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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2020

Bruna Caroline Campos, Felício Bruzzi Barros and Samuel Silva Penna

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate some numerical integration strategies used in generalized (G)/extended finite element method (XFEM) to solve linear elastic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate some numerical integration strategies used in generalized (G)/extended finite element method (XFEM) to solve linear elastic fracture mechanics problems. A range of parameters are here analyzed, evidencing how the numerical integration error and the computational efficiency are improved when particularities from these examples are properly considered.

Design/methodology/approach

Numerical integration strategies were implemented in an existing computational environment that provides a finite element method and G/XFEM tools. The main parameters of the analysis are considered and the performance using such strategies is compared with standard integration results.

Findings

Known numerical integration strategies suitable for fracture mechanics analysis are studied and implemented. Results from different crack configurations are presented and discussed, highlighting the necessity of alternative integration techniques for problems with singularities and/or discontinuities.

Originality/value

This study presents a variety of fracture mechanics examples solved by G/XFEM in which the use of standard numerical integration with Gauss quadratures results in loss of precision. It is discussed the behaviour of subdivision of elements and mapping of integration points strategies for a range of meshes and cracks geometries, also featuring distorted elements and how they affect strain energy and stress intensity factors evaluation for both strategies.

Book part
Publication date: 25 January 2022

Xiang Ying Mei

Many destinations are keen to be a part of the increasing and lucrative luxury tourism market. Before targeting luxury tourists in the marketing efforts, is it essential…

Abstract

Many destinations are keen to be a part of the increasing and lucrative luxury tourism market. Before targeting luxury tourists in the marketing efforts, is it essential to understand the meaning of ‘luxury’ and what is considered exclusive? As an emerging luxury destination, Norway certainly offers many attributes that can satisfy the needs of luxury tourists. Marketing luxury provides, nevertheless, challenges for Norway as its main attraction is nature, which is fundamentally free and accessible to anyone. Thus, it is necessary to tailor-make unique nature experiences with luxurious products, resulting in exclusivity and once-in-a-lifetime experiences beyond the masses. Luxury tourists have also been advocated as more sustainable than mass tourists as addition to the issue of carrying capacity; many are also concerned with responsible tourism. Specialist travel agents play an important role in the marketing process as they have first-hand knowledge of luxury tourists as well as acting as guardians of information communicated in marketing. In addition to mainland Norway, the Svalbard islands in the Arctic region may be considered as truly unique and exclusive destinations. While sustainable development is a major concern in Norwegian tourism in general, it is even more vital in the Arctic regions. Therefore, marketing needs to provide a balanced picture of the attractions and attributes in order to become a luxury destination that is sustainable in the long run.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Luxury Management for Hospitality and Tourism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-901-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1998

Robert Gaizauskas and Yorick Wilks

In this paper we give a synoptic view of the growth of the text processing technology of information extraction (IE) whose function is to extract information about a…

1301

Abstract

In this paper we give a synoptic view of the growth of the text processing technology of information extraction (IE) whose function is to extract information about a pre‐specified set of entities, relations or events from natural language texts and to record this information in structured representations called templates. Here we describe the nature of the IE task, review the history of the area from its origins in AI work in the 1960s and 70s till the present, discuss the techniques being used to carry out the task, describe application areas where IE systems are or are about to be at work, and conclude with a discussion of the challenges facing the area. What emerges is a picture of an exciting new text processing technology with a host of new applications, both on its own and in conjunction with other technologies, such as information retrieval, machine translation and data mining.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 54 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 September 2021

Sérgio Vogt, Yara Lucia Mazziotti Bulgacov and Sara R.S.T.A. Elias

Using the concept of knowing-in-practice (KinP), and drawing from current understandings of aesthetic and sensible knowledge within organization studies, this study…

Abstract

Purpose

Using the concept of knowing-in-practice (KinP), and drawing from current understandings of aesthetic and sensible knowledge within organization studies, this study explores how the entrepreneurial learning (EL) process unfolds over time, throughout the lives of startup founders, well before entrepreneurial action takes place.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a life histories approach, 25 interviews were conducted with the founders of 18 startups. Additional 14 semi-structured interviews were conducted with other startups' founders, focusing on thematic stories. Data were analyzed using abduction and narrative analysis.

Findings

Although each entrepreneur's history is unique, the authors show that entrepreneurs' lives are generally a texture of practices, resulting in aesthetic–sensible knowledge that is developed as entrepreneurs participate in various social practices. This includes KinP episodes where perceptive-sensorial faculties are fundamental for entrepreneurs to perceive the world, recognize/create opportunities and launch a business.

