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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2020

Bruna Caroline Campos, Felício Bruzzi Barros and Samuel Silva Penna

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate some numerical integration strategies used in generalized (G)/extended finite element method (XFEM) to solve linear elastic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate some numerical integration strategies used in generalized (G)/extended finite element method (XFEM) to solve linear elastic fracture mechanics problems. A range of parameters are here analyzed, evidencing how the numerical integration error and the computational efficiency are improved when particularities from these examples are properly considered.

Design/methodology/approach

Numerical integration strategies were implemented in an existing computational environment that provides a finite element method and G/XFEM tools. The main parameters of the analysis are considered and the performance using such strategies is compared with standard integration results.

Findings

Known numerical integration strategies suitable for fracture mechanics analysis are studied and implemented. Results from different crack configurations are presented and discussed, highlighting the necessity of alternative integration techniques for problems with singularities and/or discontinuities.

Originality/value

This study presents a variety of fracture mechanics examples solved by G/XFEM in which the use of standard numerical integration with Gauss quadratures results in loss of precision. It is discussed the behaviour of subdivision of elements and mapping of integration points strategies for a range of meshes and cracks geometries, also featuring distorted elements and how they affect strain energy and stress intensity factors evaluation for both strategies.

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Book part
Publication date: 25 January 2022

Xiang Ying Mei

Many destinations are keen to be a part of the increasing and lucrative luxury tourism market. Before targeting luxury tourists in the marketing efforts, is it essential…

Abstract

Many destinations are keen to be a part of the increasing and lucrative luxury tourism market. Before targeting luxury tourists in the marketing efforts, is it essential to understand the meaning of ‘luxury’ and what is considered exclusive? As an emerging luxury destination, Norway certainly offers many attributes that can satisfy the needs of luxury tourists. Marketing luxury provides, nevertheless, challenges for Norway as its main attraction is nature, which is fundamentally free and accessible to anyone. Thus, it is necessary to tailor-make unique nature experiences with luxurious products, resulting in exclusivity and once-in-a-lifetime experiences beyond the masses. Luxury tourists have also been advocated as more sustainable than mass tourists as addition to the issue of carrying capacity; many are also concerned with responsible tourism. Specialist travel agents play an important role in the marketing process as they have first-hand knowledge of luxury tourists as well as acting as guardians of information communicated in marketing. In addition to mainland Norway, the Svalbard islands in the Arctic region may be considered as truly unique and exclusive destinations. While sustainable development is a major concern in Norwegian tourism in general, it is even more vital in the Arctic regions. Therefore, marketing needs to provide a balanced picture of the attractions and attributes in order to become a luxury destination that is sustainable in the long run.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Luxury Management for Hospitality and Tourism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-901-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1998

Robert Gaizauskas and Yorick Wilks

In this paper we give a synoptic view of the growth of the text processing technology of information extraction (IE) whose function is to extract information about a…

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Abstract

In this paper we give a synoptic view of the growth of the text processing technology of information extraction (IE) whose function is to extract information about a pre‐specified set of entities, relations or events from natural language texts and to record this information in structured representations called templates. Here we describe the nature of the IE task, review the history of the area from its origins in AI work in the 1960s and 70s till the present, discuss the techniques being used to carry out the task, describe application areas where IE systems are or are about to be at work, and conclude with a discussion of the challenges facing the area. What emerges is a picture of an exciting new text processing technology with a host of new applications, both on its own and in conjunction with other technologies, such as information retrieval, machine translation and data mining.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 54 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 9 September 2021

Sérgio Vogt, Yara Lucia Mazziotti Bulgacov and Sara R.S.T.A. Elias

Using the concept of knowing-in-practice (KinP), and drawing from current understandings of aesthetic and sensible knowledge within organization studies, this study…

Abstract

Purpose

Using the concept of knowing-in-practice (KinP), and drawing from current understandings of aesthetic and sensible knowledge within organization studies, this study explores how the entrepreneurial learning (EL) process unfolds over time, throughout the lives of startup founders, well before entrepreneurial action takes place.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a life histories approach, 25 interviews were conducted with the founders of 18 startups. Additional 14 semi-structured interviews were conducted with other startups' founders, focusing on thematic stories. Data were analyzed using abduction and narrative analysis.

