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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2009

Wenjie Shiu, Frédéric Victor Donzé and Laurent Daudeville

The purpose of this paper is to describe how a discrete element model is used to predict the penetration depth and the perforation caused by a non‐deformable missile…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe how a discrete element model is used to predict the penetration depth and the perforation caused by a non‐deformable missile against a thin reinforced concrete slab.

Design/methodology/approach

Initial calibration of the model was done with a series of flat‐nose missile tests. Additional simulations were performed with varying the percentage of reinforcement. The present numerical model is compared to experimental test data provided by the French Atomic Energy Agency (CEA) and the French Electrical Power Company (EDF).

Findings

For thin concrete slabs, the evolution of the penetration depth in terms of percentage of reinforcement was compared with experimental results: quantitatively the results are very coherent.

Originality/value

The modeling scale is higher than the heterogeneity scale, so the model may be used to simulate real structures, which means that the discrete element method is mainly used here for its ability to account for discontinuities; an identification process based on quasi‐static tests is used, so the quasi‐static behavior of concrete is reproduced. This identification process is the key point, to allow a complete predictive computation for complex impact configurations, especially when the missile diameter and the thickness of the concrete slab are on the same order in size.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 26 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Younghee Noh

The purpose of this paper is to discover and enumerate the elements of the digital library and measure how much an individual library was equipped with the characteristics…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discover and enumerate the elements of the digital library and measure how much an individual library was equipped with the characteristics of the digital library accordingly.

Design/methodology/approach

For this purpose several steps were taken. First, research on the characteristics and the representative services of the digital library were comprehensively reviewed. Second, examples of the library services that were being considered for the next generation digital library were investigated to compare with the conventional library services. Third, the elements of the conventional and the digital libraries initially extracted were examined by ten experts. These experts were composed of researchers and professors specializing in digital libraries, and career librarians who had worked in the digital library field for at least ten years. The elements were verified through discussions with them. Fourth, 19 university libraries, 16 public libraries, and 17 special libraries were selected in accordance with the verified elements of the conventional and the digital libraries to measure the digitization level of the libraries.

Findings

The following is a summary of the evaluation of the first eight evaluation items, which are covered in Part 1 of this study. The remaining five items will be covered in Part 2. First, the digitization level of the acquisition element and classification and cataloguing was significantly high. Second, book collections excluding “digital video,” reference service, library program service, and space service showed significantly conventional characteristics. Third, in the element of circulation services, the item of lending books offline and returning the books scored 92.64 and the item of lending-returning with use of smart devices and social media obtained significantly low scores. Also, the average in using the book return desk for the circulation service was 81.39, much higher than using the automatic book return machine, which scored 18.61, by a wide margin. Fourth, in the element of user services, the digital item of providing support for mobile services related to the library resources demonstrated higher scores than the conventional item, but other items showed more conventional characteristics. In particular, the item of duplication services for material scored 94.99, but other items such as support for publication/bookbinding services using digital publication tools and devices obtained significantly low scores.

Originality/value

This study is first study in the world to measure the level of digitization of the library. Therefore, hereafter, each library will be able to measure and determine its digital position based on these elements. Up to now, some research was performed in pursuit of extracting the elements of a library but it has relied solely on literature review. Comprehensive research had never been performed as in this study.

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2021

Melkamu Girma Koricho and Musa Hasen Ahmed

This study examines the impact of access to credit on the technical efficiency (TE) of maize-producing smallholder farmers in Ethiopia and explores factors determining…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the impact of access to credit on the technical efficiency (TE) of maize-producing smallholder farmers in Ethiopia and explores factors determining credit utilization.

Design/methodology/approach

The study relies on nationally representative data collected in 2015/2016. The data are analyzed by combining the Propensity Score Matching technique with a stochastic frontier model that corrects selectivity bias arising from unobserved variables.

Findings

The result shows that credit service improves TE and helps smallholder farmers to achieve the maximum possible output level from a given set of inputs used.

