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Book part
Publication date: 10 October 2014

Roy F. Janisch

In this chapter, the author outlines the historical, legal, and jurisdiction regarding incarceration rates of Native Americans. It examines reports and data in areas where…

Abstract

Purpose

In this chapter, the author outlines the historical, legal, and jurisdiction regarding incarceration rates of Native Americans. It examines reports and data in areas where problems of racial disparity continue to endure. As the smallest minority population in the United States, it raises questions as to the disparity of Native Americans. Native Americans are unique in their relationship with the federal government, and should be critically examined to distinguish what makes their involvement in the criminal justice system inimical.

Design/methodology/approach

The author examines the law enforcement, courts, and corrections data, through various reports; concerning causes of Native American criminality, incarceration rates, health disparities, jurisdictional schemes, human rights, and race. It is argued that federal governmental laws and various bureaucracies exacerbate conditions through overreaching policies which invalidates many of the positive aspects Native People bring to themselves.

Findings

Native Americans are overrepresented in the criminal justice system. As the smallest segment of the population, they have a higher incarceration rate per capita. It is without question that chronic underfunding of law enforcement, courts, and corrections in reservation communities continues. In light of Congressional claiming to want to alleviate problems in Indian country, little impact has been realized.

Originality/value

Native American societies are often considered a silent minority. Information pertaining to the many social issues enveloping Native communities often falls on deaf ears and political party leaders who are more interested in a larger constituency fail to lend their assistance in a manner deemed appropriate to truly grasp the larger problems.

Details

Punishment and Incarceration: A Global Perspective
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-907-2

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Book part
Publication date: 9 December 2003

Karl B Shoemaker

This essay explores a radical shift in how the relationship between the power to punish and sovereignty has been conceived in modern American law; specifically focusing on…

Abstract

This essay explores a radical shift in how the relationship between the power to punish and sovereignty has been conceived in modern American law; specifically focusing on the quiet death of comity as an operative principle in the exercise of criminal jurisdiction. While this essay attends to certain legal issues arising from historical intersections of federal, state and Indian sovereignty in the field of criminal law, this essay is not an attempt to directly evaluate the history of federal policies applied to Indian tribes or tribal lands. Nor is this essay in any strict sense a legal history of federal-tribal relations, or federal penal policy in relation to Indian tribes. Rather, I am concerned here with a series of liminal moments in the American legal tradition in which the power to punish came to be understood ever more one-sidedly, as an atomizing attribute of sovereignty rather than an identifying feature of community within a pluralistic legal framework.

Details

Punishment, Politics and Culture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-072-2

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Article
Publication date: 13 January 2012

Vidyashankar Gourishankar and Prakash Sai Lokachari

In pursuit of achieving Education‐For‐All goals of universal primary education and improving quality of education, the Indian Government has been providing substantial…

Abstract

Purpose

In pursuit of achieving Education‐For‐All goals of universal primary education and improving quality of education, the Indian Government has been providing substantial resources to Indian states. The responsibility of providing access and quality remains the states' responsibility. Assessment of educational development will therefore become a focal point of the Center for Education Policy & Guidelines Formulation. While educational development indices help in ranking states, they do not help in capturing best practices and assessing the efficient utilization of resources. Assessment of the Educational Development Efficiency can augment educational development indices in vogue. The purpose of this paper is to develop an Educational Development Efficiency (EDE) model to benchmark the Indian states.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses an input‐process‐output conceptual framework to identify the dimensions of educational development. This paper employs Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to compare relative efficiency of 28 states and seven Union territories in India and benchmark them. In order to strengthen the discriminatory power of DEA, cross‐efficiency model was used. Factor analysis was performed to determine the inter‐relationships between variables. The efficiency impacting variables were identified using multiple regression analysis.

Findings

This paper benchmarked Indian states on educational development based on their performance. Gross enrolment ratio, students' academic performance and infrastructural investments were identified as the three key variables impacting states' EDE. This paper has shown that the educational administrators can use the EDE model to identify the best practices from efficient states. Insights into utilization of input resources to enhance educational development and consequent improvement of state efficiencies are presented. Four components have been identified to analyze the states' educational development progress – namely, financial adequacy, school resource strength, educational quality and educational access.

