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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2022

Megan Burfoot, Nicola Naismith, Ali GhaffarianHoseini and Amirhosein Ghaffarianhoseini

Informed by acoustic design standards, the built environments are designed with single reverberation times (RTs), a trade-off between long and short RTs needed for…

Abstract

Purpose

Informed by acoustic design standards, the built environments are designed with single reverberation times (RTs), a trade-off between long and short RTs needed for different space functions. The novel intelligent passive room acoustic technology (IPRAT) has the potential to revolutionise room acoustics, thus, it is imperative to analyse and quantify its effect. IPRAT achieves real-time room acoustic improvement by integrating passive variable acoustic technology (PVAT) and acoustic scene classification (ASC). This paper aims to compare IPRAT simulation results with the AS/NZS 2107:2016 Australian/New Zealand recommended design acoustic standards.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper 20 classroom environments are virtually configured for the simulation, multiplying 5 classrooms with 4 aural situations typical to New Zealand classrooms. The acoustic parameters RT, sound clarity (C50) and sound strength (G) are considered and analysed in the simulation. These parameters can be used to determine the effects of improved acoustics for both teacher vocal relief and student comprehension. The IPRAT was assumed to vary RT and was represented in the simulation by six different absorption coefficient spectrums.

Findings

The optimised acoustic parameters were derived from relationships between C50, RT and G. These relationships and optimal RTs contribute a unique database to literature. IPRAT’s advantages were discerned from a comparison of “current,” “attainable” and “optimised” acoustic parameters.

Originality/value

By quantifying the effect of IPRAT, it is understood that IPRAT has the potential to satisfy the key recommendations of professional industry standards (for New Zealand namely; AS/NZS 2107:2016 recommended design acoustic standards).

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 March 2020

Eva Lubloy

The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of concrete strength on the fire resistance of structures. At first, it may seem contradictory that higher concrete…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of concrete strength on the fire resistance of structures. At first, it may seem contradictory that higher concrete strengths can decrease the fire resistance of building structures. However, if the strength of the concrete exceeds a maximum value, the risk of spalling (the detachment of the concrete surface) significantly.

Design/methodology/approach

Prefabricated structural elements are often produced with higher strength. The higher concrete strengths generally do not cause a reduction in the load bearing capacity, but it can have serious consequences in case of structural fire design. Results of two prefabricated elements, namely, one slab (TT shaped panel) and one single layer wall panel, were examined. Results of the specimen with the originally designed composition and a specimen with modified concrete composition were examined, were polymer fibres were added to prevent spalling.

Findings

As a result of the experiments, more strict regulations in the standards the author is suggested including more strict regulations in the standards. It has been proved that to ensure the fire safety of the reinforced concrete structures, it is required after polymer fibres even in lower concrete strength class than prescribed by the standard. In addition, during the classification and evaluation of structures, it is advisable to introduce an upper limit of allowed concrete strength for fire safety reasons.

Originality/value

As a result of the experiments, the author suggests including more strict regulations in the standards. It has been proved that to ensure the fire safety of the reinforced concrete structures, it is necessary to require the addition of polymer fibres even in lower concrete strength class than prescribed by the standard. In addition, during the classification and evaluation of structures, it is advisable to introduce an upper limit of allowed concrete strength for fire safety reasons.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1994

Digital Signal Processing requires continuous, rapid response to an incoming data stream. Software applications that run on a DSP must execute in real‐time to satisfy that…

Abstract

Digital Signal Processing requires continuous, rapid response to an incoming data stream. Software applications that run on a DSP must execute in real‐time to satisfy that requirement. In addition, the cost must be very compact to meet stringent hardware space requirements.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 66 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Article
Publication date: 24 April 2020

Jiawei Wang and Quansheng sun

In order not to affect the highway and railway traffic under the bridge during the construction process, bridges adopting swivel construction method are increasingly used…

Abstract

Purpose

In order not to affect the highway and railway traffic under the bridge during the construction process, bridges adopting swivel construction method are increasingly used at areas where the traffic is heavy. Previous studies are mostly conducted by assuming that the bridge is under its own stability conditions, without considering the impact of construction error, changes of external condition and wind-induced vibration on the stability of the bridge, which poses serious challenges to the bridge construction process. This paper aims to analyze the extent to which static load and fluctuating wind effect influence structural stability and to test the credibility of the structure.

Design/methodology/approach

A finite element calculation method is used to analyze a T-shaped rigid frame swivel bridge. A full bridge model was built, and a local model of the turntable structure established; the two are then combined means of node coupling. Subsequently, the three sensitivity indexes – deflection rate, stress change rate and the change rate of spherical hinges – are used to evaluate in what way the bridge stability is influenced under various factors.

