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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2021

Kazim Ali, Muhammad Rizwan Yaseen, Muhammad Sohail Amjad Makhdum, Abdul Quddoos and Azeem Sardar

The main purpose of this study is to identify the socioeconomic determinants of dropout from primary schools and to give policy suggestions to address the issue.

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this study is to identify the socioeconomic determinants of dropout from primary schools and to give policy suggestions to address the issue.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 600 dropout and enrolled respondents were selected from 60 government primary schools of district Chiniot. School heads and parents of dropout children were taken as samples. The results were obtained by employing the Probit regression model.

Findings

Numbers of family members, age of the family head, exchange marriage and poverty status have positive relationship with dropout from primary schools. The findings revealed a higher rate of dropout among girls, which is a major cause of concern.

Practical implications

Education is regarded as a basic human right and a valuable human capital. It is included in Millennium Development Goals to achieve universal primary education and in Sustainable Development Goals as quality education. Underdeveloped countries are facing the problems of high dropout and lack of quality education, especially in Pakistan. These problems need to be addressed to keep pace with developed nations and to meet development goals.

Originality/value

It is recommended that government should create employment opportunities, family planning programs, legislature measures on exchange marriage and child labor. The involvement in co-curricular activities in learning and usage of audio-visual aids in the teaching process can improve the enrollment in the primary schools.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2021

Natsuho Yoshida

This study investigated the trends of repetition and dropout rates in Myanmar's lower secondary education before and after the introduction of the “Continuous Assessment…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study investigated the trends of repetition and dropout rates in Myanmar's lower secondary education before and after the introduction of the “Continuous Assessment and Progression System (CAPS)” and probed the dependence of these tendencies on high-, middle- and low- socioeconomic status (SES). The obtained results were then examined to extract effective policy implications for the achievement of universal secondary education as specified in the Sustainable Development Goals.

Design/methodology/approach

Before and after the CAPS introduction at four government secondary schools, grade repetition and dropout rate trends were examined with respect to differences in students' SES. The analysis utilised a sample of 7,272 students from target secondary schools in urban Yangon Region, Myanmar.

Findings

It was found that since the introduction of CAPS, the grade repetition rates had fallen significantly in all SES groups, so was effective regardless of students' SES. The results also demonstrated the influence of unequal CAPS on dropout rates: in the middle-SES group, significant falls to nearly zero post-CAPS implementation. The high-SES group was at ceiling pre- and post-CAPS, so was unaffected. However, in the low-SES group, high dropout rates persisted, indicating that the poor socioeconomic backgrounds of these students significantly reduced the benefits of CAPS.

Originality/value

Rather than using cross-sectional data such as education statistics, this study used longitudinal data based on academic enrollment registries that included information on individual enrollment statuses, which allowed for the relationships between grade repetition, school dropout, education policies and socioeconomic circumstances to be elucidated.

Details

International Journal of Comparative Education and Development, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2396-7404

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2015

Arindam Banik and Debasis Neogi

– The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that explain dropout of children from primary schools in Lohit district of Arunachal Pradesh, India.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that explain dropout of children from primary schools in Lohit district of Arunachal Pradesh, India.

Design/methodology/approach

The field survey was carried out in two phases, one, during January to April of 2010 and two, between August and November of 2011. The entire research work is based on stratified random sampling. The population in Lohit district is a set of tribal and non-tribal (mostly general) people. The district has two major tribes – Mishmi and Khamti.

Findings

The authors find that children dropout of school is affected by number of factors such as earning compulsions, household work, access to school, school time not suitable and parental unawareness.

Research limitations/implications

It is imperative to mention here that “earning compulsion” can be described only as a derivative of the major problem of abject poverty.

Practical implications

By highlighting the role of appropriate intervention as well as incapacitation, the authors believe that the findings presented above shed light on some important factors that explain dropouts.

Social implications

The evidence provided in this paper underscores the importance of social interactions in analysing individual outcomes.

