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Article
Publication date: 23 October 2007

Haemala Thanasegaran and Bala Shanmugam

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the dangers posed by money‐laundering activities undertaken by criminals through the international trade mechanism, from the…

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2658

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the dangers posed by money‐laundering activities undertaken by criminals through the international trade mechanism, from the Malaysian perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

This is to be achieved by providing a description of the money‐laundering process in general and, more specifically, the international trade‐based money‐laundering mechanism. This is followed by an account of the development of international trade in Malaysia and related control mechanisms undertaken, so as to highlight the scope available to curb money laundering via the international trade mechanism in Malaysia.

Findings

The research showed two things: first, that the common techniques of laundering money via international trade involve over‐ and under‐invoicing of goods, multiple invoicing of goods, over‐ and under‐shipment of goods, falsely described goods and complex trade approaches; and second, the unfortunate state of affairs pertaining to the lack of data/information available on the existence and workings of such activity in the Malaysian context (which has in part hampered the aims of this paper).

Practical implications

Nevertheless, this paper has the practical implication of being something of a wake‐up call to the Malaysian policymakers (and the policymakers of developing countries), in that awareness of the impending challenges brought about by money laundering to international trade is crucial in tackling the menace.

Originality/value

This paper's call for increasing awareness and identification of international trade‐based money laundering and improving international cooperation and interaction makes it a useful read for policymakers, academics and students alike.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2012

Ted Schwitzner and Chad M. Kahl

International political economy is an emerging yet specialized field that combines political analysis with the study of markets, trade, and development. With the global…

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1055

Abstract

Purpose

International political economy is an emerging yet specialized field that combines political analysis with the study of markets, trade, and development. With the global economy having an interdependent effect on politics, environment, and society, and with several major economic events of the last 20 years, the authors perceived a need to provide a guide to the sources in this field. This paper seeks to address this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors identified resources using WorldCat and standard reference sources, such as American Library Association's Guide to Reference Books; the annual American Libraries’ “Outstanding Reference Sources” articles; American Reference Books Annual (ARBA) volumes; Booklist's Editor's Choices articles; and Choice's “Outstanding Academic Titles”. Sources were selected from 2000 to the present, concomitant with development of the global economy in the twenty‐first century.

Findings

This guide contains reference works and internet resources that include or provide access to primary source documentation and statistical studies and tables, as well as handbooks, guides, encyclopedias and dictionaries that place the field in context.

Research limitations/implications

Given the interdisciplinary nature of the field, focus was placed on sources that emphasize the core focus of international political economy. Related fields of study, including globalization, development, environmentalism and social movements, were largely excluded.

Originality/value

The authors found no other comprehensive bibliographies containing reference, primary and statistical sources that cover the field in its breadth during this time period.

Details

Collection Building, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0160-4953

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Article
Publication date: 31 October 2018

Rexford Abaidoo

This study aims to empirically examine how economic policy uncertainty emanating from three major global economic blocks (the US, the Chinese and the European Union) and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to empirically examine how economic policy uncertainty emanating from three major global economic blocks (the US, the Chinese and the European Union) and volatility in global oil prices influence international trade.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses quarterly data spanning the period between 1995 and 2014 in an autoregressive distributed lag framework.

Findings

This study finds that economic policy uncertainty conditions associated with the US and the Chinese economies tend to have significant negative or constraining impact on key components of international trade. Further analysis suggests that between the two leading economies (the US and the Chinese economies), economic policy uncertainty emanating from the US economy tend to have much more constraining impact on dynamics of international trade than the Chinese economy all things being equal.

Practical implications

This study’s findings carry significant strategic planning and policy implications for international trade dependent firms or corporations and economies. For instance, for multi-national corporations or firms whose products and services depend heavily on cross-border trade, understanding and taking into consideration prevailing economic policy dynamics emanating from the US and the Chinese economies in product and services demand forecast, and other strategic moves could be critical in minimizing potential adverse effects on projected performance or growth targets.

Originality/value

The uniqueness of this study’s approach stems from its assessment of how perception of uncertainty among economic agents about economic policies originating from three noted global economic blocks impacts international trade. In other words, instead of traditional factors or conditions surmised to influence variability in trend associated with international trade found in related studies, this study rather examines how perceptions of uncertainty about prevailing or yet to be enacted economic policy within specific global economic block impacts international trade.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

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Book part
Publication date: 1 February 2009

Leslie Johns and B. Peter Rosendorff

Many functionalist models of international cooperation rely on punishment by states to enforce cooperation. However, the empirical record suggests that such state-based…

Abstract

Many functionalist models of international cooperation rely on punishment by states to enforce cooperation. However, the empirical record suggests that such state-based accounts offer an incomplete explanation of international trade cooperation. We argue that when theoretical approaches are adjusted to incorporate aspects of domestic politics and institutions, two key insights emerge. First, political pressure from domestic industries can be key in creating demand for violations of trade agreements. Since such pressure is affected by stochastic shocks, the temptation of leaders to commit trade violations can vary over time. The presence of a dispute settlement procedure (DSP) provides flexibility that allows leaders to respond to such pressure by occasionally committing violations and then compensating their trading partners, if the DSP finds that the violation was not subject to exceptions in the trading agreement. This flexibility enhances the willingness of leaders to sign cooperative agreements in the first place. Second, domestic politics can function as an enforcement mechanism for ensuring compliance with international trade agreements and DSP rulings. Voters can condition their electoral decisions on whether their leader complies with socially beneficial trade agreements. The DSP plays an important role in this account as an information-provider. For voters to hold their leaders accountable, they need information about what choices their leader has made and whether his actions constitute compliance with an international agreement. The DSP provides transparency and reduces uncertainty about these factors.

