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Article

Bahar Ashnai, Sudha Mani, Prabakar Kothandaraman and Saeed Shekari

In response to calls to reduce the gender gap in the salesforce, this study aims to examine the effect of candidate gender, manager gender and industry to explain gender

Abstract

Purpose

In response to calls to reduce the gender gap in the salesforce, this study aims to examine the effect of candidate gender, manager gender and industry to explain gender bias in salesperson recruitment during screening and skill assessment.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper tested the hypotheses using observational data from a national sales competition in the USA, where managers evaluated student candidates for entry-level sales positions.

Findings

This research finds gender bias during screening using the dyadic perspective. Specifically, female managers evaluate male candidates more favorably than male managers do during screening. Further, managers of service companies evaluate female candidates more favorably than managers of goods companies during screening. However, this paper finds no such effects during candidates’ skill assessment.

Research limitations/implications

The findings indicate the importance of using dyadic research techniques to assess gender bias.

Practical implications

Managers should not use short interactions to screen candidates.

Social implications

Implicit bias exists when candidates and managers interact during screening. To reduce gender bias in recruitment the candidates and managers should interact for a longer duration.

Originality/value

This study draws upon a unique setting, where the candidates interact with the managers for screening and skill assessment. Implicit bias exists when candidates and managers interact for screening under time pressure. This paper finds no evidence of gender bias in skill assessment. This study finds that female managers are more prone to bias when evaluating male candidates than male managers. Prior work has not examined industry-based bias; this paper provides evidence of such bias in candidate screening.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 35 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article

Claude Draude, Goda Klumbyte, Phillip Lücking and Pat Treusch

The purpose of this paper is to propose that in order to tackle the question of bias in algorithms, a systemic, sociotechnical and holistic perspective is needed. With…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose that in order to tackle the question of bias in algorithms, a systemic, sociotechnical and holistic perspective is needed. With reference to the term “algorithmic culture,” the interconnectedness and mutual shaping of society and technology are postulated. A sociotechnical approach requires translational work between and across disciplines. This conceptual paper undertakes such translational work. It exemplifies how gender and diversity studies, by bringing in expertise on addressing bias and structural inequalities, provide a crucial source for analyzing and mitigating bias in algorithmic systems.

Design/methodology/approach

After introducing the sociotechnical context, an overview is provided regarding the contemporary discourse around bias in algorithms, debates around algorithmic culture, knowledge production and bias identification as well as common solutions. The key concepts of gender studies (situated knowledges and strong objectivity) and concrete examples of gender bias then serve as a backdrop for revisiting contemporary debates.

Findings

The key concepts reframe the discourse on bias and concepts such as algorithmic fairness and transparency by contextualizing and situating them. The paper includes specific suggestions for researchers and practitioners on how to account for social inequalities in the design of algorithmic systems.

Originality/value

A systemic, gender-informed approach for addressing the issue is provided, and a concrete, applicable methodology toward a situated understanding of algorithmic bias is laid out, providing an important contribution for an urgent multidisciplinary dialogue.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article

Alex Opoku and Ninarita Williams

The eradication of gender discrimination at work has been a prominent feature of the UK political and business agenda for decades; however, the persistent business gender

Abstract

Purpose

The eradication of gender discrimination at work has been a prominent feature of the UK political and business agenda for decades; however, the persistent business gender leadership gap remains. The concept of second-generation gender bias has recently been proposed as the primary cause. This paper aims to evaluate how women experience second-generation gender bias in construction organisations. It examines key manifestations of second-generation gender bias and how it impacts women’s career progression into leadership positions in the UK construction industry.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts a broad feminist interpretative lens aligned with the general aims of feminist critical inquiry through semi-structured interviews with 12 women experiencing career journeys of at least five years in the construction industry.

Findings

This paper reveals that second-generation gender bias hinders the career development and leadership identity of some women and the persistent business gender leadership gap is unlikely to change without addressing it.

Originality/value

There is little or no research that speaks exclusively to the experience of second-generation gender bias and female managers working within the UK construction. This paper provides further insight into the barriers women face when attempting to progress into senior management roles, particularly in construction.

