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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2011

Richard Reed and Susan F. Storrud‐Barnes

The paper's aim is to build a model that predicts the optimum tactics for capitalizing on inventions within the context of competitive interaction among large firms. For…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper's aim is to build a model that predicts the optimum tactics for capitalizing on inventions within the context of competitive interaction among large firms. For patenting, the paper seeks to show how invention value and firm rivalry drive the tactics of competing, deterring competitors, retreating from markets, and cooperating. It also aims to explore the effects of the contingencies of patent bulking, technology complexity, spheres of influence, resource similarity, and complementary‐resource tacitness.

Design/methodology/approach

The work is conceptual.

Findings

The base model shows that patenting can be used to protect markets where there is high invention‐value and high rivalry. When both invention‐value and rivalry are low, the best tactic is to cooperate. When value is high and rivalry low, patenting can be used as a signaling and deterring mechanism, but when value is low and rivalry is high the best option is to let patents lapse and retreat from markets. The moderating effects of patent bulking, technology complexity, spheres of influence, resource similarity, and complementary‐resource tacitness affect rivalry and the amount of patenting that will be done.

Research limitations/implications

The paper provides propositions for empirical testing that are predictive of firm performance, rivalry, and patent bulking. Despite the authors' attention to key contingencies, it is impossible to be completely comprehensive in addressing all contingencies.

Practical implications

The framework provides tactics for competing and, consequently, maximizing income and minimizing costs.

Originality/value

The work synthesizes extant thinking on patents and multipoint competition. While the base model should be valuable for managers, the overall work should be valuable for academics.

Details

Journal of Strategy and Management, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-425X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1986

Philip J. Kitchen

This article is primarily concerned with top management perceptions towards competitive rivalry in differing UK fmcg market structures. Moving away from concentration…

Abstract

This article is primarily concerned with top management perceptions towards competitive rivalry in differing UK fmcg market structures. Moving away from concentration measures, the author develops a new methodology measuring “market rivalry” based on management response criteria. In all, 21 markets are examined in which indices of competition are outlined. To some extent there are certain areas where gaps could be closed by emphasis on differing elements of the marketing mix.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 6 August 2019

Nicholas Masafumi Watanabe, Ann Pegoraro, Grace Yan and Stephen L. Shapiro

Previous research on rivalry games in sport has predominantly focused on understanding the nature of these games and their effects on consumer behavior. As such, the…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous research on rivalry games in sport has predominantly focused on understanding the nature of these games and their effects on consumer behavior. As such, the purpose of this paper is to conduct an empirical examination to provide better theoretical and empirical understanding of how rivalries may impact the posting of content online.

Design/methodology/approach

This research utilizes Twitter data measuring the number of posts by individuals about college football teams to model how often fans create content during game days. The models in this study were estimated using fixed-effects panel regressions.

Findings

After controlling for a number of factors, including the type of rivalry game, results indicate fans post more during traditional rivalries. Furthermore, newer rivalry games had less impact on the amount of content posted about a team.

Practical implications

The findings from this research provide sport marketers with important information regarding fan use of digital platforms. Notably, the results suggest rivalries can help to boost the volume of content individuals post about a team, indicating these games provide teams with an opportunity to maximize their engagement with fans and focus on key marketing objectives.

Originality/value

To date, there has been little examination considering whether rivalries affect behaviors in the digital realm. Therefore, the current investigation is one of the first studies to examine how rivalries impact social media behavior.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 April 2020

Jennifer L. Harker and Jonathan A. Jensen

The purpose of this research is to extend current knowledge regarding rivalry communication among sport consumers to better understand how rivals behave with one another…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to extend current knowledge regarding rivalry communication among sport consumers to better understand how rivals behave with one another when they communicate.

Design/methodology/approach

This national survey of US sport consumers used a novel approach to explore whether and with whom rivals discuss National Football League (NFL) game outcomes. The survey captured both uniplex and multiplex data by asking respondents to name rival discussants with whom they had recently interacted, and the fan behaviors they exchanged with those named rival discussants.

Findings

Through use of this novel data collection approach, new findings were uncovered related to blasting, glory out of reflective failure, schadenfreude and the influence of team identification on the exchange of rivalry fan behaviors. The results of the uniplex and multiplex data analyses uniquely showcase the ways in which social identity theory combines with team identification to enact rivalry behavior.

Originality/value

This research is the first to precisely dichotomize the psychological antecedents from the communicated behavior between rival fans. Results reveal the precise ways in which team identification influences discordant communication between rival fans, which differs from past research in an interesting new way.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 May 2020

Hyung-Woo Lee

This study aims to investigate the antecedents of the competitive pressure felt by individuals in organizations.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the antecedents of the competitive pressure felt by individuals in organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

The data for this study are obtained from workers from multiple firms in various industries.

