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Article

Karel Diéguez-Santana, Giselle Rodríguez Rudi, Ana Julia Acevedo Urquiaga, Emanuel Muñoz and Neyfe Sablón-Cossio

In this paper, the authors adopt the theory of the circular economy to study the transitions that take place in three case studies in Mexico and Ecuador. The work is aimed…

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, the authors adopt the theory of the circular economy to study the transitions that take place in three case studies in Mexico and Ecuador. The work is aimed to systematize a circular economy assessment tool that fosters opportunities for improvement in business practices.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology is based on a descriptive quantitative analysis, where a checklist is made with 91 items and nine study variables. This is from the study of the bibliography and business practice. Furthermore, the neural network method is used in a case study to predict the level of circular economy and the importance of each variable according to the sensitivity by the Lek’s profile method.

Findings

It is based on a descriptive quantitative analysis, where a checklist with 91 items and nine study variables is made, defined from a bibliographic study and business practice. Furthermore, the neural network method is used in a case study to predict the level of circular economy and the importance of each variable based on sensitivity.

Research limitations/implications

The application of the tool requires prior knowledge of the circular economy approach, which is why specialized personnel are needed for its application. This makes research more expensive in time and human resources.

Practical implications

The practical and methodological contribution of this work lies in the feasibility of the tool that favors the definition of improvement actions for the implementation contribution to the circular economy in business practices.

Social implications

The social contribution is framed in the gradual transition to circular economy approaches in underdeveloped countries.

Originality/value

The use of the neural network method to predict the level of circular economy in a case study allows making decisions in a predictive way. This encourages the development of the circular economy according to the context needs.

Objetivo

En este trabajo adoptamos la teoría de la economía circular para estudiar las transiciones que ocurren en tres casos de estudio en México y Ecuador. El trabajo tiene como objetivo sistematizar una herramienta de evaluación de la economía circular que fomente oportunidades de mejora en las prácticas empresariales.

Diseño / metodología / enfoque

La metodología se basa en un análisis cuantitativo descriptivo, donde se elabora un checklist con 91 ítems y nueve variables de estudio. Esto a partir del estudio de la bibliografía y la práctica empresarial. Además, el método de la red neuronal se utiliza en un estudio de caso para predecir el nivel de economía circular y la importancia de cada variable según la sensibilidad utilizando el método Lekprofile.

Hallazgos

Los resultados muestran que la herramienta es aplicable a diferentes contextos y simultáneamente permite la evaluación de la economía circular de forma holística. Además, la herramienta se puede vincular a técnicas predictivas, como el método de red neuronal. Esto se demostró en un estudio de caso.

Originalidad

en el uso del método de redes neuronales para predecir el nivel de economía circular en un caso de estudio. Esto permite la capacidad de tomar decisiones de forma predictiva y esto incentiva el desarrollo de la economía circular según la necesidad del contexto.

Limitaciones / implicaciones de la investigación

Las limitaciones se centran en la necesidad de conocer el tema de la economía circular para la aplicación de la herramienta. Por lo tanto, se necesita capacitación antes de comenzar un nuevo estudio. Esto encarece la investigación en tiempo y recursos humanos.

Implicaciones prácticas

El aporte práctico y metodológico de este trabajo radica en la viabilidad de la herramienta que favorece la definición de acciones de mejora para la contribución de la implementación a la economía circular en las prácticas empresariales.

Implicaciones sociales

La contribución social es parte de la transición gradual a enfoques de economía circular en países subdesarrollados.

Details

Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1012-8255

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Article

James Temitope Dada and Folorunsho M. Ajide

This study examines the moderating role institutional quality plays in shadow economy–environmental pollution nexus in Nigeria between 1984 and 2018. Further, the study…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the moderating role institutional quality plays in shadow economy–environmental pollution nexus in Nigeria between 1984 and 2018. Further, the study also determines the threshold level of institutional quality that lessens shadow economy and abates environmental pollution.

Design/methodology/approach

Shadow economy is measured as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) using the currency demand approach while environmental pollution is proxy by carbon dioxide (CO2) per capita. Autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) is used as the estimation technique.

Findings

Results from the study show that shadow economy has a positive and significant effect on environmental pollution both in the short and long run, while institutional quality has a negative effect on environmental pollution. This reveals that shadow economy worsens environmental quality while institutional quality abates environmental pollution. The interactive term of shadow economy with institutional quality has a negative but insignificant effect on environmental pollution in the long run. It implies that institutional quality is weak to bring about significant reduction in shadow economy and environmental pollution. Further, the threshold level of institutional quality required to lessen the effect of shadow economy and abate environmental pollution is found to be 5.69 on an ordinal scale of 0–10.

Practical implications

Institutional quality in Nigeria is weak and needs to be strengthened up to the threshold level in order to effectively moderate the impact of shadow economy on environmental pollution.