Practical implications

Contributions of this paper pertain to evolving a decision support model for national education policy planners, besides providing analytic support to the administrators of the states to benchmark and emulate the efficient educational programs.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the few published studies concerning the evaluation of educational development programs launched in the Indian schools and providing a cross‐comparison of the Indian states for the purposes of performance benchmarking as well as exploring the influencing factors.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Masud Chand

The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential regional preferences of the diaspora and explain how such preferences affect their decision when engaging in reverse…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential regional preferences of the diaspora and explain how such preferences affect their decision when engaging in reverse Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). Since diasporas often act as conduits for trade and investment, the author is interested in whether these regional preferences affect their choice of destination for FDI.

Design/methodology/approach

The author developed and pre-tested a questionnaire that was administered in pen and paper as well as online. Totally, 158 professional, managers and entrepreneurs with Indian diasporic background in the USA and Canada participated in the study. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 25 participants.

Findings

Participants indicated that they did not favor their region of origin over the entire country. However, most of the participants only invested in their region of origin.

Research limitations/implications

Interviews were based on the original survey questionnaire and did not further probe other issues. The current study should be treated as exploratory in nature and the results should be used as a springboard for future research.

Practical implications

It would seem that the region of origin was important in the decision to migrate and for reverse FDI, even though cognitively the participants did not recognize it to the same extent. This might point to a mediation effect, which should be investigated in future studies. This paper helps businesses and governments understand the extent to which sub-national regional ties explain the investment motivations of people investing back in their home countries.

Social implications

Furthermore, the importance of regional ties in the decisions to both invest and migrate point to the importance of studying sub-national cultural and institutional issues rather than treating large multicultural countries such as India as a monolithic bloc.

Originality/value

The author used network ties theories to investigate and explain the investment behavior of Indian diaspora. While other disciplines (e.g. geography, sociology and economics) might have studied similar phenomena, the author looked and expanded the knowledge from a management perspective.

Details

South Asian Journal of Global Business Research, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-4457

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Article
Publication date: 10 September 2018

Rupika Khanna and Chandan Sharma

The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of infrastructure and governance quality on the state-level productivity of Indian manufacturing for the period 2008–2011.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of infrastructure and governance quality on the state-level productivity of Indian manufacturing for the period 2008–2011.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors first rank Indian states on their quality of governance using benefit-of-the-doubt approach. Next, to explain state-level differences in total factor productivity (TFP), the authors assess the impact of a composite index of governance on industrial TFP of Indian states using alternate techniques and controlling for endogeneity. The authors also decompose the composite effect of governance in terms of economic, social and financial infrastructure and other key governance dimensions, which serves as another robustness check for the findings.

Findings

The authors find that TFP varies significantly across states, so does governance quality. Further, results suggest that TFP of Indian industries is sensitive toward public service deliveries of economic, social and financial infrastructure. However, the authors fail to find any impact of law and order indicators, for instance, rate of violent crimes, police strength and judicial service quality on the manufacturing productivity. The estimated coefficient of governance index is robust across alternate methodologies.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to assess the impact of regional governance factors on the manufacturing sector of India. The study has identified governance factors that impact manufacturing productivity in the Indian states. Findings suggest that an effective way to eliminate regional growth inequality in India is to ensure that the lagging states initiate reforms to improve the quality of institutions, regulation and governance. Findings of the study contribute to the limited literature on governance at the regional/sub-national level.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 45 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Book part
Publication date: 12 December 2012

Rajaram Tolpadi

This chapter makes an attempt to provide an outline of the contributions of the Indian democratic socialist tradition to the expansion and radicalization of the canvas of…

Abstract

This chapter makes an attempt to provide an outline of the contributions of the Indian democratic socialist tradition to the expansion and radicalization of the canvas of democratic theory and practice in India. While doing so, it also briefly discusses and highlights the historical and cultural context of the emergence of democratic imagination in India.11The democratic socialist tradition in India owes its origin during the Nationalist Movement by way of the establishment of the Congress Socialist Party (CSP). The CSP was a left-wing group, within the Indian National Congress, established to intensify the nationalist movement by turning it unequivocally, anticolonial and anti-imperialist. It also intended to radicalise the agenda of the nationalist struggle by incorporating into it aspirations of a socio-economic transformation of Indian society. After independence, the CSP severed its relation with the Congress and ramified into a number of splintered groups and parties over a period. See, John Patrick Haithcox, Nationalism and Communalism in India (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1968). In addition, the chapter also tries to grapple with certain central issues of democracy and civil society in contemporary India and shows how socialist input into Indian democracy could help in overcoming some of its predicaments. This analysis is done in three sections. The first section discusses the historical and cultural context of the emergence of democracy in India in terms of the nationalist movement and the framing of the Indian Constitution. The second section identifies the central issues that Indian democracy confronts today. Finally, the third section highlights the significance of the Indian democratic socialist discourse both in identifying the problems of Indian democracy as well as in providing amicable solutions to them.

