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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1999

Jenny Byrne

This paper is based upon a small‐scale research project, which investigates the factors which primary‐aged schoolchildren perceive as causes of high and low self‐esteem

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Abstract

This paper is based upon a small‐scale research project, which investigates the factors which primary‐aged schoolchildren perceive as causes of high and low self‐esteem. The findings indicate that schools may need to emphasise factors other than academic performance in order to raise pupils’ self‐esteem. The research was undertaken in a class of 32 year‐five children using the Draw and Write technique. The findings show that the children perceive multiple factors affecting their self‐esteem. Health issues, especially aspects of mental health, were considered very important factors in determining levels of self‐esteem. The research also showed that children are affected by the desire to improve their social status and consider this a way of increasing their self‐esteem. Affluence and the acquisition of material possessions were considered important avenues for increasing social status.

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Health Education, vol. 99 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1997

Patrick West and Helen Sweeting

Challenges the assumption, prevalent in education and in health education, that a sense of high self‐esteem is a key ingredient for success in educational achievement and…

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1303

Abstract

Challenges the assumption, prevalent in education and in health education, that a sense of high self‐esteem is a key ingredient for success in educational achievement and the adoption of a healthy lifestyle. Describes the measurement of self‐esteem and “street‐oriented” leisure among a cohort of about 1,000 young people aged 15 in 1987 who are the subject of the West of Scotland Twenty‐07 Study: Health in the Community. Finds that there is no relationship between self‐esteem and health behaviours such as smoking, drinking, illicit drug use and early sexual experience. Also finds that 15‐year‐olds who were most “street‐oriented” were more likely to smoke, drink, have used drugs and to be more sexually experienced than peers who were not involved in this lifestyle. Defines two groups, “lost souls”, who have “low” self‐esteem but who are neither very involved with nor very detached from school, nor very involved with or very detached from “street‐oriented” leisure; and “rebels”, who are very detached from school and who derive a sense of identity and self‐esteem from “street culture”. Observes that it is encouraging that this latter group is to some extent aware of the risks of their unhealthy behaviours. Quotes data from a similar study among 11‐year‐olds, which suggest that the categories of “lost souls” and “rebels” already exist at earlier ages. Concludes that, although the aim of fostering self‐esteem is a worthy one, it is unlikely to have the secondary effect of reducing the likelihood that young people will adopt unhealthy lifestyles.

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Health Education, vol. 97 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Article
Publication date: 5 April 2021

Thanos Papaioannou, Aggeliki Tsohou and Maria Karyda

This paper aims to identify the data elements that social network sites (SNS) users consider important for shaping their digital identity and explore how users’ privacy…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify the data elements that social network sites (SNS) users consider important for shaping their digital identity and explore how users’ privacy concerns, self-esteem and the chosen SNS shape this process.

Design/methodology/approach

This study conducted an online survey with the participation of 759 individuals, to examine the influence of privacy concerns, self-esteem and the chosen SNS platform, on the shaping of the digital identity, through a classification of identity elements that users disclose when using a SNS, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale and relevant constructs from the literature.

Findings

Findings reveal that users consider the name, gender, picture, interests and job as most important elements for shaping their digital identity. They also demonstrate that privacy concerns do not seem to affect the amount of information users choose to publish when shaping their digital identity. Specific characteristics of SNS platforms are found to affect the way that users shape their digital identity and their privacy behavior. Finally, self-esteem was found to affect privacy concerns and digital identity formation.

Research limitations/implications

To avoid a lengthy questionnaire and the risk of low participation, the respondents answered the questions for one SNS of their choice instead of answering the full questionnaire for each SNS that they use. The survey included the most popular SNSs at the time of the survey in terms of popularity.

Practical implications

The results contribute to the theory by furthering our knowledge on the elements that shape digital identity and by providing evidence with regard to the role of privacy and self-esteem within social networking. In practice, they can be useful for SNS providers, as well as for entities that design security and privacy awareness campaigns.

Originality/value

This paper identifies novel factors that influence digital identity formation, including the specific SNS used with its particular characteristics in combination with privacy concerns and self-esteem of the user.

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Information & Computer Security, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4961

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Book part
Publication date: 27 June 2013

Kyoungsu Kim, Fred Dansereau and In Sook Kim

Using five categories summarized by Bass (1990), this chapter attempts to address three key questions about charismatic leadership:

  • (1)
    What are the key behavioral…

Abstract

Using five categories summarized by Bass (1990), this chapter attempts to address three key questions about charismatic leadership:

  • (1)

    What are the key behavioral dimensions of charismatic leadership?

  • (2)

    How does charismatic leadership differ from other forms of leadership?

  • (3)

    Who may become followers of charismatic leaders and when do they become followers?

What are the key behavioral dimensions of charismatic leadership?