Findings

Although each entrepreneur's history is unique, the authors show that entrepreneurs' lives are generally a texture of practices, resulting in aesthetic–sensible knowledge that is developed as entrepreneurs participate in various social practices. This includes KinP episodes where perceptive-sensorial faculties are fundamental for entrepreneurs to perceive the world, recognize/create opportunities and launch a business.

Research limitations/implications

The historical approach did not allow the authors to witness firsthand the practices and KinP episodes that participants verbalized. Regardless, the results show that aesthetic and sensible knowledge provide a fruitful lens for investigating EL while highlighting the indissoluble relationship between practice and learning.

Originality/value

Although the senses have been recognized as fundamental for learning in organizations, entrepreneurship scholars have yet to explore the aesthetic and sensory processes involved in EL. The primary contribution of this paper is to develop a new understanding of the situated nature of EL as a process that starts well before entrepreneurial action occurs, stemming from entrepreneurs' experiencing of certain practices and the aesthetic and sensible knowledge they build over their life trajectory.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Book part
Publication date: 26 June 2013

Yee-Ching Lilian Chan

This study looks at board governance in Ontario hospitals.

Abstract

Purpose

This study looks at board governance in Ontario hospitals.

Methodology/approach

We conducted a research of the hospitals’ websites and a survey of board directors to study the board structure and examine governance practice in Ontario hospitals.

Findings

The findings suggest that the board structure and process in Ontario hospitals are in compliance with Accreditation Canada’s Governance Standards, and such administrative controls are appropriate. Ontario hospital boards, in general, have fulfilled their key functions of governance in terms of working as an effective board; developing a clear direction; supporting the organization to achieve its mandate; maintaining positive relationships with external stakeholders; and being accountable and achieving sustainable results. Building knowledge through information is an area where improvement is needed.

Research implications

Ontario hospitals have implemented appropriate administrative controls in terms of board composition and committee structure. The results of a survey of 99 board directors from over 25 hospitals suggest that directors, in general, have a good understanding of their governance role and relationship with senior management as well as the government. The findings are also supportive of good governance practice where executives manage and nonexecutive directors monitor the performance of the executives. According to the respondents, Ontario’s hospital boards are actively involved in setting the mission, strategic goals and objectives of their organizations, and they take appropriate steps to ensure that risk management, client safety, and quality improvements are incorporated in their governance and strategic planning process. In order to discharge their fiduciary duty effectively, respondents would like to have more information from different sources. This is an area where management accounting professionals can become involved such that relevant information from a variety of sources, especially external sources, are provided to board directors for decision making.

Practical implications

Ontario’s hospital sector has undertaken initiatives through research and publications to promote good governance practice. Such leadership is critical to ensure that directors have the competence and skills to discharge their duties and responsibilities diligently. Hospital boards should focus on renewal while ensuring that board directors are equipped for the challenging task of governing through professional development and continuing education.

Limitations and future research

Limitations related to the use of questionnaire applies to this research study. Self-selection bias and low response rate limit the generalizability of the findings. Future research can examine the behavior of directors in the boardroom and the impact of governance variables on hospital performance, such as quality of care and patient safety.

Details

Advances in Management Accounting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-842-6

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 5 December 2019

Timo Gossler, Ioanna Falagara Sigala, Tina Wakolbinger and Renate Buber

The purpose of this paper is to determine best practices of aid agencies for outsourcing logistics to commercial logistics service providers (LSPs) in disaster relief…

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4459

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine best practices of aid agencies for outsourcing logistics to commercial logistics service providers (LSPs) in disaster relief. Moreover, it evaluates the application of the Delphi method for research in humanitarian logistics.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on a two-round Delphi study with 31 experts from aid agencies and a complementary full-day focus group with 12 experts from aid agencies and LSPs.