Details

Trade Disputes and the Dispute Settlement Understanding of the WTO: An Interdisciplinary Assessment
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-206-7

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Book part
Publication date: 19 November 2016

Taranza T. Ganziro and Robert G. Vambery

Abstract

Details

The Exorbitant Burden
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-641-0

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2020

JaeBin Ahn

This chapter provides a theory model of trade finance to explain the “great trade collapse.” The model shows that, first, the riskiness of international transactions rises…

Abstract

This chapter provides a theory model of trade finance to explain the “great trade collapse.” The model shows that, first, the riskiness of international transactions rises relative to domestic transactions during economic downturns; and second, the exclusive use of a letter of credit in international transactions exacerbates a collapse in trade during a financial crisis. The basic model considers banks’ optimal screening decisions in the presence of counterparty default risks. In equilibrium, banks will maintain a higher precision screening test for domestic firms and a lower precision screening test for foreign firms, which constitutes the main mechanism of the model.

Details

Emerging Market Finance: New Challenges and Opportunities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-058-8

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Book part
Publication date: 1 October 2007

Jonathan Putnam

I begin with a dispute over a fox hunt, by which to understand the law of tangible property, then develop that metaphor for the major types of intellectual property. I…

Abstract

I begin with a dispute over a fox hunt, by which to understand the law of tangible property, then develop that metaphor for the major types of intellectual property. I start with domestic U.S. patent law for the sake of concreteness, and generalize to other jurisdictions and types of intellectual property. In the latter parts of the paper I discuss the international implications of intellectual property, including especially the effects of information spillovers. The last part of the paper describes the hazards in analogizing “trade” in intellectual property rights to trade in goods, and particularly in interpreting international patent data. These hazards motivate the search for a structural model specially adapted to the purpose of valuing international intellectual property rights and rules. The goal is to give economists a simple and integrated framework for analyzing intellectual property across time, jurisdiction and regime type, with an eye towards eventually developing other incentive systems that have the advantages of property (such as decentralized decision-making), but fewer of the disadvantages.

Details

Intellectual Property, Growth and Trade
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-539-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

Scott A. Hipsher

The purpose of this article is to address the question of what it means to be critical in relationship to international business.

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2087

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to address the question of what it means to be critical in relationship to international business.

Design/methodology/approach

Explores the underlying assumptions and objectives in the debates involving international business and trade.

Findings

The emotional aspects of the debate have resulted in obscuring the objectives and underlying assumptions of those involved in the discussions. It is proposed that the underlying assumptions are reevaluated and there is a refocusing of objectives in order to produce more productive results from being critical of international business. The debate should resume with an acceptance of well established principles supported by decades of empirical research and history by all parties and the debate should focus on the actual practices of international businesses in an attempt to make international trade work for all rather than attacking international business as an institution.

Originality/value

Explores the overlooked underlying assumptions and differing objectives of those involved in criticizing international business. Focusing on the prime objective of being critical of international business, lessening poverty around the world, rather than on the debate and one's perceived opponents, will lead to academia better fulfilling its role of being an objective observer and reporter of international business activities in the debate and lessen the risk of academia becoming a biased participant.

Details

Critical perspectives on international business, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1992

Gillian Rice

International trade shows have increased in importance for thepromotion of goods and services overseas. Relatively little is knownabout participation by firms in these…

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774

Abstract

International trade shows have increased in importance for the promotion of goods and services overseas. Relatively little is known about participation by firms in these shows. The International Marketing and Purchasing Group′s interaction model is an appropriate analytical tool for investigating trade shows in international marketing strategy. Explains why the interaction model is useful in this context and provides directions for research about international trade shows. Also suggests managerial implications for developing international trade show strategy.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2015

Jessica Williams

This paper aims to analyse whether the World Trade Organisation (WTO) covered agreements ought to be interpreted in a manner that enables an importing country to restrict…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyse whether the World Trade Organisation (WTO) covered agreements ought to be interpreted in a manner that enables an importing country to restrict or prohibit import of goods manufactured using child labour. This question is pertinent, given the WTO-covered agreements do not explicitly mention child labour, yet there is increasing international concern for the phenomenon of child labour, evidenced through international human rights law and international labour law treaties and a push by some developed countries’ WTO Members for inclusion of a “social clause” governing child labour under the covered agreements.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper examines the WTO-covered agreements, current trends in interpretation of the covered agreements by panels and the Appellate Body (AB) and scholarly debate regarding connecting trade with labour standards and human rights.

Findings

This paper argues: that although inclusion of a social clause in the covered agreements is unlikely, Article XX(a) GATT, Article XX(b) GATT and Article 2.1 TBT can in certain circumstances be interpreted as to allow such restrictions on the import of goods; that no clear academic argument logically precludes connecting trade with labour standards and human rights; and that to legitimate both the WTO and the international legal system as a whole, the covered agreements, as the basis of international trade law, ought to be interpreted in a manner consistent with international labour law and international human rights law.

Originality/value

This paper draws upon the recent AB decision in European Commission – Seal Products, examining the AB’s interpretation of the Article XX(a) GATT “public morals” exception. This paper further seeks to provide a succinct overview of the argument surrounding WTO involvement in the issue of child labour.

Details

Journal of International Trade Law and Policy, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-0024

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