Originality/value

The study addresses the perceived gap in the empirical literature on the emerging role of strong institution in abating environmental pollution in Nigeria. It also develops a threshold level of institutional quality capable of mediating the negative impact of shadow economy on environmental pollution. This empirical contribution is largely missing in the context of Nigeria.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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Book part

Maoliang Bu, ChinTe Lin and Shuwen Zhai

This paper investigates how relative environmental regulation influences the flow of foreign direct investment (FDI), and thereby assesses the pollution haven hypothesis…

Abstract

This paper investigates how relative environmental regulation influences the flow of foreign direct investment (FDI), and thereby assesses the pollution haven hypothesis (PHH). In this field, conflicting results exist, partly due to the mere consideration of absolute environmental regulation or the inadequate consideration of endogeneity. Concerning these, we study China’s inward FDI from 26 developed countries and 12 developing countries over 1996–2009, and collect four different environmental regulation indicators at relative values of CO2, SO2, PM10, and an environmental regulation index. Using an instrumental variable approach, we find strong PHH evidence no matter for the subsample of FDI from developed countries or the one from developing countries. Moreover, we show how such results can be masked if failing to consider the endogeneity.

Details

Globalization and the Environment of China
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-179-4

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Circular Economy in Developed and Developing Countries: Perspective, Methods and Examples
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-982-4

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Article

Jonathan Spiteri and Philip von Brockdorff

The aim of this paper is to quantify the impact of transboundary air pollutants, particularly those related to urban traffic, on health outcomes. The importance of…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to quantify the impact of transboundary air pollutants, particularly those related to urban traffic, on health outcomes. The importance of focusing on the health implications of transboundary pollution is due to the fact that these emissions originate from another jurisdiction, thus constituting international negative externalities. Thus, by isolating and quantifying the impact of these transboundary air pollutants on domestic health outcomes, the authors can understand more clearly the extent of these externalities, identify their ramifications for health and emphasise the importance of cross-country cooperation in the fight against air pollution.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors employ panel data regression analysis to look at the relationship between emissions of transboundary air pollution and mortality rates from various respiratory diseases among a sample of 40 European countries, over the period 2003–2014. In turn, the authors use annual data on transboundary emissions of sulphur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), together with detailed data on the per capita incidence of various respiratory diseases, including lung cancer, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The authors consider a number of different regression equation specifications and control for potential confounders like the quality of healthcare and economic prosperity within each country.

Findings

The results show that transboundary emissions of PM2.5 are positively and significantly related to mortality rates from asthma in our sample of countries. Quantitatively, a 10% increase in PM2.5 transboundary emissions per capita from neighbouring countries is associated with a 1.4% increase in the asthma mortality rate within the recipient country or roughly 200 deaths by asthma per year across our sample.

Originality/value

These findings have important policy implications for cross-country cooperation and regulation in the field of pollution abatement and control, particularly since all the countries under consideration form a part of the UN's Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP), a transnational cooperative agreement aimed at curtailing such pollutants on an international level.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article

Rana Muhammad Adeel-Farooq, Jimoh Olajide Raji and Bosede Ngozi Adeleye

The purpose of this study is to analyze the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis within the methane (CH4) emission–economic growth nexus among the six Association…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyze the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis within the methane (CH4) emission–economic growth nexus among the six Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries from 1985 to 2012.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs dynamic panel data estimation approaches such as mean group (MG) and pooled MG (PMG) techniques.

Findings

The findings reveal that the EKC hypothesis for the CH4 emission in these economies proves to be valid. In other words, economic growth causes CH4 emissions to decrease. Nevertheless, energy consumption is deteriorating the environment by enhancing CH4 emissions in these countries.

Originality/value

The ASEAN region has experienced substantial economic growth over the previous few decades. Nevertheless, pollution has also increased manifolds in this region. Methane is a more potent greenhouse gas (GHG) as compared to carbon dioxide (CO2) and a major source of socio-economic issues in the ASEAN region. This study is the first in the existing literature on the EKC hypothesis examining the role of economic growth on CH4 emissions in the selected ASEAN countries. The outcomes of this study could be really beneficial for the policymakers in this region regarding sustainability and economic development.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article

Haroon Rasool, Mushtaq Ahmad Malik and Md. Tarique

The genesis of Environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) of “grow now clean later” has led to a substantial deterioration of local as well as the global environment. India has not…

Abstract

Purpose

The genesis of Environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) of “grow now clean later” has led to a substantial deterioration of local as well as the global environment. India has not been spared of this malaise and accounts for the third-largest carbon dioxide emitter in the world. Thus, the present study revisits the curvilinear relationship between economic growth and environmental pollution in case of India over the period of 1971-2014.

Design/methodology/approach

Dickey–Fuller generalised least square (DF-GLS) test developed by Elliott et al. is used to ensure that none of the variables is I(2). The study applies the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds estimation technique to test for the existence of cointegration among variables and estimate long-run and short-run parameters. The study also applies the Bai–Perron structural break test with unknown break date to determine the threshold point. The study further uses the vector error correction model (VECM) Granger causality test to check the direction of causality between variables.