Findings

The study revealed 12 best practices for outsourcing logistics in disaster relief and a compilation of more than 100 activities for putting these practices into action. Experts consider a proper balance between efficiency and compliance, a detailed contract and a detailed service request most important. Additionally, the Delphi method was found to be a promising technique for research on humanitarian logistics.

Research limitations/implications

By critically examining the Delphi method, this study establishes the basis for a wider application of the technique in the field of humanitarian logistics. Furthermore, it can help to prioritize future research as the ranking of practices reflects the priorities of practitioners.

Practical implications

The paper provides guidance to practitioners at aid agencies in charge of outsourcing logistics.

Originality/value

This research is one of the first in the field of humanitarian logistics to apply the Delphi method. Moreover, it addresses the lack of literature dealing with approaches for building successful cross-sectoral partnerships.

Details

Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6747

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Article
Publication date: 19 January 2022

Danling Jiang, Liu Shuying, Feiyu Li and Hongquan Zhu

This paper intends to study how geographic heterogeneity in urban vibrancy, especially in human capital creation, helps explain persist firm valuation dispersion across…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper intends to study how geographic heterogeneity in urban vibrancy, especially in human capital creation, helps explain persist firm valuation dispersion across cities in China.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper studies geographic differences in firm valuations of 1,023 listed companies headquartered in 35 major cities in China from 2001 to 2018. The authors estimate panel regressions of local firm Tobin's q on city fixed effects or city endowed attributes in human capital creation after controlling industry-year fixed effects as well as a set of firm and city time variant attributes.

Findings

The results show persistent, significant city-to-city differences in Tobin's q, especially among large, mature or high labor-intensive firms. To explain such geographic differences in firm valuations, the authors identify several factors of the endowed city competitive advantages in creating human capital that play important roles in explaining the persistent geographic firm valuation premia.

Originality/value

This paper provides the first systematic analysis of urban vibrancy in human capital supply in explaining persistent geographic firm valuation dispersion in China. The evidence suggests that city endowed comparative advantages in supplying human capital have created long-lasting, and growing, shareholder wealth by attracting and retaining talents and human resources in local firms.

Details

China Finance Review International, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1398

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Article
Publication date: 30 December 2021

Brenda Silupu, Belen Usero and Ángeles Montoro-Sánchez

The formalization of a company is a process that requires compliance with standards established by government institutions. In developing countries, many businesses start…

Abstract

Purpose

The formalization of a company is a process that requires compliance with standards established by government institutions. In developing countries, many businesses start this process, but do not finish it, with different levels of formality. The objective of this research is to analyze how the perception of entrepreneurs about bureaucratic procedures and the sector determine the level of formality regarding an established company that has taken the first step to formality.

Design/methodology/approach

The National Survey of Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) is used with a sample of 4,619 Peruvian MSEs with more than three years of operation within the manufacturing and services sector. The data are analyzed with the ordered logistic regression technique.

Findings

The results show that the more favorable the perception of entrepreneurs about the ease of bureaucratic procedures, the higher the level of business formality; and companies in the manufacturing sector are less formal than those in the services sector. In addition, the perceptions of entrepreneurs positively moderate the level of formality in the case of companies in the manufacturing sector.

Originality/value

Levels of formality in established companies are analyzed, defined by the compliance degree with the requirements to be a formal company. The literature on business informality in emerging countries is expanded, particularly in Latin America, incorporating the analysis of the formalization process.

Propósito

La formalización de una empresa es un proceso que exige el cumplimiento de normas establecidas por las instituciones de gobierno. En países en desarrollo, muchas empresas empiezan este proceso, pero no lo terminan, existiendo diferentes niveles de formalidad. El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar cómo la percepción de los empresarios sobre los trámites burocráticos y el sector determina el nivel de formalidad de una empresa establecida que ha dado el primer paso hacia la formalidad.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Se utiliza la Encuesta Nacional de la Micro y Pequeña Empresa con una muestra de 4.619 micro y pequeñas empresas peruanas de los sectores de manufactura y servicios con más de tres años de operación. Los datos son analizados con la técnica de regresión logística ordenada.

