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Abstract

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Environmental Taxation and the Double Dividend
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-848-3

Book part
Publication date: 1 November 2011

Theodore Palivos, Jianpo Xue and Chong K. Yip

This chapter develops a neoclassical growth model of illegal immigration with imperfect substitutability between native and immigrant workers in production. We investigate…

Abstract

This chapter develops a neoclassical growth model of illegal immigration with imperfect substitutability between native and immigrant workers in production. We investigate analytically and/or numerically the effects of illegal immigration on the average capital stock in the host economy as well as on the wage, income, and asset holdings of native workers. Our findings indicate that the effects of an increase in illegal immigration on the average levels of capital, consumption, and income are positive. Moreover, by employing the normalization technique (e.g., Klump & de La Grandville, 2000), we examine the effects of a change in the elasticity of substitution between immigrant workers and natives for any given immigration ratio. These effects are in general ambiguous, because of the presence of two opposing forces: the efficiency and the distribution effects. Finally, we extend the model by separating the domestic workers into skilled and unskilled and study the impact on distribution of income and wealth. We show that illegal immigration may not necessarily make the distribution of wealth more unequal and unskilled labor worse off. This is because the end results depend on the elasticities of substitution between different types of labor. Thus, assuming erroneously that immigrants and natives are perfect substitutes could lead to results that are not only overestimated but also of the wrong sign.

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Economic Growth and Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-397-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 19 May 2010

Marta Rubio-Codina

This chapter examines the effects of Oportunidades, a conditional cash transfer program, on the allocation of time of household members in rural Mexico. I exploit the…

Abstract

This chapter examines the effects of Oportunidades, a conditional cash transfer program, on the allocation of time of household members in rural Mexico. I exploit the random placement of benefits across communities in the evaluation sample and the program's eligibility criteria and scheme of incentives to identify effects. The majority of Oportunidades benefits are linked to children's school attendance, implying a reduction in the price of schooling. I argue that changes in relative prices lead to substitution effects, whereas the (almost) unconditional nutritional transfer translates into an income effect. Findings show increases in schooling and reductions in children's participation in market and non-market work. Although the program does not seem to substantially alter adults’ time allocation, evidence suggests that adult women substitute for children's time in non-remunerated activities.

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Child Labor and the Transition between School and Work
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-001-9

Abstract

Details

Environmental Taxation and the Double Dividend
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-848-3

Article
Publication date: 19 December 2019

Dong Yan

The purpose of this paper is to examine the actual legal effect of collective agreements by focusing on the litigation regarding the implementation of collective…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the actual legal effect of collective agreements by focusing on the litigation regarding the implementation of collective agreements in China where current literature on the topic is scarce.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper deploys both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the features of litigation regarding collective agreements. The judgments on collective agreement by people’s courts nationwide from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2018 provide the primary empirical data. The intrinsic features of collective agreement disputes are investigated to delineate different sorts of theoretically presumed legal effect, namely contractual, normative and other (if any). A number of collective agreement templates and texts have been gathered and analysed to further explore the factors leading to collective agreement disputes. A dozen of labour law professionals, workers, scholars and trade union officials, were interviewed to verify the findings.

Findings

The number of collective agreement disputes is relatively small compared to the number of valid collective agreements or the volume of other labour disputes. This study found no litigation initiated by trade unions to claim a remedy against a violation of a collective agreement by an employer. However, a growing number of cases were filed by individual workers to complain about the terms and conditions of their individual employment agreements in contradiction to the existing collective agreement. These data do not mean that collective agreements lack problems or have no significance in action. A novel effect – a “substitution effect” – is evident in the existing labour litigations and relatively popular amongst employers, as they often refer to the collective agreement when a written individual agreement, as the mandatory document, is absent. The advent of substitution effect reflects a pragmatic view amongst Chinese labour law professionals, employers and workers.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the recent establishment of the online judgments database, this study has focused on collective agreement litigation in people’s courts from 2014 to 2018, which is representative of the national trend of such disputes and thus provides valuable insights. Future studies should cover a wider time span and extend to the collective agreement disputes subject to labour arbitration to provide a fuller picture of the challenges and potential solutions.

Practical implications

By understanding the legal effect of collective agreements in reality, the legislature, workers and employers can act accordingly to enhance or empower it. The insignificant volume of both contractual and normative claims on collective agreements indicates the pressing need to inject something concrete into both substantive rights and the implementation mechanisms of collective agreements. The existence of substitution claims illustrates the room for further implementation of written individual agreements to reduce the need to borrow from collective agreements to fill the void left by the absence of individual agreements.

Originality/value

This study uniquely evaluates collective agreement disputes in China to seek their true legal effect, finding the substitution effect of collective agreements that was absent from the prior literature. The features of collective agreements are reflected in this work, together with public policy and theoretical implications.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 1987

Samuel Cameron

Economists have, in the last 20 years, made many contributions to the study of the deterrent effect of sanctions on criminals — these are surveyed in Brief & Fienberg…

Abstract

Economists have, in the last 20 years, made many contributions to the study of the deterrent effect of sanctions on criminals — these are surveyed in Brief & Fienberg (1980), Blumstein & Cohen (1978), Tullock (1974), Palmer (1977) and Taylor (1978). A considerable amount of the empirical work has dealt with crime supply functions for specific types of crime. Surprisingly little attention has been given to the switching of criminals between crimes in response to differentials in deterrence. Only three empirical studies of this phenomenon have appeared: Heineke (1978), Holtmann & Yap (1978), Hakim et al. (1984). All of these use cross‐section US data for property crimes. Their findings are thus somewhat tentative given that they may not hold up in other national contexts. This paper seeks to remedy this gap by studying substitution behaviour for burglary, robbery and theft using 1981 data for the police force areas of England and Wales. We compare our results with those of American researchers and also examine the impact of substitution on the broad conclusions of the conventional non‐substitution model.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 14 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Article
Publication date: 16 December 2019

Xu Tian, Fujin Yi and Xiaohua Yu

The purpose of this paper is to investigate Chinese farmers’ adaptation behavior in the context of the rising cost of labor in agriculture. As the cost of labor increases…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate Chinese farmers’ adaptation behavior in the context of the rising cost of labor in agriculture. As the cost of labor increases, farmers will either reallocate their budget to different inputs or change the structure of agricultural production to maximize profit.