How does charismatic leadership differ from other forms of leadership?

Who may become followers of charismatic leaders and when do they become followers?

By focusing on Weber’s original view of charisma, we suggest that his three dimensions of charismatic leader behaviors underlie most contemporary approaches. By considering these three dimensions in more detail, we demonstrate how this view allows for different views of leadership and is distinguishable from management. Finally, by extending Weber’s view and by identifying two types of charismatic leaders who differ in their power motives, we suggest how the characteristics of followers and the context influence followers’ acceptance of charismatic leaders as legitimate. Some implications for leadership effectiveness are discussed.

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Transformational and Charismatic Leadership: The Road Ahead 10th Anniversary Edition
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-600-2

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Book part
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Kelly L. Markowski and Richard T. Serpe

The purpose of this paper was to empirically integrate the structural and perceptual control programs in the identity theory. This integration involved examining how the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to empirically integrate the structural and perceptual control programs in the identity theory. This integration involved examining how the structural concepts of prominence and salience moderate the impact that the perceptual control process of nonverification has role-specific self-esteem.

Methodology/approach

We use survey data from normative and counter-normative conditions in the parent and spouse identities to test a series of structural equation models. In each model, we test the direct impacts of prominence, salience, and nonverification on worth, efficacy, and authenticity. We also test interaction effects between prominence and nonverification as well as salience and nonverification on the three self-esteem outcomes.

Findings

Out of the 24 possible interaction effects, only three were significant. By contrast, the expected positive effects of prominence on worth were supported among all identities, while the expected positive effects of salience on self-esteem were supported only among normative identities. Also as expected, the negative effects of nonverification on self-esteem were supported, though most strongly among counter-normative identities.

Practical Implications

Our findings indicate that the structural and perceptual control concepts have independent effects on self-esteem. Thus, future research should incorporate both programs when examining identity processes on self-esteem. However, depending on the normativity or counter-normativity of the identities of interest, research may find it useful to focus on concepts from one program over the other.

Originality/value of Paper

This paper is a test of integration of the two research paradigms in the identity theory, which addresses the micro–macro problem in a unique way.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-013-4

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Article
Publication date: 12 January 2021

Xiaojun Zhan, Wenhao Luo, Hanyu Ding, Yanghao Zhu and Yirong Guo

Prior studies have mainly attributed customer incivility to dispositional characteristics, whereas little attention has been paid to exploring service employees' role in…

Abstract

Purpose

Prior studies have mainly attributed customer incivility to dispositional characteristics, whereas little attention has been paid to exploring service employees' role in triggering or reducing customer incivility. The purpose of the present study is to propose and test a model in which service employees' emotional labor strategies affect customer incivility via influencing customers' self-esteem threat, as well as examine the moderating role of customer's perception of service climate.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a matched sample consisting of 317 employee-customer dyads in China, multiple regression analysis and indirect effect tests were employed to test our model.

Findings

The study shows that employee surface acting is positively related to customer incivility, whereas deep acting is negatively associated with customer incivility. Moreover, customer self-esteem threat mediates the relationship between both types of emotional labor and customer incivility. Customer perception of service climate moderates the relationship between deep acting and customer self-esteem threat.

Originality/value

The current research broadens the antecedents of customer incivility from the employee perspective and sheds more light on the role of customer self-esteem in the interactions between employees and customers. It also demonstrates a complementary relationship between service climate and individual employees' emotional labor strategies, thereby expanding the existing understanding of the management of employees' emotional labor.

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Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2021

In-Jo Park, Peter B. Kim, Shenayang Hai and Xiaomin Zhang

This study aims to investigate the impact of service employees’ agreeableness personality and daily self-esteem on their daily interpersonal behaviors in terms of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the impact of service employees’ agreeableness personality and daily self-esteem on their daily interpersonal behaviors in terms of interpersonal harmony and counterproductive work behavior toward other individuals (CWB-I). Furthermore, this study examines whether the impact of daily self-esteem on daily interpersonal behaviors is moderated by the quality of service employees’ relationship with their manager and leader–member exchange (LMX).

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of 111 restaurant employees in China who took daily surveys with 1,412 ratings for 10 consecutive days, a longitudinal analysis was conducted to test the research hypotheses using hierarchical linear modeling.

Findings

The results show that agreeableness personality predicted daily interpersonal harmony but had no significant effect on daily CWB-I. It was also found that daily self-esteem predicted both daily interpersonal harmony and daily CWB-I, and LMX moderated the effect of daily self-esteem on daily interpersonal behaviors.

Practical implications

Given the fluctuation of employees’ interpersonal behaviors, organizations should guide the variability of interpersonal behaviors in the positive direction. To promote daily interpersonal harmony and reduce daily CWB-I, managers could focus on recruiting employees with agreeableness, offering daily self-esteem training and enhancing the quality of LMX.

