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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2021

Naouel Ben Jemaa Cherif

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of training on labor productivity and wages in order to examine how the benefits from training are shared between…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of training on labor productivity and wages in order to examine how the benefits from training are shared between employers and employees.

Design/methodology/approach

This study analyzes an industry panel covering all sectors of the Tunisian economy for the period 2000–2014. The panel structure of the data allows controlling for the endogeneity of training by using different panel data techniques.

Findings

Results show that both employers and workers benefit from training since it has a positive and significant effect on productivity and wages. However, the effect of training on productivity is substantially higher than on wages, suggesting that employers obtain the largest part of the returns to training. This result is consistent with theories that explain firm-sponsored training by a compressed wage structure in imperfect labor markets.

Originality/value

This study, particularly showcasing the labor market in Tunisia, is one of the first to provide estimates for a developing country to assess the effects of training for both employer and employee. It is also among the few empirical works that analyzed the impact of training on labor productivity and wages simultaneously.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 16 November 2016

Veronika V. Eberharter

Based on representative longitudinal data (CNEF 1980–2013) the paper analyzes gender differences of the level and the determinants of earnings dynamics in the work life of…

Abstract

Based on representative longitudinal data (CNEF 1980–2013) the paper analyzes gender differences of the level and the determinants of earnings dynamics in the work life of different cohorts of employees in Germany, Great Britain, and the United States. Notwithstanding country differences concerning the existing welfare state regime constituting the institutional settings of the labor market, the educational system, and family role models, the empirical results show decreasing earnings mobility in the work history. The earnings level, educational attainment, family size, the occupational choice, the career stage, the birth cohort, and the macroeconomic fluctuations significantly influence earnings mobility. In the United States, earnings mobility is significantly lower and gender differences are less pronounced than in Germany and Great Britain. The gender gap of earnings mobility is less expressed for younger cohorts of German employees. The increase of the gender gap of earnings dynamics in the course of the work career indicates continuing heterogeneity of labor market behavior and outcome of women and men which contribute to persistent economic and social stratification.

Details

Inequality after the 20th Century: Papers from the Sixth ECINEQ Meeting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-993-0

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Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2021

Mainak Bhattacharjee and Sanghita Ghosh

The ability to produce knowledge is the key currency in the current and future global economy. Today, technology is one of the important sources of economic growth. The…

Abstract

The ability to produce knowledge is the key currency in the current and future global economy. Today, technology is one of the important sources of economic growth. The impact of introduction of technology is observed in every field and one such field is knowledge economy. This paper explores the potential consequences of technological transition in the knowledge economy brought about by the introduction of virtual system backed by Internet and software innovations, so to speak in terms of skill augmentation, wage inequality, and so forth, to highlight the overall impact on welfare. In this framework, this paper develops a model on small open economy with three sectors (modern export sector, import competing sector, and skill-generating sector) and three factors of production namely, skilled labor (the output of S), unskilled labor, and capital. It is found that the impact of technological transition on each sector is ambiguous but the direction of welfare change is unambiguous. In this study, our objective is to find out the possible impacts of such disruptive technology on the higher education sector of India and also to locate the development dynamics of such an outcome along with a feasible roadmap for overcoming the trade-off between future economic growths of a sound knowledge economy with social justice.

Details

Comparative Advantage in the Knowledge Economy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-040-5

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2021

Debjani Mitra

Economy consists of several economic activities like production, consumption, distribution etc. Nowadays, a new concept of knowledge economy has been introduced. A…

Abstract

Economy consists of several economic activities like production, consumption, distribution etc. Nowadays, a new concept of knowledge economy has been introduced. A knowledge economy is an economy in which the production of goods and services is based primarily upon knowledge-intensive activities. At this phase, development has two aspects – quantitative and qualitative aspects. In qualitative aspects, concept of human development index (HDI) is included. HDI has been constructed on the basis of education index (EI), health index, and standard of living index. This education implies research and development. New growth theories emphasize the potential for human capital and increase knowledge to provide new sources of economic growth and high levels of productivity. Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.

In this paper, the HDI and EI of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) countries, in particular India, are taken into consideration. To study the knowledge economy as well as human capital, Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) is used. On the other hand, for analyzing the development of any sector of the economy, the role of FDI is important. Whether the role of FDI is still there in transition to knowledge economy or not, relationship between FDI confidence index and EI is taken into consideration. Data are used from the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), World Investment Report, AT Kearney etc.

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Book part
Publication date: 25 May 2021

Anne Marie Thake

Purpose: The main objective of this study is to provide an overview of the extent of labor and skills shortages that exist in the information and communication technology…

Abstract

Purpose: The main objective of this study is to provide an overview of the extent of labor and skills shortages that exist in the information and communication technology (ICT) sector in Malta and gain insights into the dependency on foreign labor. Methodology: This study draws upon primary data generated from two research instruments, namely in-depth interviews and an online questionnaire. Various in-depth interviews were conducted with key institutional actors. In addition to the interviews, six locally based companies were requested to complete an online questionnaire. Secondary data from ICT surveys, official documents were consulted. Findings: Findings emerged from this study relate to each of the four seminal thematics, namely, demand and supply, rationale for employing foreign labor, wages, and challenges of foreign labor employment. Practical Implications: This study examined the current contribution of foreign labor in the ICT sector. Unsustainable growth in the ICT sector creates a demand for skilled labor which is currently not locally available. Significance: ICT is one of the most rapidly developing economic sectors in Malta. Labor shortages can slow down economic growth, if not addressed. The annual number of ICT graduates is insufficient. For this sector to continue to thrive and further consolidate itself within the Maltese economy, there will be a continued dependency on the importation of highly skilled foreign labor.