Findings

It is found that the stability of the swivel bridge is quite sensitive to unilateral overweight, steel beam tension and wind-induced vibration effects but less sensitive to the change of bulk density. Also found is that the change of elastic modulus exerts some effects on deflection but has negligible effects on other stability indexes. Furthermore, the transverse unbalanced torque on the bridge generated by wind-induced vibration is an important factor in determining the size of the turntable, indicating that it is not just controlled by the weight of the bridge.

Originality/value

All factors affecting the stability of swivel construction are analyzed, and solutions to reduce the influence are proposed. The influence of wind-induced vibration effects on swivel construction is analyzed for the first time. It is pointed out that wind-induced vibration effects have great influence on the structure, and its influence could not be neglected.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 September 1999

18

Abstract

Details

Work Study, vol. 48 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

Article
Publication date: 9 November 2010

A.E. Richardson, K. Coventry and S. Landless

Establishing toughness performance in concrete using steel fibres is well understood, and design guides are available to assist with this process. What is less readily…

Abstract

Purpose

Establishing toughness performance in concrete using steel fibres is well understood, and design guides are available to assist with this process. What is less readily understood is the use of Type 2 synthetic fibres to provide toughness. This problem is exacerbated by the wide range of synthetic fibres available, with each different fibre providing different structural properties. This paper seeks to address this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines the relative pull‐out values of two single fibre types, i.e. steel and Type 2 synthetic fibres. The pull‐out test results have informed the doses of fibre additions to beams which have been used to equate near equal toughness performance for each fibre type.

Findings

The results show that synthetic Type 2 fibres, when used at a prescribed additional volume, can provide toughness equal to steel fibre concrete.

Originality/value

The scientific study of fibre pull‐out behaviour is well understood and described herein under additional reading. Practical testing to show contractors and clients how to balance the dose of fibres in concrete, so that synthetic fibres could be used as a steel fibre replacement, is not well researched. This paper bridges the information gap.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 October 2018

Yuan Zhao, Zhennan Han, Yali Ma and Qianqian Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to establish a new dynamic coupled discrete-element contact model used for investigating fresh concrete with different grades and different…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to establish a new dynamic coupled discrete-element contact model used for investigating fresh concrete with different grades and different motion states, and demonstrate its correctness and reliability according to the rheological property results of flow fresh concrete in different working states through simulating the slump process and mixing process.

Design/methodology/approach

To accurately express the motion and force of flowing fresh concrete in different working states from numerical analysis, a dynamic coupled discrete-element contact model is proposed for fresh concrete of varying strength. The fluid-like fresh concrete is modelled as a two-phase fluid consisting of mortar and aggregate. Depending on the contact forms of the aggregate and mortar, the model is of one of the five types, namely, Hertz–Mindlin, pendular LB contact, funicular mucous contact, capillary LB contact or slurry lift/drag contact.

Findings

To verify the accuracy of this contact model, concrete slump and cross-vane rheometer tests are simulated using the traditional LB model and dynamic coupled contact model, for five concrete strengths. Finally, by comparing the simulation results from the two different contact models with experimental data, it is found that those from the proposed contact model are closer to the experimental data.

Practical implications

This contact model could be used to address issues such as (a) the mixing, transportation and pumping of fresh concrete, (b) deeper research and discussion on the influence of fresh concrete on the dynamic performance of agitated-transport vehicles, (c) the behaviour of fresh concrete in mixing tanks and (d) the abrasion of concrete pumping pipes.

Originality/value

To accurately express the motion and force of flowing fresh concrete in different working states from numerical analysis, a dynamic coupled discrete-element contact model is proposed for fresh concrete of varying strength.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 35 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 26 February 2021

Thu Thi Hoai Tran and Louis De Koker

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the Vietnamese laws and practices concerning the confiscation of proceeds of crime, especially in view of Vietnam’s obligations to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the Vietnamese laws and practices concerning the confiscation of proceeds of crime, especially in view of Vietnam’s obligations to meet the international standards on money laundering and terrorist financing, set by the Financial Action Task Force and relevant international conventions that Vietnam ratified. To limit the scope of this paper, the analysis focuses on the confiscation of proceeds of domestic crimes that do not require international legal assistance. This paper concludes with recommendations for improving the legal framework on criminal asset recovery in Vietnam.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a doctrinal study that considers the applicable legal framework. This study is supported by brief case studies of major cases involving the confiscation of proceeds of crime.