Design/methodology/approach

The Rural Fixed Point Observation data set between 2004 and 2010 is employed in the empirical analysis of this study. Both the compensated and uncompensated demand elasticities with respect to wages are estimated by adopting the translog cost function and the profit function.

Findings

The results show that labor input will drop down significantly as a response to rising wages. Land, fertilizer and intermediate inputs are net complements of labor, whereas machinery appears to be net substitute for labor. In addition, the authors also separate the expansion effect from the substitution effect and find that farmers will shift to grain production with intensive use of fertilizer and from wheat and corn to rice as a response to the rising cost of labor.

Originality/value

This study adopts the classical household model to incorporate various adaptation behaviors of farmers into one framework and decomposes the total effect of the rising cost of labor on input demand into an expansion effect and a substitution effect, which provides a better understanding of farmers’ adaptation behavior.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 October 2008

E. Kwan Choi and Jai-Young Choi

Purpose – This chapter investigates the role of infrastructure aid to developing countries for determining the effect on national income and consumer welfare. The chapter…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter investigates the role of infrastructure aid to developing countries for determining the effect on national income and consumer welfare. The chapter further demonstrates the conditions for the Dutch disease effect by decomposing the output effects of infrastructure aid into the initial factor-saving effect, factor-substitution effect and nontraded good effect.

Methodology/approach – This chapter extends the Heckscher−Ohlin model to a 3×2 case with two traded goods and a nontraded good, and derives comparative static results on factor prices, the price of nontraded goods, foreign exchange rate, sectoral outputs, and national income and consumer welfare.

Findings – It is shown that for a recipient country, infrastructure aid to either the export or import sector necessarily raises national income and consumer welfare, whereas the same aid to the nontraded good sector does not affect national income but raises consumer welfare. Infrastructure aid may lead to a Dutch disease effect via its three effects on industrial outputs: the initial factor-saving effect, factor-substitution effect and nontraded good effect.

Research limitations/implications – This chapter considers infrastructure capital as a public input, but it is devoid of analysis of inter-industrial spillover effects that the infrastructure capital generates to other sectors.

Practical implications – This chapter reveals several aspects of infrastructure aid that the practitioners of aids must consider.

Details

Globalization and Emerging Issues in Trade Theory and Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84663-963-0

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 1 September 2021

Pan Hu, Ying Wang, Tao Feng and Yuxin Duan

The purpose of this paper is to investigate three issues: how does an innovative search (local search and boundary-spanning search) impact firm innovation performance of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate three issues: how does an innovative search (local search and boundary-spanning search) impact firm innovation performance of latecomers; how does capability reconfiguration (capability evolution and capability substitution) mediates the relationship between innovative search and firm innovation performance; and how does the technological leapfrogging process (initial stage, following stage, synchronization stage and leading stage) moderate the relationship between capability reconfiguration and firm innovation performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A “resource-capability-performance” theoretical framework was developed to explore the relationships between local/boundary-spanning search, capability reconfiguration and firm innovation performance. The data were collected by sending out surveys to managers and employees in various industries in mainland China. These hypotheses were tested using structural equation models and hierarchical regressions.

Findings

The results showed that: innovative search has a direct causal relationship to capability reconfiguration; local search and boundary-spanning search are conducive to improve the innovation performance of latecomers; the impact of local search and boundary-spanning search on innovation performance is realized through the completion of mediating role of capability reconfiguration; there are differences in the path of local search and boundary-spanning search affecting the capability reconfiguration of enterprise innovation performance; and the relationship between innovative search, capability reconfiguration and enterprise innovation performance evolves with the enterprise in different stages of technological leapfrogging.

Originality/value

This study explores the relationship and the path of innovative search to firm innovation performance and analyzes the path difference between local search and boundary-spinning search, which enriches the research of organizational search and enterprise innovation. This paper reveals the whole path of innovative search affecting innovation performance, discusses the important role of capability reconfiguration and makes incremental contributions to dynamic capability theory. It studies the evolution of innovative search on innovation performance under the background of technological leapfrogging, which provides a new perspective for the study of organizational search and capability-based theory.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1983

Yehoshua Liebermann and Jacques Silber

Examines the relationship between household economics and market segmentation. Provides a theoretical framework and an empirical analysis. Discusses the differences…

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Abstract

Examines the relationship between household economics and market segmentation. Provides a theoretical framework and an empirical analysis. Discusses the differences between household economics and traditional microeconomics. Analyzes factors impacting on household economics including budgets and technological changes. Breaks the theoretical framework down into four key areas of the household function – leisure, care of children, care of the home and shopping related activities – and provides time allocation for each. Uses studies conducted in 1967 in Paris and 1974 in Nimes to identify ten categories relating to household economics: Household work; Child care; Purchase of goods and services; Eating/sleeping; Education & training; Collective activities; Entertainment; Sports; Passive leisure. Attributes time allocation to each section. Concludes that the theory of household economics may be employed as a potential for identifying and evaluating possible segmentation variables.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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