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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2021

Begum Dikilitas, Burcu Fazlioglu and Basak Dalgic

This paper aims to examine the effect of exports on women's employment rate for Turkish manufacturing firms over a recent period of 2003–2015.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the effect of exports on women's employment rate for Turkish manufacturing firms over a recent period of 2003–2015.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors establish treatment models and use propensity score matching (PSM) techniques together with difference-in-difference methodology.

Findings

The results of the study indicate that starting to export increases women’s employment rate for manufacturing firms. Gains in female employment rates are observed for the firms operating in low and medium low technology intensive sectors, low-wage sectors as well as laborlabor-intensive goods exporting sectors.

Originality/value

The authors complement previous literature by utilizing a rich harmonized firm-level dataset that covers a large number of firms and a recent time period. The authors distinguish between several sub-samples of firms according to technology intensity of the sector in which they operate, wage level and factor intensity of exports and investigate whether or not women gain from trade in terms of employment opportunities.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 2 September 2021

Amany Yashoa Gad

This paper aims to identify the level of contribution of different levels of education to remaining in unemployment as well as the transition from unemployment to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify the level of contribution of different levels of education to remaining in unemployment as well as the transition from unemployment to employment in Egypt.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, transition probabilities matrix differentiated by gender, age groups, educational levels, marital status and place of residence based on worker flows across employment, unemployment and out of labor force states during the period 2012–2018 using Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey of 2018. The results point to the highly static nature of the Egyptian labor market. Employment and the out of labor force states are the least mobile among labor market states. This is because employment state is very desirable and the out of labor force is the largest labor market states, especially for females. Also, this study examines the impact of different educational levels separately on remaining in unemployment and transition from unemployment to employment state using eight binary logistic regression models.

Findings

The main results of transitions from unemployment to employment are relatively large for males, elder-age, uneducated workers as well as workers who are not married and urban residents, and the results of the logistic regression models consistent with the transition probabilities matrix results, except for few cases. Based on the above findings, there is enough evidence to accept the null hypothesis that no education has a positive significant impact to transition unemployed individuals from unemployment to employment, while less than intermediate as well as higher education have a negative significant impact to transition unemployed individuals from unemployment to employment.

Originality/value

This paper proposes to address the problem of the unemployment among highly educated which is much higher compared with illiterates and try to understand the impact of different levels of education separately on the transition from unemployment to employment, to help the policymakers to eradicate the gap between education and the demand of the labor market in Egypt.

Details

Review of Economics and Political Science, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2356-9980

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Article
Publication date: 9 September 2021

Naser Yenus Nuru and Hayelom Yrgaw Gereziher

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the symmetric and asymmetric effects of exchange rate uncertainty on employment in South Africa’s manufacturing sector…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the symmetric and asymmetric effects of exchange rate uncertainty on employment in South Africa’s manufacturing sector over the period 1985Q1–2019Q2.

Design/methodology/approach

Jorda’s (2005) local projection method is employed and following Koop et al. (1996); generalized impulse response functions are generated to see the effect of exchange rate uncertainty on employment in South Africa’s manufacturing sector.

Findings

The results show that exchange rate uncertainty affects negatively and significantly employment in South Africa’s manufacturing sector. Employment also responds negatively and significantly to export shock. Inflation and output shocks, however, positively and significantly affect employment on impact. Asymmetric responses of employment to exchange rate uncertainty are also found in this study. While high exchange rate uncertainty leads to a reduction in employment, low exchange rate uncertainty brings an increase in employment in South Africa’s manufacturing sector.