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Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2013

Gabriella Conti

In this chapter, I review recent evidence on the developmental origins of health inequality. I discuss the origins of the education-health gradient, the long-term costs…

Abstract

In this chapter, I review recent evidence on the developmental origins of health inequality. I discuss the origins of the education-health gradient, the long-term costs caused by early life adversity, and how early life experiences affect the biology of the body. Additionally, I provide complementary evidence on enrichment interventions which can at least partially compensate for these gaps. I highlight emerging lines of scientific inquiry which are likely to have a significant impact on the field. I argue that, while the evidence that early life conditions have long-term effects is now uncontroversial, the literature needs to be expanded both in a theoretical and empirical direction. On the one hand, a model linking early life origins to ageing needs to be developed; on the other hand, a better understanding of the mechanisms – both biological and socioeconomic – is required, in order to design more effective interventions.

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Book part
Publication date: 25 February 2016

Nicole Fortin and Thomas Lemieux

This paper seeks to connect changes in the structure of wages at the occupation level to measures of the task content of jobs. We first present a simple model where skills…

Abstract

This paper seeks to connect changes in the structure of wages at the occupation level to measures of the task content of jobs. We first present a simple model where skills are used to produce tasks, and changes in task prices are the underlying source of change in occupational wages. Using Current Population Survey (CPS) wage data and task measures from the O*NET, we document large changes in both the within and between dimensions of occupational wages over time, and find that these changes are well explained by changes in task prices likely induced by technological change and offshoring.

Details

Inequality: Causes and Consequences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-810-0

Keywords

Abstract

The changes in women’s and men’s work lives have been considerable in recent decades. Yet much of the recent research on gender differences in employment and earnings has been of a more snapshot nature rather than taking a longer comparative look at evolving patterns. In this paper, we use 50 years (1964–2013) of US Census Annual Demographic Files (March Current Population Survey) to track the changing returns to human capital (measured as both educational attainment and potential work experience), estimating comparable earnings equations by gender at each point in time. We consider the effects of sample selection over time for both women and men and show the rising effect of selection for women in recent years. Returns to education diverge for women and men over this period in the selection-adjusted results but converge in the OLS results, while returns to potential experience converge in both sets of results. We also create annual calculations of synthetic lifetime labor force participation, hours, and earnings that indicate convergence by gender in worklife patterns, but less convergence in recent years in lifetime earnings. Thus, while some convergence has indeed occurred, the underlying mechanisms causing convergence differ for women and men, reflecting continued fundamental differences in women’s and men’s life experiences.

Details

Gender Convergence in the Labor Market
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-456-6

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Book part
Publication date: 3 June 2021

Pinaki Das and Akash Dandapat

World economies including India have been moving toward recession. To combat this recession more employment generation through investment is required in a highly populated…

Abstract

World economies including India have been moving toward recession. To combat this recession more employment generation through investment is required in a highly populated economy like India. Since unorganized manufacturing enterprises (UMEs) provide employment to a huge mass in India, therefore its growth and productivity is a matter of concern in the Indian economy. The present study analyzes the growth and productivity of UMEs on the basis of the latest two rounds of NSSO unit level data incorporating all states and union territories (UTs) of India. It reveals that the growth of UMEs, employment, gross value added (GVA) and fixed assets widely varied across states/UTs, and these growth rates were substantially high in a number of states during 2010–11 and 2015–16. In most of the states/UTs the labor productivity of UMEs has increased significantly but not the capital productivity. Our analysis supports the theoretical relationship among growth of employment, GVA, and labor productivity. Therefore, the government has to make deliberate attempts to increase the growth of UMEs on one side and raise productivities of UMEs through skill developments on the other side to overcome the problem of unemployment in particular and expedite the growth of the Indian economy in general to combat the global economic recession.

Details

Productivity Growth in the Manufacturing Sector
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-094-8

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 21 November 2014

Takao Kato

This chapter is aimed at filling two important gaps in the large literature on high-involvement work system (HIWS). First, the existing literature tends to focus on North…

Abstract

This chapter is aimed at filling two important gaps in the large literature on high-involvement work system (HIWS). First, the existing literature tends to focus on North America and Western Europe, and detailed information on HIWS outside of the two regions (especially Asia) is still limited. Second, while there is a large body of quantitative evidence, the literature is relatively scant on detailed account of exactly how specific HIWS practices are implemented in the real workplace. This chapter draws on our extensive field research at firms in Japan, the United States, and Korea, and presents real-world examples of HIWS of firms in Japan, Korea, and the United States. Our detailed account of the implementation of HIWS in the three countries points to an intriguing process of transnational diffusion of HIWS. Japanese firms as early experimenters of HIWS posed a challenge to U.S. firms in the global marketplace, resulting in the trans-pacific diffusion of HIWS which is modified to the U.S. corporate culture. Due to its geographical proximity and historical connections to Japan, Korean firms were initially heavily influenced by Japanese HIWS. However, with the rising link to the United States and Europe, Japanese influence appears to have been waning, and interest in U.S. style HIWS and European-style state-mandated works council has risen, suggesting that a hybrid model may be emerging in Korea.

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