Originality/value

To the best of author’s knowledge, no study has yet measured the impact of access to credit on TE by controlling for both observed and unobserved heterogeneities. Existing research relied on a single production frontier model, assuming that credit users and non-users have similar production characteristics or ignored selection bias due to observable and unobservable characteristics.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2021

Begum Dikilitas, Burcu Fazlioglu and Basak Dalgic

This paper aims to examine the effect of exports on women's employment rate for Turkish manufacturing firms over a recent period of 2003–2015.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the effect of exports on women's employment rate for Turkish manufacturing firms over a recent period of 2003–2015.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors establish treatment models and use propensity score matching (PSM) techniques together with difference-in-difference methodology.

Findings

The results of the study indicate that starting to export increases women’s employment rate for manufacturing firms. Gains in female employment rates are observed for the firms operating in low and medium low technology intensive sectors, low-wage sectors as well as laborlabor-intensive goods exporting sectors.

Originality/value

The authors complement previous literature by utilizing a rich harmonized firm-level dataset that covers a large number of firms and a recent time period. The authors distinguish between several sub-samples of firms according to technology intensity of the sector in which they operate, wage level and factor intensity of exports and investigate whether or not women gain from trade in terms of employment opportunities.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2021

Wanglin Ma, Puneet Vatsa, Xiaoshi Zhou and Hongyun Zheng

The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between farmers' happiness and farm productivity, taking maize production in China as an example.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between farmers' happiness and farm productivity, taking maize production in China as an example.

Design/methodology/approach

The conditional mixed process model is employed to account for the endogeneity that inevitably arises in regression models studying happiness and estimate the 2015 China Household Finance Survey data.

Findings

The empirical results show that a higher level of farmers' happiness is associated with higher maize productivity. The marginal return in maize productivity changes unevenly with increments in farmers' self-reported happiness on a five-point Likert scale. Farmers' happiness is positively determined by their age, educational level, farm size, machinery ownership, access to agricultural subsidy and car ownership. Machinery ownership and access to credit are two important factors that improve maize productivity.

Research limitations/implications

The finding suggests that promoting the subjective well-being of farmers is conducive to higher productivity and improved national food security. The results have implications for China and other developing countries aiming for sustainable agricultural development.

Originality/value

Firm-level data show that workers' happiness improves productivity. However, it is still unclear whether farmworkers' happiness affects farm productivity. Thus, this study provides the first empirical analysis of the impact of farmworkers' happiness on farm productivity.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Ying Li, Yung-Ho Chiu, Tai-Yu Lin and Hongyi Cen

As more women are now being appointed to senior and top management positions and invited to sit on boards of directors, they are now directly participating in strategic…

Abstract

Purpose

As more women are now being appointed to senior and top management positions and invited to sit on boards of directors, they are now directly participating in strategic company decision-making. As female directors have been found to provide new ideas, increase company competitiveness, efficiency and performance and bring a greater number of external resources to a company than male directors, this paper aims to put female directors as a variable into the data envelopment analysis (DEA) and statistical models to explore the effect of female directors on operating performances. The DEA first quantified and measured the company efficiencies, after which the statistical model analyzed the correlations between the variables to specifically identify the impact of female decision makers on the operating efficiencies in state-owned and private enterprises.

Design/methodology/approach

A novel two-stage, meta-hybrid dynamic DEA was developed to explore Chinese cultural media company efficiencies under optimal input and output resource allocations, after which Tobit Regression was applied to determine the effect of female executives on these efficiencies.

Findings

From 2012 to 2016, the overall efficiencies in Chinese state-owned cultural media enterprises were better than in the private cultural media enterprises. The overall technology gaps (TGs) in the state-owned cultural media enterprises were better than in the private cultural media enterprises.