Research limitations/implications

The historical approach did not allow the authors to witness firsthand the practices and KinP episodes that participants verbalized. Regardless, the results show that aesthetic and sensible knowledge provide a fruitful lens for investigating EL while highlighting the indissoluble relationship between practice and learning.

Originality/value

Although the senses have been recognized as fundamental for learning in organizations, entrepreneurship scholars have yet to explore the aesthetic and sensory processes involved in EL. The primary contribution of this paper is to develop a new understanding of the situated nature of EL as a process that starts well before entrepreneurial action occurs, stemming from entrepreneurs' experiencing of certain practices and the aesthetic and sensible knowledge they build over their life trajectory.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Abstract

Purpose

This study looks at board governance in Ontario hospitals.

Methodology/approach

We conducted a research of the hospitals’ websites and a survey of board directors to study the board structure and examine governance practice in Ontario hospitals.

Findings

The findings suggest that the board structure and process in Ontario hospitals are in compliance with Accreditation Canada’s Governance Standards, and such administrative controls are appropriate. Ontario hospital boards, in general, have fulfilled their key functions of governance in terms of working as an effective board; developing a clear direction; supporting the organization to achieve its mandate; maintaining positive relationships with external stakeholders; and being accountable and achieving sustainable results. Building knowledge through information is an area where improvement is needed.

Research implications

Ontario hospitals have implemented appropriate administrative controls in terms of board composition and committee structure. The results of a survey of 99 board directors from over 25 hospitals suggest that directors, in general, have a good understanding of their governance role and relationship with senior management as well as the government. The findings are also supportive of good governance practice where executives manage and nonexecutive directors monitor the performance of the executives. According to the respondents, Ontario’s hospital boards are actively involved in setting the mission, strategic goals and objectives of their organizations, and they take appropriate steps to ensure that risk management, client safety, and quality improvements are incorporated in their governance and strategic planning process. In order to discharge their fiduciary duty effectively, respondents would like to have more information from different sources. This is an area where management accounting professionals can become involved such that relevant information from a variety of sources, especially external sources, are provided to board directors for decision making.

Practical implications

Ontario’s hospital sector has undertaken initiatives through research and publications to promote good governance practice. Such leadership is critical to ensure that directors have the competence and skills to discharge their duties and responsibilities diligently. Hospital boards should focus on renewal while ensuring that board directors are equipped for the challenging task of governing through professional development and continuing education.

Limitations and future research

Limitations related to the use of questionnaire applies to this research study. Self-selection bias and low response rate limit the generalizability of the findings. Future research can examine the behavior of directors in the boardroom and the impact of governance variables on hospital performance, such as quality of care and patient safety.

Details

Advances in Management Accounting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-842-6

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 5 December 2019

Timo Gossler, Ioanna Falagara Sigala, Tina Wakolbinger and Renate Buber

The purpose of this paper is to determine best practices of aid agencies for outsourcing logistics to commercial logistics service providers (LSPs) in disaster relief…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine best practices of aid agencies for outsourcing logistics to commercial logistics service providers (LSPs) in disaster relief. Moreover, it evaluates the application of the Delphi method for research in humanitarian logistics.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on a two-round Delphi study with 31 experts from aid agencies and a complementary full-day focus group with 12 experts from aid agencies and LSPs.

Findings

The study revealed 12 best practices for outsourcing logistics in disaster relief and a compilation of more than 100 activities for putting these practices into action. Experts consider a proper balance between efficiency and compliance, a detailed contract and a detailed service request most important. Additionally, the Delphi method was found to be a promising technique for research on humanitarian logistics.

Research limitations/implications

By critically examining the Delphi method, this study establishes the basis for a wider application of the technique in the field of humanitarian logistics. Furthermore, it can help to prioritize future research as the ranking of practices reflects the priorities of practitioners.

Practical implications

The paper provides guidance to practitioners at aid agencies in charge of outsourcing logistics.

Originality/value

This research is one of the first in the field of humanitarian logistics to apply the Delphi method. Moreover, it addresses the lack of literature dealing with approaches for building successful cross-sectoral partnerships.

