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Article
Publication date: 19 December 2019

Yunduk Jeong and Sukkyu Kim

The purpose of this paper is to explore structural relationships between quality, destination image, perceived value, tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore structural relationships between quality, destination image, perceived value, tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty with emphasis on the mediating effect of tourist satisfaction on relations between destination image and destination loyalty, and between perceived value and destination loyalty in the context of small-scale sporting events.

Design/methodology/approach

Construct validity of the measurement scale was verified by confirmatory factor analysis, factor loadings, average variance extracted, construct reliability and correlation analysis. Reliability of the measurement scale was verified by Cronbach’s α analysis. A structural equation modeling test with maximum likelihood estimation was used to test structural relationships between variables in the proposed model using the responses of 311 participants.

Findings

Results showed significant and powerful impacts of: event quality, destination image and perceived value on tourist satisfaction; destination image, perceived value, and tourist satisfaction on destination loyalty and demonstrated; and tourist satisfaction fully mediates relationships between destination image and destination loyalty, and between perceived value and destination loyalty.

Originality/value

The study shows: it is meaningful to include quality and value in tourism destination image-satisfaction-loyalty models; provides empirical evidence that tourist satisfaction fully mediates the relation between perceived value and destination loyalty; and confirms small-scale as well as large-scale sporting events should be viewed as important aspects of marketing strategies aimed at improving quality, image, value, satisfaction and loyalty.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Kostantinos Alexandris, Nicholas Theodorakis, Kiki Kaplanidou and Dimitra Papadimitriou

The purpose of this paper is twofold: to investigate if the three service quality dimensions (service environment, interaction and outcome quality), proposed by Brady and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: to investigate if the three service quality dimensions (service environment, interaction and outcome quality), proposed by Brady and Cronin (2001), influence the development of event loyalty, among runners of the “‘Alexander the Great’ International Marathon”, and to test if running loyalty moderates the relationship between event quality and event loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 368 runners participated in the study and filled the Sport Event Quality Questionnaire (Theodorakis et al., 2015) and an adjusted version of the Leisure Involvement Questionnaire (Kyle et al., 2010).

Findings

The results indicated that only the service environment and outcome dimensions contributed significantly to the prediction of event loyalty, while, and in contrast to other sport services, interaction quality was not shown to be an important determinant for the development of event loyalty. Furthermore, running involvement was shown to play a moderating role in the relationship between event quality and event loyalty. Service quality is more important for the development of event loyalty among low- than high-involved runners. The theoretical and applied implications of these results are discussed.

Research limitations/implications

The study provided results on how high- and low-involved runners perceive event quality, and for which of these groups the event quality is an important antecedent for the development of event loyalty.

Practical implications

Investigating the moderating role of involvement on the relationship between service quality and loyalty has also applied value. While committed runners have been traditionally seen as a key target group for event marketing professionals, the majority of runners in city marathons today are more leisure oriented. The increase in the number of leisure runners is actually the reason for the rapid growth of city marathons in the last few years. Meeting the needs of these leisure runners and increasing their loyalty levels is therefore a key task for marathon marketers today.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature, as for the first time it explores the moderating role of involvement on the relationship between service quality and loyalty in the context of a sport event.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2021

Yunduk Jeong and Sukkyu Kim

Mega-sporting events reportedly can offer many tangible and intangible benefits to the host country and regions, such as job creation, image improvement, local pride…

Abstract

Purpose

Mega-sporting events reportedly can offer many tangible and intangible benefits to the host country and regions, such as job creation, image improvement, local pride enhancement, social overhead capital investment and tourism business development. However, a paucity of studies in the literature have developed integrative models or have explored domestic tourist behavior in a general, or the sports tourism, context. To address this gap, the present study investigates the relationships between event quality, personal involvement, destination image and destination loyalty in the context of event sports tourism in order to provide sporting destination managers with valuable information for sustainable sports tourism development.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected information from 365 domestic tourists who attended the 100th National Sports Festival held in Seoul, South Korea, in 2019. Construct validity of the measurement scale was verified by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), factor loadings, average variance (AVE) extracted and construct reliability (CR). Reliability of the measurement scale was verified by Cronbach's alpha analysis. The authors utilized structural equation modeling (SEM) with maximum likelihood estimation to analyze the predicted relationships.

