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Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2021

Adwaita Maiti, Sebak Kumar Jana and Asim K. Karmakar

The present century is an age of knowledge-based economy. Higher education is in the process of transformation and thereby challenging the traditional system of education…

Abstract

The present century is an age of knowledge-based economy. Higher education is in the process of transformation and thereby challenging the traditional system of education in India. The present paper reviews the current conditions of ICT use by the students in higher education in India. The major objectives of the study are (1) assessment of the use of computer and Internet by the students of higher education in India and (2) to find the determinants of use of ICT by the students in India. The study uses the NSSO 71st Round Unit Level Data on Social Consumption: Education Survey (71st Round, 2014). The present paper is based on 6,035 students from all the regions in India out of which 3,127 students were from the rural area and 2,908 from the urban area. The findings from logit analysis suggest that the determinants of ICT use by the students in higher education in India are regional disparities, gender, education levels of households, type of courses pursued by the students, type of institutions, access to computer and Internet facility, consumption levels of households, and students' residence type.

Details

Comparative Advantage in the Knowledge Economy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-040-5

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 March 2014

Tara Shankar Shaw and Sridhar Telidevara

Indian households having the below poverty line (BPL) ration card receive rice, wheat, sugar and kerosene from the Indian Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) at…

Abstract

Purpose

Indian households having the below poverty line (BPL) ration card receive rice, wheat, sugar and kerosene from the Indian Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) at subsidized rates. The paper uses the National Sample Survey Organization's consumption expenditure survey for the 61st round to study the causal effect of the BPL ration card on BPL households' calorie consumption. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This causal effect is estimated by comparing per-capita-per-day calorie consumption of the BPL households having BPL card with that of a matched counterfactual BPL household from the same state not having BPL card, using stratified propensity score matching.

Findings

The BPL ration card was found to increase calorie consumption from cereals and decrease calorie consumption from non-cereal food items without affecting the overall calorie consumption of household. Thus, TPDS induces households to consume more cereals and less non-cereal without significantly changing the overall calorie consumption.

Research limitations/implications

The research methodology controls for selection bias due to observable variables. Further, research needed to devise experimental set up to control for the selection bias due to unobserved variables.

Originality/value

The paper uses the targeting error in identifying BPL households in TPDS as a quasi-experiment set up to study the causal effect of the BPL ration card.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 34 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2009

S.N. Rajesh Raj and Mihir K. Mahapatra

The purpose of this paper is to examine the performance of small manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) in India during the pre‐reforms (prior to 1991) and reforms period (1991…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the performance of small manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) in India during the pre‐reforms (prior to 1991) and reforms period (1991 onwards) with focus on 15 major states from different levels of development.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to capture variation across different categories of states, 15 major states in India have been classified into high‐, middle‐ and low‐income states. Further, to capture productivity growth in the sector during the pre‐reforms and reforms period, both partial factor productivity and total factor productivity method (growth accounting approach) have been adopted. The analysis is based on different rounds of nationwide survey conducted by the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) of the Government of India during 1978‐2001.

Findings

The findings of the study reveal erosion in growth of output in the SMEs during the reforms period as compared to the pre‐reforms period with variation across different categories of states. The decline in growth of output during the reforms period can be primarily on account of fall in growth of employment and investment. The total factor productivity growth has also declined during the reforms period suggesting the need to enhance the level of technical efficiency and skills of the labour force in the sector. This is noticed in spite of major role played by the SMEs in providing employment (80 per cent of the total manufacturing sector employment) opportunities and in generating output (contributes 60 per cent of net domestic product) in the country.

Research limitations/implications

On account of non‐availability of annual data, the study relied on data collected by the NSSO of the Government of India periodically. In addition, the study did not examine the factors that explain decline in productivity growth in the sector.

Originality/value

There is a large body of literature on regional growth and productivity in the Indian manufacturing sector but most of the studies have considered only the organized manufacturing sector. This study contributes to the literature by analyzing the inter‐state variation in growth and productivity performance of SMEs in the pre‐reforms and reforms periods.

Details

Journal of Indian Business Research, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4195

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2019

Biswa Swarup Misra

This paper aims to compute total factor productivity (TFP) growth for India as well as for its 19 major states and to explore the determinants of TFP at the state level by…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to compute total factor productivity (TFP) growth for India as well as for its 19 major states and to explore the determinants of TFP at the state level by considering the spillover effects.