Details

Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 December 2022

Madhabendra Sinha, Darius Tirtosuharto, Anjan Ray Chaudhury and Partha Basu

The paper aims to empirically examine the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows and digitalization on employment opportunities in selected 70 developing…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to empirically examine the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows and digitalization on employment opportunities in selected 70 developing economies across the world over the period of 2001–2019. The same empirical investigations are also carried out on two groups of these developing countries created on the basis of the levels of FDI inflows and digitalization.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses various panel unit root tests followed by the estimations of the generalized method of moments in the dynamic panel framework, using secondary data collected from the World Bank (2020), International Labour Organization (2020) and International Telecommunication Union (2020).

Findings

Empirical findings reveal that both FDI inflows and digitalization have positive effects on employment; however, the extent of the impact of digitalization is greater than that of FDI inflows in developing economies, mostly in countries with relatively low FDI inflows and low digitalization.

Originality/value

Conventionally, FDI inflows accelerate economic growth and thus improve the labour market in host countries. However, FDI inflows into developing countries with low-skilled labours may limit job creation, particularly during the process of digitalization. This study shows that despite a much moderate impact of FDI inflows, digital transformation supports a higher employment in developing economies with low level of FDI inflows and digitalization.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 18 November 2022

Malika Neifar

In this paper, the author assesses if the effect of structural policies, macroeconomic indicators and demographic factors on employment elasticities over the period…

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, the author assesses if the effect of structural policies, macroeconomic indicators and demographic factors on employment elasticities over the period 2000–2017 can distinguish the former French colonies from the Anglophone ones.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a panel of 44 countries taken from Africa and Middle East Area, elasticities are estimated in the first stage by rolling regression. Then, both static and dynamic panel models are investigated.

Findings

Results suggest big difference between the former French colonies and Anglophone ones. For the French colonies, product and labor market flexibility are found to have significant and positive impact on elasticities, while for Anglophone ones, only foreign direct investment and government size are found to have significant and positive impact. Besides, all reforms and/or economic measures need to be complemented by macroeconomic policies aimed to increase economic stability.

Originality/value

The results presented in this study highlight some of the factors that appear to drive the relationship between employment and some structural policies, macroeconomic indicators and demographic factors for two groups of former colonies. The paper provides policy conclusions based on these results for the two groups. This analysis may indeed help to inform future policy discussions, yet much additional work is needed to identify macroeconomic “best practices” for encouraging employment in the post-2019 covid crisis period.

Article
Publication date: 22 September 2022

Aleksandar Vasilev

This paper aims to explore the effects of fiscal policy in an economy with efficiency wages, consumption taxes and a common income tax rate.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the effects of fiscal policy in an economy with efficiency wages, consumption taxes and a common income tax rate.

Design/methodology/approach

A dynamic general-equilibrium model with the government sector is calibrated to Bulgarian data (1999–2018). Two regimes are compared and contrasted – the exogenous (observed) vs optimal policy (Ramsey) case.

Findings

The main findings are as follows: (1) The optimal steady-state income tax rate is zero. (2) The benevolent Ramsey planner provides three times lower amount of the utility-enhancing public services. (3) The optimal steady-state consumption tax needed to finance the optimal level of government spending is 18.7%.

Originality/value

The focus of the paper is on the relative importance of consumption vs income taxation, as well as on the provision of utility-enhancing public services. Bulgarian economy was chosen as a case study due to its major dependence on consumption taxation as a source of tax revenue.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/IJSE-08-2021-0488.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 25 May 2021

Anne Marie Thake

Purpose: The main objective of this study is to provide an overview of the extent of labor and skills shortages that exist in the information and communication technology…

Abstract

Purpose: The main objective of this study is to provide an overview of the extent of labor and skills shortages that exist in the information and communication technology (ICT) sector in Malta and gain insights into the dependency on foreign labor. Methodology: This study draws upon primary data generated from two research instruments, namely in-depth interviews and an online questionnaire. Various in-depth interviews were conducted with key institutional actors. In addition to the interviews, six locally based companies were requested to complete an online questionnaire. Secondary data from ICT surveys, official documents were consulted. Findings: Findings emerged from this study relate to each of the four seminal thematics, namely, demand and supply, rationale for employing foreign labor, wages, and challenges of foreign labor employment. Practical Implications: This study examined the current contribution of foreign labor in the ICT sector. Unsustainable growth in the ICT sector creates a demand for skilled labor which is currently not locally available. Significance: ICT is one of the most rapidly developing economic sectors in Malta. Labor shortages can slow down economic growth, if not addressed. The annual number of ICT graduates is insufficient. For this sector to continue to thrive and further consolidate itself within the Maltese economy, there will be a continued dependency on the importation of highly skilled foreign labor.

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