Originality/value

The findings may have significant bearings in reducing dropout rates in India.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 42 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 30 January 2019

Emanuela Ghignoni, Giuseppe Croce and Alessandro d’Ambrosio

The purpose of this paper is to consider the enrolment at university and the subsequent possible dropout as a piece of the school-to-work transition and ask whether it…

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1128

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider the enrolment at university and the subsequent possible dropout as a piece of the school-to-work transition and ask whether it improves or worsens the labour market outcomes a few years after graduation from the high school.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis exploits data from the upper secondary graduate survey by ISTAT on a cohort of high school graduates and investigates the effect of dropping out four years after graduation. The labour market outcomes of university dropouts are compared to the outcomes of high school graduates who never enrolled at university. A propensity score matching approach is applied. The model is also estimated on the subsamples of males and females.

Findings

The findings show that spending a period at university and leaving it before completion makes the transition to work substantially more difficult. Both the probability of being NEET and getting a bad job increase in the case of dropout, while no relevant effect is found on earnings. Moreover, the impact of university dropout tends to be more harmful the longer the spell from enrolment to dropping out. Separate estimates by gender point out that females appear to be relatively more affected in the case of dropping out without a fallback plan.

Originality/value

While the existing studies in the literature on the school-to-work transition mostly focus on the determinants of the dropout, this paper investigates whether and how the employment outcomes are affected by dropping out in Italy. Moreover, university dropouts are compared to high school graduates with no university experience, rather than to university graduates. Finally, evidence on the mechanisms driving the effect of dropping out is provided, by considering timing and motivations for dropping out.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 40 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Jutta Viinikainen, Katja Kokko, Lea Pulkkinen and Jaakko Pehkonen

– The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence on labor market careers of dropouts with various levels of education.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence on labor market careers of dropouts with various levels of education.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper compares the labor market careers of dropouts and non-dropouts between ages 15 and 50 by using longitudinal data. The paper analyses how the results change when the authors control for differences in personality characteristics.

Findings

The paper finds that dropping out diminishes one's success in the labor market but this connection is reduced when the model is augmented with personality. Dropouts seem to have or lack certain personality characteristics that are associated with labor market success. These findings suggest that dropping out is either an adverse signal of non-cognitive skills and, thus, work performance and productivity, or personality characteristics are related to preferences toward career and work orientation, or both.

Originality/value

The paper analyses how the impact of dropping out on labor market outcomes changes when differences in personality characteristics are taken into account. The broad definition enables us to investigate how dropping out in general is related to labor market success.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 41 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Book part
Publication date: 5 October 2004

Virginia Wilcox-Gök, Dave E Marcotte, Farah Farahati and Carey Borkoski

Mental illness, in its various forms, is common in the United States. Tens of millions of Americans are afflicted by an episode of mental illness every year. Estimates of…

Abstract

Mental illness, in its various forms, is common in the United States. Tens of millions of Americans are afflicted by an episode of mental illness every year. Estimates of the 12-month prevalence of mental disorders in the U.S. (including alcohol and substance abuse or dependence) indicate that 22–30 persons per 100 in the adult population are afflicted each year.1 An episode of a psychiatric disorder, like a physical disorder, is debilitating – often disrupting the ability of the afflicted to carry on normal personal, social, and work activities. Mental illness also commonly results in large medical expenses. In addition, a number of recent papers have found that mental illness imposes large labor market losses on the ill, decreasing the likelihood of employment and limiting earnings for the employed.2 In particular, research by two of the authors indicates that depressive disorders cause significant reductions in the labor force participation of women and the earnings of both men and women.3

Details

The Economics of Gender and Mental Illness
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-111-8

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Article
Publication date: 26 August 2021

Akemi Ashida

This longitudinal study aims to understand the circumstances of and changes in student enrollment in Honduras by comparing geographically and socioeconomically different…

Abstract

Purpose

This longitudinal study aims to understand the circumstances of and changes in student enrollment in Honduras by comparing geographically and socioeconomically different areas and students' year of school entrance.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample was made up of 4,043 students from seven primary schools in a regional city and the capital city. Students' enrollment patterns, schooling and trajectories from entrance to departure, whether as a result of graduating or dropping out, were examined.

Findings

The number of students who graduated without repetition increased, and most of the students accessed primary education at the official entrance age. However, grade repetitions and dropouts were observed in the regional city in particular, and differences were also found in the school departure age by region. In the regional city, continuation of schooling after a change in residence has become more common in recent years. Adopting an automatic promotion policy could be one strategy for reducing grade repetitions and dropouts; however, further discussion is required to prepare a remedial opportunity for students who might otherwise lack the minimum proficiency level.