Details

Cooperation for a Peaceful and Sustainable World Part 1
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-335-3

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2009

Teresa Joy Clay

The passage of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 has allowed Native American tribes a new form of revenue generation. This new source of revenue facilitates entry…

Abstract

The passage of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 has allowed Native American tribes a new form of revenue generation. This new source of revenue facilitates entry into the U.S. political system and furthers the attainment of self-governance and economic development goals on reservations as demonstrated through educational achievement. While several works exist regarding benefits reaped by indigenous populations in the United States as a whole, the academic literature regarding the impact of reservation gaming on educational achievement is sorely lacking for Arizona. This study evaluates the role of Indian gaming revenue as a catalyst for self-governance, by answering the question: has the passage of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 made a difference in educational achievement for Native American tribes in the State of Arizona? The outcomes of this study will prove beneficial to Public Administration as evidence of the impacts of reservation gaming and its consequent policy externalities will enhance policy makers’ ability to implement and maintain an effective policy regarding Native American education achievement.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Book part
Publication date: 16 December 2016

Chang Lu and Trish Reay

We investigated how an institutional settlement concerning Native Indian gaming (the operation of gambling establishments such as casinos or bingo halls by Native Indian

Abstract

We investigated how an institutional settlement concerning Native Indian gaming (the operation of gambling establishments such as casinos or bingo halls by Native Indian tribes) was preserved over time in spite of three significant challenges. Building on previous literature on settlements and institutional logics, we see settlements as institutional arrangements that manage power dynamics and competing institutional logics. Based on our analyses of the settlement and three challenges in the Native gaming field, we suggest that even seemingly volatile institutional settlements can be maintained when powerful actors balance each other’s ability to modify the settlement and different actors invoke alternative institutional logic(s). We also find that these processes can be facilitated by the embeddedness and formality of the settlement. We contribute to the settlement literature by showing how settlements can be maintained when actors draw on equally strong sources of power and different logics to counter the actions of other actors. Furthermore, we shed light on “how institutions matter” by demonstrating how institutional settlements can facilitate field stability.

Details

How Institutions Matter!
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-431-0

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2017

Murugesan Ramasamy, Dominic Dhanapal and Poovendhan Murugesan

When spillovers are measured at a national level, the regional benefits may not be identified if they are too small. Very few studies that examined how FDI impacts the…

Abstract

Purpose

When spillovers are measured at a national level, the regional benefits may not be identified if they are too small. Very few studies that examined how FDI impacts the regional productivity of the host nations have shown mixed results. The evidence is still scarce and little is known about how the regional penetration of FDI affects the regional productivity performance. The trajectory of regional productivity growth in India has been a subject of scrutiny and intense debates and remains less systematically investigated. The purpose of this paper is to fill this lacuna by investigating the effect of FDI spillover on regional productivity in Indian states.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data supplied by the Central Statistical Organization, National Statistical Organization, National Sample Survey Office, and National Accounts Statistics, Government of India at the Indian Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, first, the study employs stochastic frontier model to explore the extent to which FDI spillover contributes to the regional productivity from panel data of 28 Indian states over 1993-2013. Second, the study examines the roles of absorptive ability and technology gap on productivity effect of FDI. Third, by adopting SFA, we measure productivity growth of Indian states in terms of Malmquist productivity index. Fourth, India’s development is imbalanced. To analyze the imbalance due to skewed distribution of FDI among Indian states, Indian states are divided into three regions, and the spillover effects of FDI on TFP in these regions are explored.

Findings

The results on the effects of FDI spillover on regional productivity in India using stochastic frontier and panel data from 28 states over 1993-2013 show that R&D, technology import, human capital, and various specifications of FDI have a significant impact on the regional productivity in India except technology gap. Study does not find support for the resource curse hypothesis in Indian states. Productivity growth for India using the Malmquist TFP index based on the stochastic frontier shows positive impact. The TFP growth in the three regions of India is turned to be differently attributed by the FDI spillover.

Originality/value

Little is known about how the regional penetration of FDI affects the regional productivity performance. This research aims to fill this lacuna by investigating the effect of FDI spillover on regional productivity in Indian states which has been a subject of scrutiny and intense debates.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1979

Marilyn L. Haas

The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe the reference works useful for finding written information on the North American Indian (that is, Indians presently…

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe the reference works useful for finding written information on the North American Indian (that is, Indians presently and in the past living in what is now the United States and Canada).

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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