Details

International Journal of Ethics and Systems, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

Keywords

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Article

Sharon Foley, Hang-yue Ngo, Raymond Loi and Xiaoming Zheng

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of gender and strength of gender identification on employees’ perception of gender discrimination. It also explores…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of gender and strength of gender identification on employees’ perception of gender discrimination. It also explores whether gender comparison and perceived gender bias against women act as mediators in the above relationships. It aims to advance the understanding of the processes leading to individual’s perception of gender discrimination in the Chinese workplace.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 362 workers via an employee survey in three large companies in China. The human resource staff helped us to distribute a self-administered questionnaire to the employees, and the authors assured them of confidentiality and protected their anonymity. To test the hypotheses, the authors employed structural equation modeling. The authors first conducted confirmatory factor analysis on the measurement model, and then the authors estimated three nested structural models to test the mediating hypotheses.

Findings

The results reveal that gender and strength of gender identification are related to perceived gender discrimination. The authors further found that gender comparison and perceived gender bias against women partially mediated the relationship between gender and perceived gender discrimination, while gender comparison fully mediated the relationship between strength of gender identification and perceived gender discrimination.

Practical implications

The study helps managers understand why and how their subordinates form perceptions of gender discrimination. Given the findings, they should be aware of the importance of gender identity, gender comparison, and gender bias in organizational practices in affecting such perceptions.

Originality/value

This study is the first exploration of the complex relationships among gender, gender identification, gender comparison, perceived gender bias against women, and perceived gender discrimination. It shows the salient role of gender comparison and gender bias against women in shaping employees’ perceptions of gender discrimination, apart from the direct effects of gender and strength of gender identification.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 34 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article

Kylie A. Braegelmann and Nacasius U. Ujah

This paper aims to revisit the extant evidence on gender bias in the market. Specifically, it revisits reaction to CEO announcements. Also, it explores whether the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to revisit the extant evidence on gender bias in the market. Specifically, it revisits reaction to CEO announcements. Also, it explores whether the development of the bias over time and by firm size aligns with existing theory.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines cumulative abnormal returns around CEO announcements from 1992 through 2016 using a modified event study methodology. This evidence shown examines market reactions over time and by firm size.

Findings

Financial markets react more favorably to male CEO announcements, with a cumulative abnormal return of 49 basis points above the reaction to their female counterparts. Moreover, the paper finds that market reaction varies over time, which may be because of the increasing proportion of female CEOs, and by firm size, which may be due to the differences in new information available to investors.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations include sample size due to the paucity of female CEO announcements. This paper does not examine the effect of industry, detailed CEO characteristics or announcement content on market reaction. In addition, using an extended event window may increase the likelihood of capturing confounding events, such as mergers or earnings announcements, which limits the interpretability of the results.

Practical implications

Gender bias in financial markets creates another institutional barrier for the advancement of female professionals, as well as implies inefficient capital allocation in markets.

Originality/value

The literature in this field is still inconclusive. Furthermore, bias development over time and the effect of information on bias remain unexplored. This study aims to fill that gap; furthermore, it introduces an extended event-window approach.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 46 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article

Mike Thelwall

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether machine learning induces gender biases in the sense of results that are more accurate for male authors or for female…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether machine learning induces gender biases in the sense of results that are more accurate for male authors or for female authors. It also investigates whether training separate male and female variants could improve the accuracy of machine learning for sentiment analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses ratings-balanced sets of reviews of restaurants and hotels (3 sets) to train algorithms with and without gender selection.

Findings

Accuracy is higher on female-authored reviews than on male-authored reviews for all data sets, so applications of sentiment analysis using mixed gender data sets will over represent the opinions of women. Training on same gender data improves performance less than having additional data from both genders.

Practical implications

End users of sentiment analysis should be aware that its small gender biases can affect the conclusions drawn from it and apply correction factors when necessary. Users of systems that incorporate sentiment analysis should be aware that performance will vary by author gender. Developers do not need to create gender-specific algorithms unless they have more training data than their system can cope with.

Originality/value

This is the first demonstration of gender bias in machine learning sentiment analysis.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article

Meraiah Foley and Sue Williamson

Anonymous recruitment seeks to limit managers’ reliance on stereotypes in employment decisions, thereby reducing discrimination. This paper aims to explore how managers…

Abstract

Purpose

Anonymous recruitment seeks to limit managers’ reliance on stereotypes in employment decisions, thereby reducing discrimination. This paper aims to explore how managers interpret the information embedded in anonymised job applications and how they interpret the organisational priorities driving the adoption of anonymous recruitment.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured interviews with 30 managers in two Australian public sector organisations were analysed.