Originality/value

This research is unique in its objectives to examine what influences service employees’ interpersonal behaviors on a daily basis and its methods to implement a longitudinal approach unlike previous studies that often relied on cross-sectional designs to enhance the ecological validity of the findings.

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International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2020

Yannis Lianopoulos, Nicholas D. Theodorakis, Nikolaos Tsigilis, Antonis Gardikiotis and Athanasios Koustelios

The concept of sport team identification has been widely used as a theoretical framework in explaining sport fan behavior. However, limited attention has been devoted to…

Abstract

Purpose

The concept of sport team identification has been widely used as a theoretical framework in explaining sport fan behavior. However, limited attention has been devoted to the consequences of distant (i.e., foreign) team identification. The purpose of the current research was to examine the way in which fans (local and distant) can increase their levels of collective and personal self-esteem due to their team identification.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were accumulated from three Greek websites (N = 742). Among them, 623 subjects were grouped as local and 119 as distant football fans. A structural invariance analysis was followed.

Findings

The results revealed how team identification, enduring team-related social connections, and basking in reflected glory are interrelated to affect collective and finally personal self-esteem. Moreover, no differences were found between local and distant fans regarding the paths from eam identification to collective self-esteem and from collective self-esteem to personal self-esteem.

Originality/value

This is one of the first endeavors to examine the psychological consequences of distant team identification and to test the invariance across local and distant fans concerning the mechanisms that their personal self-esteem can be enhanced because their psychological connection to their favorite sport team.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 17 September 2020

Monideepa B. Becerra, Devin Arias, Leah Cha and Benjamin J. Becerra

The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of low self-esteem among college students and how exogenous and endogenous factors, such as experiences of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of low self-esteem among college students and how exogenous and endogenous factors, such as experiences of discrimination and psychological distress, respectively, impact such an outcome.

Design/methodology/approach

General education courses were used to conduct a quantitative cross-sectional study among undergraduate college students. The primary outcome variable of interest in this study was self-esteem, which was measured using the Rosenburg’s self-esteem scale. Primary independent variable was psychological distress (measured using Kessler 6 scale). Discrimination experiences were measured using the Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS). Descriptive, bivariate and multiple linear regressions were conducted to find associations among such variables.

Findings

Among 308 young adults in this study, psychological distress was significantly related to low self-esteem (ß = −6.50, p < 0.001). In addition, increasing EDS score (ß = −0.37, p = 0.019) and women gender (ß = −1.29, p = 0.038) were also associated with low self-esteem.

Research limitations/implications

The study was cross-sectional and thus cannot provide causal relationship. The self-reported data is susceptible to recall bias. College students continue to face negative social experiences that impact their self-esteem, and discrimination plays a substantial role.

Practical implications

Gender-specific self-esteem coaching is needed among college students with psychological distress and among those with experiences of discrimination.

Social implications

The results of the current study provide information for understanding the role of discrimination and psychological well-being on self-esteem of college students, and thus further address the importance of social determinants of health and well-being.

Originality/value

This study provides a unique insight into the disparities faced by college students. Understanding self-esteem at the individualistic and collectivistic levels will allow for the planning and implementation of comprehensive interventions that address gender differences and psychological distress that will increase the positive health outcomes and decrease the negative health outcomes.

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Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

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Article
Publication date: 24 October 2018

Joongwon Shin, Yoohee Hwang and Anna S. Mattila

Though social trends are driving consumers toward solo consumption of various services, many are reluctant to do so. There is little guidance for service providers as to…

Abstract

Purpose

Though social trends are driving consumers toward solo consumption of various services, many are reluctant to do so. There is little guidance for service providers as to how to effectively induce solo consumption. This study aims to examine the joint effect of self-esteem and an incidental similarity cue (e.g. a person’s initials) on anticipated satisfaction with with a solo consumption experience to fill this gap.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a two-factor (incidental similarity cue and self-esteem) quasi-experimental design to test the hypotheses. The respondents read a scenario depicting a solo service consumption experience and completed scales that measured perceived fit with the service context and anticipated satisfaction with the experience.

Findings

Results indicate that, in the absence of an incidental similarity cue, self-esteem has a positive effect on solo consumers’ perceived fit. In the presence of such a cue, however, self-esteem has a minimal impact on perceived fit. Furthermore, perceived fit mediates the effect of self-esteem on anticipated satisfaction when the cue is absent.

Originality/value

The authors’ findings suggest that promoting incidental similarities with consumers may not be an efficient strategy to attract solo consumers. Conversely, service providers wishing to induce solo consumption may benefit from situationally increasing self-esteem among potential solo consumers. The current research advances the authors’ understanding of the effect of an incidental similarity cue and self-esteem in the context of a growing social trend of solo consumption.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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