keynes paid great attention to Fisher’s empirical research on the relationship between “Appreciation and interest,” taking the relation between nominal and real rates of interest as a possible explanation of the trade cycle. For some time at least, this widened the common ground upon which Fisher’s proposals for “stable money” could find some support at Cambridge.

Details

Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-962-6

Keywords

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