Design/methodology/approach

TFP growth has been obtained using growth accounting equation. Further, the TFP growth estimates were used to derive TFP levels using the translog index procedure. Given the policy focus on building infrastructure and expanding financial access, we have estimated the impact of irrigation, electricity, road, health, education and financial depth on TFP using the Spatial Durbin Model to account for spillover effects.

Findings

Computing TFP growth for two sub periods, namely, 2001-2008 and 2009-2015, the study finds a deterioration in TFP growth for India as well as for 10 of the 19 states under study in the post global financial crisis period. The author find that TFP is positively impacted by irrigation, health and road infrastructure. While financial depth and education were statistically insignificant, installed capacity of electricity had a negative impact on state level TFP.

Research limitations/implications

'The author provides rationale for the empirical findings considering the country context. The findings of this study act as pointers for shaping higher growth on a sustained basis in India. The study helps to assess the productivity growth in the new states, namely, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Uttarakhand, that were carved out in 2000 vis a vis their parent states. This assessment is useful especially for the states of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh which were created to address economic backwardness in certain pockets of the parent states.

Originality/value

First, it provides TFPG estimates for India as well as 19 major states during the 2000-2015 period. Second, this study helps to understand how TFPG for India as well as each of the 19 states have behaved in the post global financial crisis period. Third, the study helps to assess the productivity growth in the three newly created states in 2000 vis a vis their parent states. Fourth, this is the first attempt which considers the spatial interdependence among the states to estimate the impact of financial and infrastructural development on productivity in the Indian states.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 3 June 2021

Pinaki Das and Akash Dandapat

World economies including India have been moving toward recession. To combat this recession more employment generation through investment is required in a highly populated…

Abstract

World economies including India have been moving toward recession. To combat this recession more employment generation through investment is required in a highly populated economy like India. Since unorganized manufacturing enterprises (UMEs) provide employment to a huge mass in India, therefore its growth and productivity is a matter of concern in the Indian economy. The present study analyzes the growth and productivity of UMEs on the basis of the latest two rounds of NSSO unit level data incorporating all states and union territories (UTs) of India. It reveals that the growth of UMEs, employment, gross value added (GVA) and fixed assets widely varied across states/UTs, and these growth rates were substantially high in a number of states during 2010–11 and 2015–16. In most of the states/UTs the labor productivity of UMEs has increased significantly but not the capital productivity. Our analysis supports the theoretical relationship among growth of employment, GVA, and labor productivity. Therefore, the government has to make deliberate attempts to increase the growth of UMEs on one side and raise productivities of UMEs through skill developments on the other side to overcome the problem of unemployment in particular and expedite the growth of the Indian economy in general to combat the global economic recession.

Details

Productivity Growth in the Manufacturing Sector
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-094-8

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2021

Barsa Priyadarsinee Sahoo

The purpose of this paper is to understand the patterns and incidence of child labour in India and to examine the magnitude of child labour across different social groups…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the patterns and incidence of child labour in India and to examine the magnitude of child labour across different social groups. It analyses the impact of the socio-economic background of the children on their participation in the labour market.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper primarily relies on the data collected from secondary sources. The census of India data and the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) 66th round data (2009–2010) on employment and unemployment in India for the study. The dependent variable on child labour has been computed by the author for the analysis in the paper.

Findings

The findings of the paper suggest that poverty is not the only determinant of child labour, but gender and caste of a person is also a significant factor for child labour. The study found that children from lower-caste backgrounds in India seem to participate more in the labour market. In terms of gender, the study found that boys are more likely to engage in economic activities or paid jobs while girls are more likely to engage in household activities.

Originality/value

Data used in this paper has been extracted by the author from unit level data provided by NSSO. The variables used for the analysis in the presented paper has been constructed by the author and the figures provided are the result of the author’s estimation on data.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 12 September 2019

Geetha Rani Prakasam, Mukesh Mukesh and Gopinathan R.

Enrolling in an academic discipline or selecting the college major choice is a dynamic process. Very few studies examine this aspect in India. This paper makes a humble…

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Abstract

Purpose

Enrolling in an academic discipline or selecting the college major choice is a dynamic process. Very few studies examine this aspect in India. This paper makes a humble attempt to fill this gap using NSSO 71st round data on social consumption on education. The purpose of this paper is to use multinomial regression model to study the different factors that influence course choice in higher education. The different factors (given the availability of information) considered relate to ability, gender, cost of higher education, socio-economic and geographical location. The results indicate that gender polarization is apparent between humanities and engineering. The predicated probabilities bring out the dichotomy between the choice of courses and levels of living expressed through consumption expenditures in terms of professional and non-professional courses. Predicted probabilities of course choices bring in a clear distinction between south and west regions preferring engineering and other professional courses, whereas north, east and NES prefer humanities.