Originality/value

This research adds to the scarce empirical literature on the effect of exchange rate uncertainty on employment in South Africa’s manufacturing sector by incorporating mainly non-linearities into the model.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2021

Cristina Marín-Palacios, Oliver Carrero Márquez and Rhona Patricia Lohan

The social and work inclusion of people with disabilities is an important area of public action and research today. Future trends in the economy and lifestyle represent…

Abstract

Purpose

The social and work inclusion of people with disabilities is an important area of public action and research today. Future trends in the economy and lifestyle represent new challenges for the inclusion of disabled people. This paper aims to provide a bibliometric analysis of the growing amount of research publications currently dealing with problems associated with people with disabilities in employment. The papers are analysed to gain a perspective on any changes in the field.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the analysis is conducted using a literature review and bibliometric analysis techniques in particular. The bibliographic source supporting this analysis resulted from a search of Scopus using Disability, Employment and Work as search terms, which yielded 750 publications spanning the previous nine years. VOSviewer was applied to facilitate the analysis.

Findings

The findings indicate that up until 2016, the conversation revolved around health and employment, and from 2017 onwards the research has become more focused on the employment of people with disabilities. Socioeconomic factors affecting people with disabilities appear as one of the causes impairing their inclusion, such as the different intellectual disabilities curtailing their employment and education for work.

Research limitations/implications

This analysis limited itself to only one database and open access articles. Therefore, further research is needed with a larger bibliographic base covering other aspects related to the future of disability employment.

Practical implications

This review may serve as a valuable source of information for researchers for further investigations in this area. And to aid in the development of effective policies to address existing social stereotypes.

Originality/value

This research illustrates, through the use of VOSviewer, the present studies in the area of disability and employment and sets the foundations for further research.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2020

Haomiao Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to investigate China's employment stabilization policies in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and to discuss the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate China's employment stabilization policies in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and to discuss the accessibility of these policies in practice. In addition, by focussing on the problems and dilemmas encountered during the implementation of these policies, this paper proposes some future directions for reforming employment protection and social insurance to adapt to the changing employment structure and mode in China.

Design/methodology/approach

The design and methodology of this paper utilises open sources and documentary materials on China's employment stabilization policies, employment protection and social insurance measures.

Findings

The employment stabilization policies/measures launched during the COVID-19 pandemic were formulated under an initial policy framework designed only for employees in a definite employment relationship and do not match the current employment structure and model. As a result, the accessibility of employment stabilization policies/measures is limited because some worker groups that are the most affected are not covered by the policies.

Originality/value

This paper provides timely analysis on the China's employment stabilization policies and evaluates the accessibility of these policies.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 13 August 2021

Colin Williams and Jan Windebank

The aim of this paper is to evaluate contrasting ways of tackling self-employment in the informal sector. Conventionally, the participation of the self-employed in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to evaluate contrasting ways of tackling self-employment in the informal sector. Conventionally, the participation of the self-employed in the informal sector has been viewed as a rational economic decision taken when the expected benefits outweigh the costs, and thus enforcement authorities have sought to change the benefit-to-cost ratio by increasing the punishments and chances of being caught. Recently, however, neo-institutional theory has viewed such endeavor as a product of a lack of vertical trust (in government) and horizontal trust (in others) and pursued trust-building strategies to nurture voluntary compliance.

Design/methodology/approach

To evaluate these contrasting policy approaches, data are reported from special Eurobarometer survey 92.1 conducted in 2019 across 28 European countries (the 27 member states of the European Union and the United Kingdom) involving over 27,565 interviews.

Findings

Using probit regression analysis, the finding is that the likelihood of participation in informal self-employment is not associated with the level of expected punishments and chances of being caught, but is significantly associated with the level of vertical and horizontal trust, with a greater likelihood of participation in informal self-employment when there is lower vertical and horizontal trust.

Practical implications

The outcome is a call for state authorities to shift away from the use of repressive policy measures that increase the penalties and chances of being caught and toward trust-building strategies to nurture voluntary compliance. How this can be achieved is explored.

Originality/value

Evidence is provided to justify a shift toward seeking trust-building strategies by state authorities to engender voluntary compliance among the self-employed operating in the informal sector in Europe.