Findings

The results indicate that employees have a strong feeling of competitive anxiety and a sense of rivalry when their tasks are interdependent to one another, when they have a competition-oriented personality and when the relative evaluation scale is used for performance appraisal. The perceived proportion of performance pay only increased the sense of rivalry, while it did not increase the competitive anxiety. Also, intrinsic motivation and transformational leadership help mitigate both competitive anxiety and sense of rivalry.

Practical implications

The author recommends that managers utilize these factors to maintain an appropriate level of competition depending on their organizations' needs.

Originality/value

The original value of this study lies in its attempt to examine how competitive mindset is developed among interpersonal relationships in organizations.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 41 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 December 2019

C. Min Han and Hyojin Nam

The purpose of this paper is to examine how consumer ethnocentrism (CET) and cosmopolitanism (COS) may affect Asian consumers’ perceptions of out-group countries and their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how consumer ethnocentrism (CET) and cosmopolitanism (COS) may affect Asian consumers’ perceptions of out-group countries and their products, doing so by examining similar vs dissimilar countries across countries of origin. Given the strong inter-country rivalries that exist among Asian countries, the authors propose two alternative hypotheses, drawing from social identity theory and realistic group conflict theory.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the hypotheses, the authors examine consumer perceptions of both Western countries (dissimilar out-groups) and Asian countries (similar out-groups) within China (Study 1). In addition, the authors investigate how CET and COS affect consumer perceptions of Asian countries in Japan and in non-Asian dissimilar countries, and compare the effects between the two regions (Study 2).

Findings

The findings indicate that CET shows greater negative effects on perceptions of a country and its products, when the country is from a similar out-group than when it is from a dissimilar one. On the other hand, COS showed equally strong positive effects among consumers for both similar and dissimilar out-group countries.

Research limitations/implications

The results suggest that Asian consumers feel a sense of intergroup rivalry with other Asian countries, and, as a result, exhibit a greater degree of ethnocentric biases toward these countries and their products than they do toward Western countries and products. Also, the results suggest that COS may transcend national differences and inter-country rivalries in consumer consumption tendencies.

Originality/value

The study examines inter-country similarities as a moderator of CET and COS effects, which has not been extensively researched in the past. In addition, the study discusses the concept of intergroup rivalry among neighboring countries and examines how it affects consumer perceptions of out-group countries and their products in Asia, where strong inter-country rivalries exist.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2019

Monika Paradowska

The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of rivalry and excludability in transport systems on the positive external effects important for the functioning of a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of rivalry and excludability in transport systems on the positive external effects important for the functioning of a large private university in Wroclaw (Poland). In the context of campus sustainability, policy implications supporting sustainable transport are discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

Four research questions were formulated, which were tested by way of questionnaire research among students of the Bachelor and Engineer Programmes in Logistics and taking part in the course Transport Economics at the WSB University in Wroclaw (Poland).

Findings

Car use seems to be the most important for the positive transport externalities enabling the functioning of the university. Levels of rivalry and excludability did not have a significant impact on the levels of external transport benefits or the transport behaviour of students. To sustain/enhance the levels of positive external effects of transport and stimulate sustainable commuting, the university should support the development of alternative modes of transport, by improving transport infrastructure on the campus, and develop cooperation with the Wroclaw municipality to develop synergies between their transport policy goals.

Research limitations/implications

The research should be interpreted with care, as it is a case study of one large private university in Poland. Further research should be conducted among different private and public universities that are characterised by different levels of accessibility (location, development of infrastructure). The case study is based on students' transport behaviour, not considering transport behaviour of academic and non-academic workers, which could function as a role mode.

Practical implications

Policy aiming at banning cars is likely to be unsuccessful and/or could lead to a decrease in positive externalities in a short term. For this reason, more attention should be given to marketing and promotion of more sustainable means of transport, including e.g. better information on the possibilities of reaching the campus by train or urban public transport, facilitations for non-motorised students and improvements in cycling and walking infrastructure. To support campus sustainability in the field of transport, stronger cooperation with local administration is needed to undertake joint, consistent actions aimed at sharing and supporting the idea of sustainable commuting among students.