Design/methodology/approach

The present paper follows the same approach as that of Turner and Bowen (1999). The Multinomial regression is specified as P ( M i = j ) = ( exp ( β j × X i ) / j 1 5 exp ( β j × X i ) ) , where P (Mi=j) denotes the probability of choosing outcome j, the particular course/major choice that categorizes different disciplines. This response variable is specified with five categories: such as medicine, engineering, other professional courses, science and humanities. The authors’ primary interest is to determine the factors governing an individual’s decision to choose a particular subject field as compared to humanities. In other words, to make the system identifiable in the MLR, humanities is treated as a reference category. The vector Xi includes the set of explanatory variables and βj refers to the corresponding coefficients for each of the outcome j. From an aggregate perspective, the distribution of course choices is an important input to the skill (technical skills) composition of future workforce. In that sense, except humanities, the rest of the courses are technical-intensive courses; hence, humanities is treated as a reference category.

Findings

The results indicate that gender polarization is apparent between humanities and engineering. The predicated probabilities bring out the dichotomy between the choice of courses and levels of living expressed through consumption expenditures in terms of professional and non-professional courses. Predicted probabilities of course choices bring in a clear distinction between south and west regions preferring engineering and other professional courses, whereas north, east and NES prefer humanities.

Research limitations/implications

Predicted probabilities of course choices bring in a clear distinction between south and west regions preferring engineering and other professional courses, whereas north, east and NES prefer humanities. This course and regional imbalance need to be worked with multi-pronged strategies of providing both access to education and employment opportunities in other states. But the predicted probabilities of medicine and science remain similar across the board. Very few research studies on the determinants of field choice in higher education prevail in India. Research studies on returns to education by field or course choices hardly exist in India. These evidences are particularly important to know which course choices can support student loans, which can be the future area of work.

Practical implications

The research evidence is particularly important to know which course choices can support student loans, which can be the future area of work, as well as how to address the gender bias in the course choices.

Social implications

The paper has social implications in terms of giving insights into the course choices of students. These findings bring in implications for practice in their ability to predict the demand for course choices and their share of demand, not only in the labor market but also across regions. India has 36 states/UTs and each state/UT has a huge population size and large geographical areas. The choice of course has state-specific influence because of nature of state economy, society, culture and inherent education systems. Further, within the states, rural and urban variation has also a serious influence on the choice of courses.

Originality/value

The present study is a value addition on three counts. First, the choice of courses includes the recent trends in the preference over market-oriented/technical courses such as medicine, engineering and other professional courses (chartered accountancy and similar courses, courses from Industrial Training Institute, recognized vocational training institute, etc.). The choice of market-oriented courses has been examined in relation to the choice of conventional subjects. Second, the socio-economic background of students plays a significant role in the choice of courses. Third, the present paper uses the latest data on Social Consumption on Education.

Details

Journal of Asian Business and Economic Studies, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2515-964X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 March 2020

Arvind Kumar Yadav and Pabitra Kumar Jena

The present study delves into the health inequalities between the two most socially deprived groups namely Scheduled Tribes (STs) and Scheduled Castes (SCs) in rural India.

Abstract

Purpose

The present study delves into the health inequalities between the two most socially deprived groups namely Scheduled Tribes (STs) and Scheduled Castes (SCs) in rural India.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used health-specific three rounds of National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) unit-level data for analyses. Probit model has been used to predict the differences in access to maternal healthcare services. Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition method is used to explore the inequality in health of rural population in India and assess the estimated relative contribution of socioeconomic and demographic factors to inequalities in maternal health.

Findings

The study establishes that STs women often perform poorly compared to SCs in terms of maternal health such as antenatal care, postnatal care and institutional delivery. Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition method shows that there exist health inequalities between STs and SCs women. Difference in household income contributes 21–34 percent and women's education 19–24 percent in the gap of utilization of maternal healthcare services between SCs and STs women. A substantial part of this difference is contributed by availability of water at home and geographical region. Finally, the study offers some policy suggestions in order to mitigate the health inequalities among socially marginalized groups of SCs and STs women in rural areas.