Findings

The results showed that managers used implicit signals and cues to infer the gender identities of applicants in anonymised applications, reintroducing the possibility of bias. Managers perceived that anonymous recruitment sent positive external signals to prospective employees but were sceptical about its effectiveness.

Research limitations/implications

The results showed that removing applicants’ names and identifying information from applications may not be sufficient to reduce bias. In organisations where managers are sympathetic to equity and diversity issues, use of anonymous recruitment may provoke resentment if managers perceive organisational distrust or inconsistent objectives. Limitations regarding the size and nature of the sample are acknowledged.

Practical implications

Organisations seeking to reduce gender discrimination in recruitment may consider adopting standardised application procedures or training managers to understand how stereotypes affect evaluations. Organisations should also assess managerial support for, and understanding of, anonymous recruitment prior to implementation.

Originality/value

The findings add to existing knowledge regarding the effects of implicit gender signals in managers’ assessments and the effectiveness of anonymous recruitment in reducing gender bias. It also contributes to signalling theory by examining how managers interpret the signals conveyed in organisational policies.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 33 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

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Book part

Karen Pierce, Ted D. Englebrecht and Wei-Chih Chiang

This study examines whether Revenue Procedure 2003-61 is an improvement over Revenue Procedure 2000-15, in the areas of taxpayers’ expectations for IRS equitable relief…

Abstract

This study examines whether Revenue Procedure 2003-61 is an improvement over Revenue Procedure 2000-15, in the areas of taxpayers’ expectations for IRS equitable relief decisions and gender-related in-group bias. The survey instrument includes a vignette adapted from a judicial decision. The results show that Rev. Proc. 2003-61 does improve upon Rev. Proc. 2000-15. Furthermore, taxpayers perceive different expectations of what the IRS should do and what the IRS would do in equitable relief decision making. Also, gender-related in-group biases are found to be present for both genders. Tax policy implications regarding equitable relief are discussed.

Details

Advances in Accounting Behavioral Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-838-9

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Article

Lakshmi Balachandra

Men founders raise almost 50× more venture capital (VC) than women. As 93 per cent of VCs are men, because of the significant gender imbalance in gatekeepers and…

Abstract

Purpose

Men founders raise almost 50× more venture capital (VC) than women. As 93 per cent of VCs are men, because of the significant gender imbalance in gatekeepers and investment decision-makers for early-stage capital, there may be critical outcomes for women entrepreneurs who are being caused from men having overweighed in decision-making roles. Outcomes include biases against women by VCs that prevent their ventures from being considered for funding from the pitch as well as obtaining opportunities to pitch VCs in consideration for funding from biases in the evaluations of the businesses themselves.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is a consolidation of several studies the author has conducted in VC decision-making and gender bias to understand the drivers of the enormous gender gap in VC funding. The author presented it as a talk at the University of Regina and was asked to submit a paper about it here.

Findings

The findings reveal how the 93 per cent male context of the VC industry is in itself a significant cause of the gender gap in funding. If there were more women VCs, more women entrepreneurs would be funded.

Originality/value

The author showcases how the gender gap in decision-making roles in VC has important implications for women entrepreneurs to obtain funding.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article

Tulay Girard and Musa Pinar

This study aims to examine the potential effects of the gender similarity between the presenter and evaluator on the presentation evaluation scores obtained with an…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the potential effects of the gender similarity between the presenter and evaluator on the presentation evaluation scores obtained with an evaluation form.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected from marketing students at two universities in the USA. A rubric and separate survey instrument were used to capture student presentation evaluation scores and perceptions of gender differences in various aspects of presentation quality.

Findings

Findings indicate that gender of evaluators or presenters did not have any significant effect on presentation scores. The survey of student perceptions of gender effect on student presentations indicate that while female students seem to be perceived as better presenters than male students, the study found no consistent patterns of gender effect on presentation evaluations.

Research limitations/implications

Only four evaluation criteria were used to measure presentation quality.

Originality/value

The results of this exploratory study uses the actual presentation evaluations and survey of student perceptions suggesting that student inputs can be included for grading without any concern of gender bias on grading.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

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