Findings

The findings display the positive impacts of (1) event quality on destination image, (2) personal involvement on destination image, (3) personal involvement on destination loyalty and (4) destination image on destination loyalty. The findings indicate the key roles for event quality and personal involvement in improving destination image and the important roles of personal involvement and destination image in building destination loyalty.

Originality/value

The present study (1) contributes to the recent debate in the sports tourism literature over the relationship between the destination image and destination loyalty and (2) shows that there is no mediating role of the destination image on the relationship between the event quality and destination loyalty, and personal involvement and destination loyalty.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2021

Yannis Lianopoulos, Nicholas D. Theodorakis, Kostas Alexandris and Magda Papanikolaou

Given the increased competition among running events, it is important for event organizers to comprehend how they can retain a base of loyal customers. The purpose of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Given the increased competition among running events, it is important for event organizers to comprehend how they can retain a base of loyal customers. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between sport event personality and loyalty intentions of runners participating in a running event. More specifically, it examined the relationship of sport event personality dimensions with the overall image of a sporting event as well as the association of event image with runners’ loyalty intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 247 participants of an international running event. A structural equation model analysis was followed.

Findings

The results showed that three dimensions of event personality (namely, excitement, sophistication and sincerity) predicted event image, which in turn positively associated with loyalty intentions.

Practical implications

The study discusses how event managers can improve the image of their events in order to increase their customers’ loyalty levels.

Originality/value

This is one of the first endeavors that examined the role of event image, a construct that has not received much attention in the context of road races, in a model concerning event participation.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2021

Meungguk Park, Taeho Yoh and David J. Shonk

Understanding factors that enhance participants' satisfaction has become critical to developing effective donor retention strategies for charity sport events (CSEs)…

Abstract

Purpose

Understanding factors that enhance participants' satisfaction has become critical to developing effective donor retention strategies for charity sport events (CSEs). However, there is a lack of empirical research on participants' satisfaction with CSEs. The purpose of this study is to examine the antecedents and consequences of satisfaction among CSE participants and to empirically test the relationships between the proposed constructs.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 238 participants from four Relay For Life (RFL) events organized by the American Cancer Society, North Central Region in the USA. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were conducted to analyze the measurement model and the structural model.

Findings

The results of the structural model indicated that perceived prosocial impact, sense of community and trust in CSE had significant positive effects on CSE satisfaction, while venue quality, knowledge attainment and entertainment value did not positively influence CSE satisfaction. CSE satisfaction had a positive direct effect on participant loyalty to CSE, which had a significant contribution to future participant intent.

Practical implications

The findings of this study provide CSE directors and marketers with valuable insights into the process of how to build long-term relationships with participants by identifying factors that influence participants' satisfaction and its consequences.

Originality/value

By measuring the mediating role of CSE satisfaction, this study provides a deeper understanding of the causal pathways from the antecedents to participant loyalty through CSE satisfaction.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2010

Colleen C. Bee and Mark E. Havitz

Consumer loyalty has long been recognised as a key consideration of marketing strategies focused on customer retention. While the importance of the loyalty construct is…

Abstract

Consumer loyalty has long been recognised as a key consideration of marketing strategies focused on customer retention. While the importance of the loyalty construct is widely recognised, the conditions and variables that foster consumer loyalty for a specific service may vary. This paper explores the variables that influence fan attendance at a professional sporting event. It extends prior research by conceptualising both a behavioural and an attitudinal component of loyalty, as well as considering fan involvement with the sport and attraction to the sport. The findings suggest that psychological commitment and resistance to change mediate the effect of fan attraction and involvement on behavioural loyalty in a professional sports context.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Kostas Alexandris

The purpose of this paper is to test: the applicability of Aaker’s (1997) brand personality model in the context of mountain running races; and the influence of event

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test: the applicability of Aaker’s (1997) brand personality model in the context of mountain running races; and the influence of event personality on event involvement and loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 177 runners (n=177) at two mountain running races participated in the study and filled the brand personality (Aaker, 1997) and leisure involvement (Kyle et al., 2004a, b) questionnaires.

Findings

The confirmatory factor analysis provided support for the factorial validity of the brand personality and event involvement models. The analysis confirmed also the structural model. Four of the five personality facets (excitement, competence, ruggedness and sincerity) significantly influenced the three dimensions of event involvement, which in their turn influenced event loyalty (intention to participate and W-O-M communications).