Originality/value

Previous research has tended to focus on the causal relationships between female senior executives and business performances; however, there have been few studies on the relationships between female executives and company performance from an efficiency perspective (optimal resource allocation). This paper, therefore, is the first to develop a novel two-stage, meta-hybrid dynamic DEA to examine Chinese cultural media enterprise efficiencies, and the first to apply Tobit Regression to assess the effect of female executives on those efficiencies.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 9 March 2021

Md Rakibul Hasan, Pinki Bera and Mihir Kumar Pal

Total factor productivity growth (TFPG) is not only the technological progress. It is a boarder concept. It may be the increase in the productivity of inputs, economies of…

Abstract

Total factor productivity growth (TFPG) is not only the technological progress. It is a boarder concept. It may be the increase in the productivity of inputs, economies of scale, capacity utilization, technological progress, etc. In this study, we have tried to estimate TFPG and its components for the manufacturing industries of West Bengal and overall India, for the period 1980–1981 to 2016–2017, using stochastic frontier approach. The main data source of this study is the Annual Survey of Industries (ASI), which is published by the Central Statistical Organization, Government of India. The entire period has been sub-divided into two phases; pre-World Trade Organization (WTO) regime (1980–1981 to 1995–1996) and post-WTO regime (1995–1996 to 2016–2017). This study also tries to make a comparative analysis between the TFPG of manufacturing sector of West Bengal and all India level for the time period mentioned above. For West Bengal, TFPG has decreased for the post-WTO regime and it has increased in post-WTO regime for overall.

Details

Global Tariff War: Economic, Political and Social Implications
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-314-7

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 31 May 2016

Carlos Pestana Barros and Peter Wanke

This chapter analyses the efficiency of African airlines using a two-stage network DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) model. Network DEA models usually take into account the…

Abstract

This chapter analyses the efficiency of African airlines using a two-stage network DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) model. Network DEA models usually take into account the production process with intermediate inputs derived from the first stage and a second stage that departs from it. This fundamental feature enables one to view the airline production process as a carry-over activity. The analysis covers the 2010–2013 period. The relative efficiency ranks are presented and policy implications are derived.

Details

Airline Efficiency
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-940-4

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2018

Jin-Li Hu, Yang Li, Hsin-Jing Tung and Jui-Ting Feng

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) members want to efficiently promote the flow of commodities and personnel within its service areas under given limited…

Abstract

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) members want to efficiently promote the flow of commodities and personnel within its service areas under given limited resources. Based on panel data from 2007 to 2014, this study applies the output-oriented data envelopment analysis method and focuses on the disaggregated output efficiencies of 42 ASEAN airports. Results show that the international airports of ASEAN members have significantly better output efficiency for passenger and movement output than regional airports. This work provides a relatively fair perspective in evaluating ASEAN’s airport operating efficiency. It helps policymakers measure the frontier forward or backward shift of an airport over the research period, in order to reveal the characteristics of airport efficiency and to present a new interpretation along with managerial implications.

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Book part
Publication date: 3 June 2021

Prasanta Kumar Roy, Mihir Kumar Pal and Purnendu Sekhar Das

The chapter examines the sources of total factor productivity growth (TFPG) of the 2-digit manufacturing industries as well as total manufacturing industry of Gujarat…

Abstract

The chapter examines the sources of total factor productivity growth (TFPG) of the 2-digit manufacturing industries as well as total manufacturing industry of Gujarat during the period from 1981–82 to 2010–11, using a stochastic frontier approach. The empirical finding clearly states that although factor accumulations as well as resource allocations in most of the 2-digit manufacturing industries of the state have been improved during the postreform period, technological progress (TP) and technical efficiency change (TEC) of the same have deteriorated in most industries of the state during that period. As a result TFPG in the major manufacturing industries as well as total manufacturing industry of the state have declined because the combined effect of their improvement in scale effect (SC) and allocation efficiency effect (AEC) could not offset the declining effect of both the TP and TEC of the same during that period. In this context, the government should take some policy initiatives to improve productive efficiency of the organized manufacturing industries in Gujarat. Once efficiency increases, it enhances competitiveness, thereby increasing productivity growth and its different sources of organized manufacturing industries of the state.

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