Originality/value

Few studies have examined changes in school enrollment in Honduras from a micro perspective. This study contributes a practical approach to exploring educational trends in the region by explaining how students reached their final grades by tracking trajectories, which has not been observed so far in terms of the accumulated average.

Details

International Journal of Comparative Education and Development, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2396-7404

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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2020

Md. Abdur Rahman Forhad and Gazi Mahabubul Alam

A minimum dropout age (MDA) requires potential dropouts to stay in school until graduation. Most countries have an MDA at least 16. An MDA greater than 16 requires…

Abstract

Purpose

A minimum dropout age (MDA) requires potential dropouts to stay in school until graduation. Most countries have an MDA at least 16. An MDA greater than 16 requires potential dropouts to stay in school for at least one more year, which immediately reduces their available time and opportunities to commit a crime in the community. This study aims to examine how a higher MDA reduces crime in the community. The authors then show a higher MDA helps potential dropouts to become an entrepreneur.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors develop an economic model of crime that shows how an MDA greater than 16 affects contemporaneous juvenile crime in the community. Considering an MDA of 16 as a benchmark MDA, a hypothetical example with simulated data on the USA is used. The authors then show how a higher MDA offers a financial opportunity for the professional development programs.

Findings

An MDA greater than 16 reduces crime in the community. Reducing crime allows preventing social and monetary cost on juvenile delinquency. This economic efficiency offers a financial ability for adolescent training and other development programs and thereby reduces unemployment and other adverse consequences of the society.

Originality/value

Unlike previous studies, the authors develop an economic model of crime that shows a hypothetical relationship between an MDA and contemporaneous juvenile crime in the community. A higher MDA allows more financial ability for juvenile development programs in high school to improve the entrepreneurial skills.

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2020

Xiaoyun Liu and Scott Rozelle

Although China has instituted compulsory education through Grade 9, it is still unclear whether students are, in fact, staying in school. In this paper, the authors use a…

Abstract

Purpose

Although China has instituted compulsory education through Grade 9, it is still unclear whether students are, in fact, staying in school. In this paper, the authors use a multi-year (2003–2011) longitudinal survey data set on rural households in 102–130 villages across 30 provinces in China to examine the extent to which students still drop out of school prior to finishing compulsory education.

Design/methodology/approach

To examine the correlates of dropping out, the study uses ordinary least squares and multivariate probit models.

Findings

Dropout rate from junior high school was still high (14%) in 2011, even though it fell across the study period. There was heterogeneity in the measured dropout rate. There was great variation among different regions, and especially among different villages. In all, 10% of the sample villages showed extremely high rates during the study period and actually rose over time. Household characteristics associated with poverty and the opportunity cost of staying in school were significantly and negatively correlated with the completion of nine years of schooling.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this study suggest that China needs to take additional steps to overcome the barriers keeping children from completing nine years of schooling if they hope to either achieve their goal of having all children complete nine years of school or extend compulsory schooling to the end of twelfth grade.

Originality/value

The authors seek to measure the prevalence of both compulsory education rates of dropouts and rates of completion in China. The study examines the correlates of dropping out at the lower secondary schooling level as a way of understanding what types of students (from what types of villages) are not complying with national schooling regulations. To overcome the methodological shortcomings of previous research on dropout in China, the study uses a nationally representative, longitudinal data set based on household surveys collected between 2003 and 2011.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Alice L. Bennett

The purpose of this paper is to explore the range of personality disorder diagnoses and levels of psychopathy as assessed by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the range of personality disorder diagnoses and levels of psychopathy as assessed by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) associated with treatment discontinuation in a sample of adult male prisoners.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from 92 male offenders in a high secure prison personality disorder treatment unit was analysed. PCL-R and personality disorder diagnoses were predicted as being related to increased treatment dropout.

Findings

Having a diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder was related to treatment dropout, but PCL-R total scores were not. There was a trend for a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder being associated with remaining in treatment.

Research limitations/implications

The current study highlights that narcissistic personality disorder can be associated with treatment dropout, warranting further exploration as to why this is the case.

Practical implications

Managing responsivity issues for those presenting with a personality disorder diagnosis could be effective in maximising treatment engagement from this specific offender group.

Originality/value

Although treatment dropout has been explored previously, this is the first study to explore treatment dropout at a specialised unit designed specifically to provide treatment for this client group.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

Keywords

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