Hallazgos

Los resultados muestran que cuanto más favorable es la percepción de los empresarios sobre la facilidad de los trámites burocráticos mayor es el nivel de formalidad empresarial, y las empresas del sector manufactura son menos formales que las del sector servicios. Además, las percepciones de los empresarios moderan positivamente en el nivel de formalidad para el caso de las empresas del sector manufactura.

Originalidad/valor

Se analizan niveles de formalidad en empresas establecidas, definidas por el grado de cumplimiento de las exigencias para ser una empresa formal. Se amplía la literatura sobre informalidad empresarial en países emergentes, particularmente en América Latina, incorporando el análisis del proceso de formalización.

Details

Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1012-8255

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 23 November 2021

Wilkista Lore Obiero and Seher Gülşah Topuz

This study aims to determine whether there is an effect of internal and public debt on income inequality in Kenya for the period 1970–2018.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to determine whether there is an effect of internal and public debt on income inequality in Kenya for the period 1970–2018.

Design/methodology/approach

The relationship is examined by using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model by Pesaran et al. (2001) and Toda Yamamoto causality by Toda and Yamamoto (1995).

Findings

Our findings suggest that both internal and public debt harm inequality in Kenya in the long term. Furthermore, a one-way causality from internal debt to income inequality is also obtained while no causality relationship is found to exist between public debt and income inequality. Based on these findings, the study recommends that to reduce income inequality levels in Kenya, other methods of financing other than debt financing should be preferred because debt financing is not pro-poor.

Originality/value

This study is unique based on the fact that no previous paper has analysed the debt and inequality relationship in Kenya. To the best of our knowledge, this will be the first study to analyse the applicability of redistribution effect of debt in Kenya. The study is also different in that it provides separate analysis for public debt and internal debt on their effects on income inequality.

Details

Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Science, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2077-1886

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Article
Publication date: 8 September 2021

Zheng-Zheng Li, Chi Wei Su and Ran Tao

This study aims to examine the unemployment hysteresis effects from the perspective of the heterogeneity of genders within Asian countries.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the unemployment hysteresis effects from the perspective of the heterogeneity of genders within Asian countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use the annual unemployment rate dataset of 12 Asian countries ranging from 1991–2020. Traditional unit root tests are initially employed to investigate the unemployment hysteresis effect. Considering the structural break and cross-section dependence problems, the sequential panel selection method (SPSM) and the Kapetanios–Snell–Shin (KSS) panel unit root test with Fourier functions have proven to be more applicable.

Findings

The empirical results indicate that the unemployment rate is stationary in most Asian regions for both females and males, which confirms the mean reversion process of the natural unemployment hypothesis. This suggests that these countries' unemployment rates are flexible to quickly revert to its long-run equilibrium determined by the labor markets. However, only the female unemployment rate in Pakistan and Nepal and adult female unemployment rates in these two economies present non-stationary series. In line with the unemployment hysteresis effect, it means shocks will leave a permanent impact on their labor market.

Practical implications

On the one hand, in most of the Asian countries, it can be inferred that the trade-off between inflation and unemployment is temporary because the natural unemployment hypothesis holds. Therefore, policymakers may consider using monetary policy as a tool to control inflation and stimulate growth during a recession. Such policy measures should not have a long-run impact on unemployment or cause a permanent shift in the natural unemployment rate. On the other hand, the government should implement active labor protective programs such as education or training schemes, job search assistance programs and maternity protection, especially for female adults, to reduce the negative shocks in the economic downturn, which is beneficial for them away from being long-term unemployed. It is also necessary to improve the labor unions to reduce the discrimination between female and male labors.

Originality/value

This paper innovatively concentrates on the heterogeneity performances between genders about the unemployment hysteresis effect within Asian countries. Furthermore, taking into account the age-specific characteristics, the youth and adult unemployment rates have been investigated. Additionally, the approximation of bootstrap distribution and the advanced panel KSS unit root test with a Fourier function are employed. Thereby, targeted policies for the government can be applied to reduce the discrimination and negative shocks on female adults in the labor market.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 42 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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