Originality/value

While many activities for supporting campus sustainability focus on reducing negative environmental externalities, positive externalities are not so often considered. In this context, the levels of rivalry and excludability can become an indicator of the contribution of transport systems to social and economic sustainability.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 20 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2020

Junyun Liao, Xuebing Dong, Ziwei Luo and Rui Guo

Oppositional loyalty toward rival brands is prevalent. Although its antecedents have increasingly received scholarly attention, the literature is rather disparate. Based…

Abstract

Purpose

Oppositional loyalty toward rival brands is prevalent. Although its antecedents have increasingly received scholarly attention, the literature is rather disparate. Based on identity theory, this study aims to propose that oppositional loyalty is a brand identity-driven outcome and provides a unified framework for understanding the formation and activation of brand identity in influencing oppositional loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

Structural equation modeling was used to test the theoretical framework based on an online survey of 329 brand community members. Multigroup analysis was used to test the moderating effect of inter-consumer brand rivalry and brand community engagement.

Findings

The results show that self-brand similarity, brand prestige and brand uniqueness lead to consumers’ brand identity (i.e. consumer-brand identification), which, in turn, facilitates oppositional loyalty. Furthermore, the results indicate that inter-consumer brand rivalry and brand community engagement are identity-salient situations that strengthen the relationship between consumer-brand identification and oppositional loyalty.

Practical implications

Identity has great power in shaping consumer behaviors. Fostering consumer-brand identification is critical for firms to prevent consumers from switching to competing brands. Inter-consumer brand rivalry and brand community engagement can help firms consolidate their customer base by evoking consumers’ brand identity.

Originality/value

This investigation makes theoretical contributions by providing a unified theoretical framework to model the development of oppositional loyalty based on identity theory.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2020

Hsin-Chen Lin and Patrick F. Bruning

The paper aims to compare two general team identification processes of consumers’ in-group-favor and out-group-animosity responses to sports sponsorship.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to compare two general team identification processes of consumers’ in-group-favor and out-group-animosity responses to sports sponsorship.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on two studies and four samples of professional baseball fans in Taiwan (N = 1,294). In Study 1, data from the fans of three teams were analyzed by using multi-group structural equation modeling to account for team effects and to consider parallel in-group-favor and out-group-animosity processes. In Study 2, the fans of one team were sampled and randomly assigned to assess the sponsors of one of three specific competitor teams to account for differences in team competition and rivalry. In both studies, these two processes were compared using patterns of significant relationships and differences in the indirect identification-attitude-outcome relationships.

Findings

Positive outcomes of in-group-favor processes were broader in scope and were more pronounced in absolute magnitude than the negative outcomes of out-group-animosity processes across all outcomes and studies.

Research limitations/implications

The research was conducted in one country and considered the sponsorship of one sport. It is possible that the results could differ for leagues within different countries, more global leagues and different fan bases.

Practical implications

The results suggest that managers should carefully consider whether the negative out-group-animosity outcomes are actually present, broad enough or strong enough to warrant costly or compromising intervention, because they might not always be present or meaningful.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates the comparatively greater breadth and strength of in-group-favor processes when compared directly to out-group-animosity processes.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2010

Bishnu Sharma and David Gadenne

This study aims to investigate the impact of quality management practices on performance and the extent to which industry rivalry and entry barriers moderate the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the impact of quality management practices on performance and the extent to which industry rivalry and entry barriers moderate the relationship between the implementation of quality management practices and quality management performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey questionnaire was administered for this research using Powell's quality management framework. The respondents were required to indicate their degree of implementation of quality management practices and to rate their TQM performance in relation to overall performance, the firm's competitive position and the nature of the impact of quality management on the organisation. Structural equation modelling was used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results show that firms with high levels of executive commitment to quality management and those that pay close attention to customer needs tend to improve their competitive position, view quality as being positive for the organisation, and improve overall performance. The results suggest that the degree of quality management implementation is positively associated with entry barriers, which would mean reduced level of threat from new entrants; whereas the industry rivalry issues were not significantly associated with either quality management or organisational performance. The findings also show that existing firms' ability to create entry barriers facilitates increased opportunities to improve their organisational performance.

Research limitations/implications

The sample was relatively small, subjective measures of organisational performance were used which may be biased due to respondents' interpretation of their own firm's performances, and there is a possibility that many firms with low levels of QM implementation may not have participated in the study, leading to self‐selection bias. These factors may limit the generalisability of the research findings to other settings. Therefore further research is required to ascertain whether the same practices are evident across organisations of different sizes and industry groups within a broader sampling frame.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that quality management implementation by firms within an environment where higher levels of entry barriers exist results in higher organisational performance due to the firms' relative protection against new competitors.

Originality/value

This is one of the very few papers to investigate the role of Porter's industry analysis framework in relation to quality management implementation and firm performance.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 27 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

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