Findings

The ARDL bounds estimation technique confirms the cointegration among variables. The long-run coefficients of energy consumption, economic growth and financial development are found to have an adverse impact on environmental quality. The results also validate the existence of conventional EKC hypothesis. Bai–Perron structural break test, along with t-test and scatter graph, shows that inverted U-shaped relationship between environmental pollution and economic growth holds true. The VECM-based causality results support “growth hypothesis” both in the long run and short run.

Research limitations/implications

This study refrained from considering a variety of variables, as the main intention of the study is to investigate whether any threshold or turnaround point exists for India. The future studies should consider a new set of variables (e.g. population, corruption index, social indicators, political scenario, energy research and development expenditures, foreign capital inflows, public investment towards alternate energy exploration, etc.) in the estimation of EKC hypothesis.

Practical implications

The results validate the existence of conventional EKC hypothesis. Thereby the study argues that instead of being a threat to environmental quality, economic growth is observed to generate a sustainable environment to live in. Further, bi-directional causality is found between carbon emissions and economic growth. Thus, any effort to mitigate CO2 or environment conservation policy will impede economic growth. Consequently, controlling primary energy consumption and supply and replacing it with renewable and clean energy could be desirable for climate change mitigation.

Originality/value

The data set has been refined so that the EKC estimation issues raised by Stern (2004) are addressed. In particular, statistical properties of the data set such as serial correlation, presence of a stochastic or deterministic trend, has been adequately taken care of to remove any spurious correlation. Finally, various control variables have been included to provide consideration to issues of model adequacy, such as the possibility of omitted variables bias. To the authors’ best knowledge, there is no India-specific study which has taken care of data-related issues, as suggested by Stern, in the estimation of a curvilinear relationship between environmental degradation and economic growth in India. Further, this is the first study which has used Bai–Perron structural break test with unknown break date to identify the threshold point while estimating EKC in India.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

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Article

Krishna P. Paudel, Nirmala Devkota and Ying Tan

The purpose of this paper is to address the issues of correlated events and individual heterogeneity in multiple best management practices (BMPs) adoption.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the issues of correlated events and individual heterogeneity in multiple best management practices (BMPs) adoption.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used survey data collected from broiler producers in Louisiana, USA. The authors estimated several duration models that either considered event dependence or heterogeneity or both.

Findings

Results from the conditional frailty model indicated that large farms adopt BMPs earlier, farmers who have been in broiler farming profession for a long time are late to adopt BMPs and more informed farmers, through contact with extension agents and education, are early adopters of BMPs.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation of this study is that the authors did not validate the robustness of the conditional frailty model using a more rigorous approach, such as empirical simulation method.

Practical implications

Many farmers do not adopt a new technology immediately after it becomes available. Duration models help to understand why farmers wait and how long they wait before adopting a new technology. In case of correlated events, where farmers adopt more than one technology, it is important to know the driving factors behind multiple technologies adoption. The findings from this study should help to properly target farmers to increase the adoption rate of a desired BMP.

Originality/value

This is the first study in agriculture technology adoption literature that uses a conditional frailty model to understand why farmers wait to adopt a new technology. This study also addresses both dependence in BMP adoption and heterogeneity in farmers’ quality that impact technology adoption.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article

Xiwen Chen

The purpose of this paper is to provide a deeper understanding of the rural revitalization strategy, from the perspective of the fundamental functions that should be…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a deeper understanding of the rural revitalization strategy, from the perspective of the fundamental functions that should be served by China’s rural areas in the implementation of this strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

Theoretical and comparative analyses of the functional relationship between China’s rural development and urban development, between China’s agricultural development and industrialization and that between China’s traditional culture and rural development today are conducted to identify the fundamental functions that should be performed well by China’s rural areas in the implementation of the rural revitalization strategy.

Findings

Three fundamental functions of China’s rural areas are identified: first, the function of ensuring national food security and the supply of important agricultural products; second, the function of providing effective ecological barriers, a good eco-environment and high-quality ecological products; third, the function of inheriting the extraordinary traditional Chinese culture.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to systematically summarize the fundamental functions China’s rural areas should perform during the process of rural revitalization.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article

Deon Tjosvold and Haifa F. Sun

Because of their relationship‐oriented values, avoiding conflict is thought to be particularly prevalent and appropriate in collectivist societies like China Although…

Abstract

Because of their relationship‐oriented values, avoiding conflict is thought to be particularly prevalent and appropriate in collectivist societies like China Although research in the West has assumed that avoiding conflict is one approach and a largely ineffective one, collectivists may use conflict avoidance in different ways, including protecting the other protagonist. Eighty‐five managers and employees in six State Owned Enterprises in South China described concrete incidents when they avoided conflict and responded to specific items to measure the prior relationship, motivation, strategies, and consequences. Results identify major motivations and strategies used in conflict avoidance. Findings indicate that Chinese managers and employees relied upon the other person, promoted task productivity, and strengthened the relationship when they had a prior strong relationship and cooperative goals. Cooperative goals and fear of revenge were both found to underlie outflanking (trying to work around the other). Results were interpreted as indicating that avoiding conflict can be useful and even reaffirm an already effective relationship, but like open conflict, it must be managed constructively.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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