Findings

Vietnam has a functioning asset confiscation regime but gaps in the law, lack of financial investigation expertise and lack of focused investigative attention on asset preservation and confiscation are hampering its effectiveness. The key gaps can easily be closed with appropriate amendments to the law. These reforms should be combined with a dedicated skills development program to produce sufficient number of financial investigation experts and criminal asset management experts to support the regime. The training should extend to judicial officers to ensure an appropriate understanding of the asset confiscation law. Reforms such as these should follow on a comprehensive review of Vietnam’s law and practices relating to the confiscation and forfeiture of criminal assets. This review should extend to assets linked to the financing of terrorism and proliferation to ensure that Vietnam has a comprehensive regime to deal with criminal assets.

Research limitations/implications

This paper draws on publicly available information regarding the confiscation of proceeds of crime in Vietnam. Little data is available on asset confiscation and that prevents an in-depth assessment of the regime.

Originality/value

This paper highlights gaps in the current asset confiscation regime and proposes reforms and approaches that will ensure a more effective asset confiscation regime for Vietnam.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Sheraz Ahmed

Earlier studies have found that the country characteristics play important role in measuring the corporate transparency. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether…

Abstract

Purpose

Earlier studies have found that the country characteristics play important role in measuring the corporate transparency. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the firm-level determinants play an important role in corporate transparency measured as the quality of disclosed earnings across transitional Europe and what role an overall transparency measured by the Corruption Perception Index plays in it. This paper further tests if the market reacts similarly to discretionary and non-discretionary components of earnings across different groups of countries with respect to transparency.

Design/methodology/approach

The financial and ownership data of listed companies in ten European countries is obtained from Amadeus. The transparency ratings are obtained from Transparency International. The sample consists of a panel of 2001 listed companies and modified Jones model of Dechow et al. (1995) is used to measure the quality of earnings.

Findings

This paper shows that the firm-level determinants (except firm size) of the quality of earnings are different among different groups made on the basis of transparency ratings. However, the determinants of the quality of earnings are not different within each group. The ownership structure of companies plays important role in determining the quality of earnings in most transparent countries whereas financial factors play significant role in least transparent countries. The markets respond positively to earnings quality in most transparent group of countries.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this study provide interesting basis for future research on economic and social integration of Europe. Although the policy makers are trying to integrate the countries through common Laws and decrees but examining the firm-level factors such as size, growth and ownership are still important. The regulators should address the issue of corporate transparency in Europe by looking at the importance of these factors with respect to overall transparency.

Originality/value

This study extends the knowledge, not only for academicians and investors but for policy makers as well. This study re-emphasizes the role of country-level transparency and firm-level determinants of the corporate transparency within Europe.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 December 2022

Jihad Ait Soussane, Dalal Mansouri and Zahra Mansouri

This study aims to identify the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on economic growth in Morocco depending on each origin country, including Spain. This study uses…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on economic growth in Morocco depending on each origin country, including Spain. This study uses a linear model to measure the marginal impact of FDI on the growth of Morocco. This marginal effect allows to compare the different effects of FDI among countries of origin. Also, the marginal effect helps to measure the rate of substitution between FDI in an easier way than the other specifications of the model. The second step determines the substitute for Spain in case he decides to divest its FDI from Morocco to maintain the economic growth.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data of FDI from 13 countries of origin from 1995 to 2020 and two estimation methods (Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares and Autoregressive model), this study aims to measure the marginal impact of the divestment of FDI from Spain on growth. Then this study estimates how much Morocco should attract FDI from other countries when Spain divests. This study uses the differential calculus, assuming a perfect substitution between FDI from different countries. This calculus implies an indifference curve between FDI from Spain and FDI from another country where we deduct the substitution rates between FDI.

Findings

The results indicate that the FDI from Spain and France are the only ones to impact positively Moroccan economic growth. The FDI coming from Germany, Holland, China and Turkey have a negative impact, whereas those from the USA, Italy, UK, Switzerland and Gulf countries: Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and UAE have an insignificant effect. Second, using the differential calculus, the result indicates that when Spain divests 1m dirhams of its investments from Morocco, France would have to increase its own by 0.1509m dirhams so that Morocco could maintain its economic growth.

Research limitations/implications

The research focuses only on economic growth, neglecting the impact on other aggregates, such as total factor productivity, technology transfer and employment. Also, this research marginalized the sectorial analysis of FDI by the source to better understand the divergent effects.

Originality/value

This paper fills a research gap when analyzing the effect of FDI on the host economy depending on country-of-origin. In addition, it contributes to the body of literature by constructing the rate of substitution between the different sources of FDI to adapt to divestment policy.

Details

Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-4408

Keywords

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