Practical implications

The topic of brand personality is important for building brand equity and guiding market positioning in the growing running races sector. The current study provides event organizers with a tool for measuring the personality of their events. Furthermore, it explains how event personality influences the development of event involvement, which is an important variable for the development of event loyalty.

Originality/value

It contributes to the academic literature in two ways: first, the construct of brand personality has not been previously applied in the context of outdoor sport events and especially mountain running races; and second, while it has been theoretically proposed (Aaker, 1997; Keller, 2008) and empirically supported (Eisend and Stokburger-Sauer, 2013) in the general marketing literature that brand personality is associated with positive behavioral and attitudinal (e.g. brand loyalty and brand involvement) outcomes, there has been no published research to test the relationships among brand personality, involvement and loyalty in the context of outdoor sport events.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 28 August 2019

V.G. Girish and Choong-Ki Lee

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships among brand experience, sports event image and loyalty in the Jeju International Ultramarathon Race.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships among brand experience, sports event image and loyalty in the Jeju International Ultramarathon Race.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 313 ultramarathon runners during the 16th Jeju International Ultramarathon Race. Statistical analyses were carried out using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.

Findings

An analysis of the relationship between brand experience and sports event image revealed that affective experience is the most influential dimension, followed by sensory and behavioral experiences. However, intellectual experience showed insignificant relationship. Sports event image indicated a positive effect on word-of-mouth and revisit intention.

Research limitations/implications

Ultramarathon races are sporting events with few participants, even though it is becoming more popular. The attitude, motivation and personality of people participating in these races may be different in terms of the extreme characteristic and endurance level of sports activity. If the results of this study need to be generalized with other sports event images, a comparative study may help to understand the personality traits of people participating in ultramarathon races and other sports.

Practical implications

As ultramarathon races are not yet popular sports, to target more people, behavioral experience has an influential role because it is action oriented and actively engages the body. Enriching consumer life by facilitating and creating opportunities to physically experience as well as showing them alternate ways of doing things may attract them to substitute lifestyle and interactions (Pine and Gilmore, 1999). Few other popular endurance race events organize short-distance races and kid races for fun (e.g. Lavaredo Ultra trail race), to engage friends and family members before the start of the main event. Doing so may provide an opportunity to attract more runners, and they may engage in running activities and participate in these kinds of events later, after having this sort of casual experience.

Social implications

Social networking sites may be used to maintain continuous interaction with the runners and followers. Supporting a social cause is another measure to generate the intellectual experience of sports events. The result of this study shows no significant relationship between intellectual experience and the sports event image. To increase the worldwide popularity of this race and to attract more international runners, a judicious use of web platforms may be an option to maintain regular contact with a wider group of audience.

Originality/value

This study is the first to examine the relationship between brand experience and sports event image in an ultramarathon event context. Findings contribute to an understanding of the impact of brand experience on sports event image, thereby influencing the loyalty of runners participating in an ultramarathon event.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 27 August 2019

Sérgio Jesus Teixeira, João J.M. Ferreira, António Almeida and Eduardo Parra-Lopez

This study aims to analyze the contribution of tourist event and satisfaction with tourism events as a product of regional tourism competitiveness, as well as evaluate…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyze the contribution of tourist event and satisfaction with tourism events as a product of regional tourism competitiveness, as well as evaluate factors of competitiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

The research followed a quantitative methodology by conducting a questionnaire on the four largest tourist events in Madeira (Carnival, Flower Festival, Atlantic Festival and Wine Festival), an insular island located in Portugal.

Findings

The sample consisted of 2,262 tourists surveyed during the year 2017 and structural equation models were used as the statistical method. Results showed that satisfaction is reflected in the client's loyalty to the choice of a tourist destination and also contributes directly and indirectly to the regional tourist competitiveness.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the valorization of local and regional events, perceived by the level of satisfaction and loyalty of tourists, as products of regional competitiveness of a tourist destination.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 74 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2021

Hongmei Zhang, Shanshan Liu and Billy Bai

The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the image transfer and its effects on exhibitors’ behavioral intention. Specifically, the study attempted to examine…

Abstract

Purpose

The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the image transfer and its effects on exhibitors’ behavioral intention. Specifically, the study attempted to examine the effect of mega business event image on destination and country image from exhibitors’ perspective and the effect of mega business event image on exhibitors’ behavioral intention toward the event.

