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The purpose of this paper is to describe how a discrete element model is used to predict the penetration depth and the perforation caused by a non‐deformable missile…
The purpose of this paper is to describe how a discrete element model is used to predict the penetration depth and the perforation caused by a non‐deformable missile against a thin reinforced concrete slab.
Initial calibration of the model was done with a series of flat‐nose missile tests. Additional simulations were performed with varying the percentage of reinforcement. The present numerical model is compared to experimental test data provided by the French Atomic Energy Agency (CEA) and the French Electrical Power Company (EDF).
For thin concrete slabs, the evolution of the penetration depth in terms of percentage of reinforcement was compared with experimental results: quantitatively the results are very coherent.
The modeling scale is higher than the heterogeneity scale, so the model may be used to simulate real structures, which means that the discrete element method is mainly used here for its ability to account for discontinuities; an identification process based on quasi‐static tests is used, so the quasi‐static behavior of concrete is reproduced. This identification process is the key point, to allow a complete predictive computation for complex impact configurations, especially when the missile diameter and the thickness of the concrete slab are on the same order in size.
The purpose of this paper is to discover and enumerate the elements of the digital library and measure how much an individual library was equipped with the characteristics…
The purpose of this paper is to discover and enumerate the elements of the digital library and measure how much an individual library was equipped with the characteristics of the digital library accordingly.
For this purpose several steps were taken. First, research on the characteristics and the representative services of the digital library were comprehensively reviewed. Second, examples of the library services that were being considered for the next generation digital library were investigated to compare with the conventional library services. Third, the elements of the conventional and the digital libraries initially extracted were examined by ten experts. These experts were composed of researchers and professors specializing in digital libraries, and career librarians who had worked in the digital library field for at least ten years. The elements were verified through discussions with them. Fourth, 19 university libraries, 16 public libraries, and 17 special libraries were selected in accordance with the verified elements of the conventional and the digital libraries to measure the digitization level of the libraries.
The following is a summary of the evaluation of the first eight evaluation items, which are covered in Part 1 of this study. The remaining five items will be covered in Part 2. First, the digitization level of the acquisition element and classification and cataloguing was significantly high. Second, book collections excluding “digital video,” reference service, library program service, and space service showed significantly conventional characteristics. Third, in the element of circulation services, the item of lending books offline and returning the books scored 92.64 and the item of lending-returning with use of smart devices and social media obtained significantly low scores. Also, the average in using the book return desk for the circulation service was 81.39, much higher than using the automatic book return machine, which scored 18.61, by a wide margin. Fourth, in the element of user services, the digital item of providing support for mobile services related to the library resources demonstrated higher scores than the conventional item, but other items showed more conventional characteristics. In particular, the item of duplication services for material scored 94.99, but other items such as support for publication/bookbinding services using digital publication tools and devices obtained significantly low scores.
This study is first study in the world to measure the level of digitization of the library. Therefore, hereafter, each library will be able to measure and determine its digital position based on these elements. Up to now, some research was performed in pursuit of extracting the elements of a library but it has relied solely on literature review. Comprehensive research had never been performed as in this study.
Total factor productivity growth (TFPG) is not only the technological progress. It is a boarder concept. It may be the increase in the productivity of inputs, economies of…
Total factor productivity growth (TFPG) is not only the technological progress. It is a boarder concept. It may be the increase in the productivity of inputs, economies of scale, capacity utilization, technological progress, etc. In this study, we have tried to estimate TFPG and its components for the manufacturing industries of West Bengal and overall India, for the period 1980–1981 to 2016–2017, using stochastic frontier approach. The main data source of this study is the Annual Survey of Industries (ASI), which is published by the Central Statistical Organization, Government of India. The entire period has been sub-divided into two phases; pre-World Trade Organization (WTO) regime (1980–1981 to 1995–1996) and post-WTO regime (1995–1996 to 2016–2017). This study also tries to make a comparative analysis between the TFPG of manufacturing sector of West Bengal and all India level for the time period mentioned above. For West Bengal, TFPG has decreased for the post-WTO regime and it has increased in post-WTO regime for overall.
This study attempts to analyze energy intensity, capacity utilization (CU), output and productivity growth of aggregate manufacturing sector in India during the period…
This study attempts to analyze energy intensity, capacity utilization (CU), output and productivity growth of aggregate manufacturing sector in India during the period 1980–1981 to 2016–2017. A decadal analysis as well as a comparison between pre- and post-liberalization period of productivity growth is also made. Total factor productivity growth (TFPG) is also adjusted with CU to obtain adjusted TFPG. The trend in energy intensity is also analyzed to answer the question of sustainability. Results shows that TFPG declined in the post-reform period, highlighting the fact that liberalization process has its adverse impact on productivity growth. From the study it is observed that a declining trend in adjusted TFPG in the post-reform period, but the rate of decline is higher. Energy intensity and CU of the Indian manufacturing industries is found to be increasing over the study period. Increasing energy intensity, quite significantly, would increase the level of pollution generated by the manufacturing industries. So, interestingly enough, this may lead to conclude that the growth of the manufacturing industries is not in line with the basic essence of sustainable development.