Originality/value

This study measures and explains inequalities in maternal health variables such as antenatal care, postnatal care and institutional delivery in rural India. Research on access to maternal healthcare facilities is needed to improve the health of deprived sections such as STs and SCs in India. The results of this study pinpoint the need for public health decision-makers in India to concentrate on the most deprived and vulnerable sections of the society. This study thus makes a detailed and tangible contribution to the current knowledge of health inequalities between the two most deprived social groups, i.e., SCs and STs.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Akarsh Arora and S.P. Singh

The purpose of this paper is to examine the regional profile of poverty in Uttar Pradesh, one of the most populated and impoverished states of India. It also identifies…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the regional profile of poverty in Uttar Pradesh, one of the most populated and impoverished states of India. It also identifies the factors underlying the inter-regional differences of poverty in the state.

Design/methodology/approach

Regional estimates have been evaluated by dividing the state into four economically classified regions (Western, Central, Southern, and Eastern), using the unit-level records of two latest available Consumption Expenditure Surveys of NSSO representing the period 2009-2010 and 2011-2012. Poverty has been defined by the latest available Rangarajan Expert Groups’ poverty line and aggregated in terms of headcount ratio and share of below poverty line population. Furthermore, to investigate the correlates of poverty, a survey-based logistic regression has been estimated specifically for each region and for both rural and urban areas.

Findings

Estimates reveal that though overall poverty in the state has declined, inter-regional poverty trends witness rise in the level of impoverishment particularly in urban Southern Region (SR), rural Eastern Region (ER), and in both rural and urban areas of Central Region. Nevertheless, the inter-regional disparity in poverty has observed a decline; it can further be eliminated if such high poverty reduction in urban ER and rural SR is sustained along with a similar progress in their impoverished counterparts.

Originality/value

The study recommends that poverty alleviating policies in the state should focus more on reducing the household size, development of socially excluded sub-groups (Scheduled Castes and Other Backward Classes), delivery of basic facilities (education and health care), and enhancement of employment prospects for casual laborers, with special emphasis on identified impoverished regions.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 44 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 March 2022

Saddaf Naaz Akhtar and Nandita Saikia

There is limited evidence on the determinants of hospitalisation and its causes in India. This study aims to examine the differential in the hospitalisation rates and its…

Abstract

Purpose

There is limited evidence on the determinants of hospitalisation and its causes in India. This study aims to examine the differential in the hospitalisation rates and its socioeconomic determinants. This study also examines the causes of diseases in hospitalisation among the elderly (≥60 years) in India.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used data from the 75th round of the National Sample Survey Organizations, collected from July 2017 to June 2018. The elderly samples in this survey are 42,759, where 11,070 were hospitalised, and 31,689 were not hospitalised in the past year or 365 days. This study estimated hospitalisation rates and carried out binary logistic regression analysis to examine the associations of hospitalisation with the background variables. The cause of diseases in hospitalisations was also calculated.

Findings

The hospitalisation rate was lower among elderly female compared to elderly male. Elderly who belongs to middle-old aged groups, non-married, North-Eastern region, Southern region, general caste, health insurance, partially and fully economically dependent have a higher chance of being hospitalised. About 38% elderly were hospitalised due to communicable diseases (CDs), 52% due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and 10% due to injuries and others (IO). Nearly 40% elderly were hospitalised in public hospitals due to CDs, whereas 52% were hospitalised in private hospitals due to NCDs and 11% due to IO.

Research limitations/implications

Firstly, this study is based on cross-sectional survey due to which temporal ambiguity averted to draw causal inferences. Secondly, other significant factors can also predict hospitalisations and provide insightful results, such as lifestyle factors, behavioral factors, obesity, mental state and several personal habits such as smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol, consuming tobacco or other harmful substances. But this information was not available in this study. Even with these limitations, the hospitalisation issues among the elderly are beneficial to understand the current circumstances of CDs, NCDs and injury and other diseases for India and its states to formulate health policy.

Practical implications

Early screening and early treatment for NCDs are needed, which are non-existent in almost all parts of India. It is essential to necessitate and identify the important factors that best predict hospitalisation or re-visit of hospital admission. Although, the medical advances in India have made rapid strides in the past few decades, it is burdened none the less, as the doctor–patient ratio is very low. It is important to develop preventive measures to minimize the accidents and causalities to avoid substantial cost associated with elderly health care.

Social implications

Raising awareness, promotion of healthy life style and improving the quality of good health-care provisions at primary level is a necessity.

Originality/value

The findings, practical and social implications provide a way forward for the health policymakers to potentially alter the future research to reduce associated comorbidities, unnecessary hospitalisations and other medical complications.

Details

Working with Older People, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-3666

Keywords

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