Design/methodology/approach

The data for this study were collected through an on-site survey. Based on a sample of 393 respondents, structural equation modeling was used to test the proposed hypotheses.

Findings

The results showed that business event image has a stronger effect on country image than on destination image; event image has a significant effect on exhibitor’s behavioral intention toward the event directly and indirectly through the mediating role of country image; and country image has a significant influence on destination image.

Practical implications

The event organizer should improve the exhibitor’s perceptions of the event experience from providing a clear and attractive theme for the target audiences; exhibiting the products with the most cutting-edge technologies and offering various opportunities for forums and promotions; and planning and organizing the event in every detail carefully including the facilities, layout of booths, ambience and other related services.

Originality/value

The study expands the event type to business events, explores the image transfer process between event, destination and country and examines the effects of such image transfer on the exhibitors’ behavioral intention. The results confirm the explanatory power of image transfer theory. Attribution theory and halo effect are viewed as the mechanisms of image transfer.

研究目的

本研究的主要目的是考察形象迁移及其对参展商行为意向的影响。具体而言, 本研究(1)从参展商视角, 探讨大型商务活动形象对目的地和国家形象的影响; (2)探讨重大商务活动形象对参展商行为意向的影响。

研究设计/方法/途径

本研究的数据通过现场调查收集, 基于393份问卷, 使用结构方程模型检验研究假设。

研究发现

研究结果表明:(1)商务活动形象对国家形象的影响比对目的地形象的影响更大; (2)通过国家形象的中介作用, 大型商务活动形象直接或间接地影响了参展商的行为意图; (3)国家形象显著影响目的地形象。

实践意义

活动组织者应从以下方面改善参展商对活动体验的认识:(1)提供清晰且有吸引力的主题; (2)展示具有最前沿技术的产品, 并提供各种论坛和促销机会; (3)认真, 细致地筹划和组织活动, 包括设施, 摊位布置, 氛围和其他相关服务。

原创性/价值

本研究将活动类型延伸至商务活动, 探索活动、目的地和国家之间的形象迁移, 检验形象迁移对参展商行为意向的影响。结果证实了形象迁移理论的解释力。归因理论和晕轮效应是形象迁移的内在机制。

Transferencia de imágenes entre un megaevento empresarial, el destino y el país del alojamiento y sus efectos sobre la predisposición de los expositores hacía el evento

Propósito

el objetivo principal de este estudio es investigar la transferencia de imágenes y sus efectos sobre la predisposición de los expositores. Específicamente, el estudio intentó examinar (1) el efecto de la imagen de megaevento de negocios en la imagen del destino y del país desde la perspectiva de los expositores y (2) el efecto de la imagen de megaevento de negocios en la predisposición de los expositores hacia el evento.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

los datos de este estudio se obtuvieron mediante una encuesta in situ. Sobre la base de una muestra de 393 encuestados, se utilizó el modelo de ecuaciones estructurales para probar las hipótesis propuestas.

Resultados

los resultados mostraron que: (1) la imagen del megaevento tiene un efecto más fuerte en la imagen del país que en la del destino; (2) la imagen del evento tiene un efecto significativo directo e indirecto sobre la predisposición del expositor hacia el evento a través del papel mediador de la imagen del país; (3) la imagen del país tiene una influencia significativa en la imagen de destino.

Implicaciones prácticas

el organizador del evento debe mejorar las percepciones del expositor sobre la experiencia del evento (1) proporcionando un tema claro y atractivo para el público objetivo; (2) exhibir los productos con las tecnologías más avanzadas y ofrecer diversas oportunidades para foros y promociones; y (3) planificar y organizar el evento cuidando los detalles, incluyendo las instalaciones, el diseño de las cabinas, el ambiente y otros servicios relacionados.

Originalidad/valor

el estudio amplía el tipo de evento a eventos de negocios, explora el proceso de transferencia de imágenes entre evento, destino y país, y examina los efectos de dicha transferencia de imágenes en la predisposición de los expositors hacía el evento. Los resultados confirman el poder explicativo de la teoría de transferencia de imágenes. La teoría de la atribución y el efecto halo son vistos como los mecanismos de transferencia de imágenes.

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