Details

Fulbright Review of Economics and Policy, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2635-0173

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Article
Publication date: 22 July 2021

Gemma Bend and Sandra Fielden

This paper aims to contribute to prior gender-based conceptual models within organisational and management studies by incorporating an additional lens of disability. The…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to contribute to prior gender-based conceptual models within organisational and management studies by incorporating an additional lens of disability. The authors present a context specific and embodied based model that we call the “two-way mirror effect” which accounts for the environmental and discursive effects of gender and disability within the workplace.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews existing literature on gender, disability and employment and uses that literature to construct and support the concept of a two-way mirror effect.

Findings

By drawing on organisation and management-based studies, the authors have shown how previous models do not currently account for the experiences of disabled women within the workplace. Disabled workers, and especially disabled women face a myriad of unique barriers, including masculine and able-bodied employment practices (e.g. performative expectations) and exclusionary physical spaces (e.g. access, location to required facilities), that exclude them from full employment participation.

Practical implications

The review of existing literature and conceptual models reveal the gaps in research that academics and practitioners can build upon and the paper identifies the dominant norms that are embedded within organisational practices, which can be challenged to promote inclusion and equality.

Originality/value

The authors present a new intersectional-based conceptual model to fill a gap in organisational and management-based studies that accounts for the unique employment experiences of disabled employees, specifically disabled women.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 36 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 10 August 2021

Rie Miyazaki

This article aims to explore how Japanese women with younger children changed their commitment to the labour market between 2000 and 2019 by comparing mothers in…

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to explore how Japanese women with younger children changed their commitment to the labour market between 2000 and 2019 by comparing mothers in three-generation and nuclear family households.

Design/methodology/approach

Japan currently has the highest ageing rate in the world at nearly 30%. Since the 1990s, employment flexibilization and women's labour market participation have proceeded in parallel, and the conservative family values of the patriarchy and gender division of labour that have provided intergenerational aid for care within households have been shrinking, by conducting a descriptive analysis of the Labour Force Survey (LFS).

Findings

This study identified that a conspicuous increase in part-time employment among mothers in both household types and a decrease by half in the working mother's population in three-generation households. These results suggest that the function of inter-generational assistance by multi-generation cohabitation, which was once thought to be effective in helping working mothers with younger children, is declining.

Originality/value

A study examining the transformation of mothers' employment behaviour differences between three-generation households and nuclear family households is rare. This paper makes a new contribution to the research regarding the grandparents' caregiving, household types and mothers' employment.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 41 no. 13/14
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1973

The Industrial Injuries Joint Authority, with the consent of the Treasury so far as relates to matters with regard to which such consent is required, in exercise of the…

Abstract

The Industrial Injuries Joint Authority, with the consent of the Treasury so far as relates to matters with regard to which such consent is required, in exercise of the powers conferred by Schedule I to the National Insurance (Industrial Injuries) Act 1965 and the Secretary of State for Social Services, in exercise of his powers under section 79 of that Act, and of all other powers enabling them in that behalf, and for the purpose only of consolidating the regulations hereby revoked, hereby make the following regulations:—

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2009

Mats Hammarstedt

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of the predicted earnings differential between self‐employment and wage‐employment on self‐employment

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619

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of the predicted earnings differential between self‐employment and wage‐employment on self‐employment propensities in Sweden using a large data set from the year 2003.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis in the paper is based on the presumption that the individual chooses to work in either the self‐employed or the wage‐employed sector. The separate earnings functions for the self‐employed and the wage‐employed are estimated in order to predict an individual's earnings in each sector. In order to overcome selectivity problems a Heckman approach is used at this stage. Finally, a structural probit model, where the difference in predicted earnings from the two sectors is included as an independent variable, is estimated.

Findings

The main result is that the predicted differential between self‐employment and wage‐employment earnings plays an important role for the self‐employment decision and that an increase in this earnings differential will lead to a higher self‐employment rate and to an increase in total employment in Sweden.

Originality/value

The policy relevance of this question is evident since previous research has shown that self‐employed individuals do not only create jobs for themselves but also for others. Thus, an increase in the earnings from self‐employment relative to the earnings from wage‐employment will increase the self‐employment rate as well as total employment.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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