This chapter analyses the efficiency of African airlines using a two-stage network DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) model. Network DEA models usually take into account the…
This chapter analyses the efficiency of African airlines using a two-stage network DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) model. Network DEA models usually take into account the production process with intermediate inputs derived from the first stage and a second stage that departs from it. This fundamental feature enables one to view the airline production process as a carry-over activity. The analysis covers the 2010–2013 period. The relative efficiency ranks are presented and policy implications are derived.
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) members want to efficiently promote the flow of commodities and personnel within its service areas under given limited…
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) members want to efficiently promote the flow of commodities and personnel within its service areas under given limited resources. Based on panel data from 2007 to 2014, this study applies the output-oriented data envelopment analysis method and focuses on the disaggregated output efficiencies of 42 ASEAN airports. Results show that the international airports of ASEAN members have significantly better output efficiency for passenger and movement output than regional airports. This work provides a relatively fair perspective in evaluating ASEAN’s airport operating efficiency. It helps policymakers measure the frontier forward or backward shift of an airport over the research period, in order to reveal the characteristics of airport efficiency and to present a new interpretation along with managerial implications.
The chapter examines the sources of total factor productivity growth (TFPG) of the 2-digit manufacturing industries as well as total manufacturing industry of Gujarat…
The chapter examines the sources of total factor productivity growth (TFPG) of the 2-digit manufacturing industries as well as total manufacturing industry of Gujarat during the period from 1981–82 to 2010–11, using a stochastic frontier approach. The empirical finding clearly states that although factor accumulations as well as resource allocations in most of the 2-digit manufacturing industries of the state have been improved during the postreform period, technological progress (TP) and technical efficiency change (TEC) of the same have deteriorated in most industries of the state during that period. As a result TFPG in the major manufacturing industries as well as total manufacturing industry of the state have declined because the combined effect of their improvement in scale effect (SC) and allocation efficiency effect (AEC) could not offset the declining effect of both the TP and TEC of the same during that period. In this context, the government should take some policy initiatives to improve productive efficiency of the organized manufacturing industries in Gujarat. Once efficiency increases, it enhances competitiveness, thereby increasing productivity growth and its different sources of organized manufacturing industries of the state.
In the present knowledge economy, intellectual capital (IC) is regarded as one of the significant determinants of efficiency, profitability, and ultimately value of a…
In the present knowledge economy, intellectual capital (IC) is regarded as one of the significant determinants of efficiency, profitability, and ultimately value of a firm. This chapter empirically investigates the ramifications of the IC on the level of efficiency of the firm. In addition, exploration of the changing dynamics in the relationship between IC and firm level efficiency in the face of global economic crisis is of special interest of this chapter. In attaining the objectives of the study, a comprehensive database of 299 manufacturing firms (chosen randomly from a stratification of six BSE manufacturing industry subsectors) were utilized during the period from 1999–2000 to 2013–2014. Firm level efficiency scores and implications of IC (as measured by employing Pulic's Value Added Intellectual Capital Model) on the level of efficiency of the firms were examined simultaneously using Stochastic Frontier Analysis. Empirical results revealed that IC significantly determines the efficiency of the manufacturing firms during the period of study. However, the impact of financial crisis was not robust in changing the synergy between efficiency and IC. Size, age, and leverage were also found to be significant determinants of efficiency during the period of study.
World economies including India have been moving toward recession. To combat this recession more employment generation through investment is required in a highly populated…
World economies including India have been moving toward recession. To combat this recession more employment generation through investment is required in a highly populated economy like India. Since unorganized manufacturing enterprises (UMEs) provide employment to a huge mass in India, therefore its growth and productivity is a matter of concern in the Indian economy. The present study analyzes the growth and productivity of UMEs on the basis of the latest two rounds of NSSO unit level data incorporating all states and union territories (UTs) of India. It reveals that the growth of UMEs, employment, gross value added (GVA) and fixed assets widely varied across states/UTs, and these growth rates were substantially high in a number of states during 2010–11 and 2015–16. In most of the states/UTs the labor productivity of UMEs has increased significantly but not the capital productivity. Our analysis supports the theoretical relationship among growth of employment, GVA, and labor productivity. Therefore, the government has to make deliberate attempts to increase the growth of UMEs on one side and raise productivities of UMEs through skill developments on the other side to overcome the problem of unemployment in particular and expedite the growth of the Indian economy in general to combat the global economic recession.
The objective of this work is to determine the relationship between human capital and artisanal innovation. Nowadays, in Tonalá Jalisco, artisanal pieces are produced in…
The objective of this work is to determine the relationship between human capital and artisanal innovation. Nowadays, in Tonalá Jalisco, artisanal pieces are produced in an innovative way, either by using ceramic or any variant of the mud technique, but a substantial part of the business is what makes innovative business thinking possible. The Intellectus Model, created by Eduardo Bueno in 2011, is used as a reference, distinguishing intellectual capital in three types of capital. But for the purpose of this study, we have only analyzed the relationship of human capital with respect to artisanal innovation. The study was conducted in 2018 on 73 craft economic units. Using the Pearson chi-square technique and applying the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program, the qualitative relationship between innovation and human capital was analyzed. The result shows a positive relationship between human capital and innovation.