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Article

Chinu Chacko and Rajamohan Thankappan

The purpose of this paper is to compare the effects of repeatedly heated coconut oil, mustard oil and sunflower oil on antioxidant status in cholesterol-fed Sprague Dawley rats.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the effects of repeatedly heated coconut oil, mustard oil and sunflower oil on antioxidant status in cholesterol-fed Sprague Dawley rats.

Design/methodology/approach

The test oils were heated at 210 ± 10°C for 15 h. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. In total, 15% fresh/heated oils and 1% cholesterol were mixed with the experimental diet and fed to the animals for 60 days.

Findings

Chemical analysis revealed that repeated heating of oils resulted in changes in fatty acid composition and elevated lipid peroxidation, the effects being lower in heated coconut oil. Body weight gain significantly decreased in heated coconut oil (p = 0.02), heated mustard oil (p = 0.022) and heated sunflower oil (p = 0.001) fed animals. Malondialdehyde level was significantly increased (p = 0.001) in tissues of heated oils fed animals. Concentration of protein oxidation products was significantly increased (p = 0.001) in heated oils fed animals. Activities of antioxidant enzymes were decreased (p = 0.001) in heated oils fed animals. Total thiols were decreased (p = 0.001) in tissues of animals that were fed heated oils. Animals that were fed heated mustard oil and heated sunflower oil showed lower antioxidant levels and higher oxidation products when compared to those fed heated coconut oil.

Originality/value

Studies comparing the effects of thermally oxidized oils that vary in fatty acid composition are rare. The effects of fresh and heated oils that vary in fatty acid constitution, namely, coconut oil, mustard oil and sunflower oil, in cholesterol-fed rats are studied.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Aicha Benyahia‐Mostefaoui, Sabrine Louala and Myriem Lamri‐Senhadji

The present investigation was undertaken to study the potential effects of milk lipids compared to sardine oil on inflammation biomarkers and lipid peroxidation in…

Abstract

Purpose

The present investigation was undertaken to study the potential effects of milk lipids compared to sardine oil on inflammation biomarkers and lipid peroxidation in hypercholesterolemic rats. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Male Wistar rats were fed 20 percent casein combined with 5 percent milk lipids or 5 percent sardine oil and 1 percent cholesterol for 28 days. A control group was fed a standard diet.

Findings

No significant difference in serum triacylglycerol (TG) was found in the milk lipids versus sardine oil and control. However, serum TG was reduced (1.7‐fold) with sardine oil compared with the control. Serum total cholesterol (TC) was, respectively, 3.6‐ and 2.5‐fold higher in milk lipids and sardine oil, respectively, compared with control. Compared to sardine oil, TC value was 1.4‐fold higher in the milk lipid. Serum C‐reactive protein (CRP) was elevated (eight‐ and 33‐fold) in the milk lipid and sardine oil compared to control, respectively. However, CRP value was four‐fold lower in milk lipids than those in sardine oil. Compared to sardine oil, iron value was two‐fold higher in milk lipids versus sardine oil. Malondialdehyde content of red blood cell, heart and brain were decreased in milk lipids versus sardine oil (p<0.05). Hydroperoxydes contents in milk lipids were also lower in heart and aorta compared to sardine oil and control (p<0.05).

Originality/value

Milk lipids compared to sardine oil does not modulate the hypercholesterolemia but decreases inflammation biomarkers and seems to protect efficiency of some tissues against the cytotoxic action and oxidative stress of cholesterol enriched diet.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 43 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Sherazed Hamza‐Reguig, Sabrine Louala, Ahmed Boualga and Myriem Y Lamri‐Senhadji

The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the effect of sardine protein on the redox status in rats fed a cholesterol‐rich diet.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the effect of sardine protein on the redox status in rats fed a cholesterol‐rich diet.

Design/methodology/approach

Hypercholesterolemic rats were divided into two groups fed diets enriched with cholesterol and containing 20 percent of sardine proteins (SPc) or casein (CASc) for 28 days. A control group was fed a standard diet (CAS).

Findings

After 28 days of experiment, no significant difference in serum total cholesterol triacylglycerols and uric acid was found with the three diets. Serum albumin content was, respectively, 2‐fold higher in SPc than those in CASc group. Compared to CAS, this value was 1.3‐fold lower in CASc group. In liver and heart, lipid peroxidation was 1.7‐ and 2‐fold lower in SPc compared with CASc and CAS, respectively. In red blood cells and epididymal fat, superoxide dismutase activity was, respectively, 1.3‐and 3‐fold higher in SPc compared to CASc. Epididymal fat and heart catalase activity were, respectively, elevated (+50 and +79 percent) in SPc than in CASc. Sardine protein decreased nitric oxide levels in heart and epididymal fat (twofold) compared to CASc but compared to control group, nitric oxide value was higher in epididymal fat (2‐fold) and liver (3‐fold).

Originality/value

Sardine protein exerts a beneficial action against oxidative stress caused by dietary cholesterol specifically in the heart by reducing lipid peroxidation and enhancing catalase activity.

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Article

Hakima Mir, Djamil Krouf, Nawal Taleb-Dida, Sadia Berzou, Akila Guenzet and HadjMostefa Khelladi

This study aims to investigate the possible effect of Citrus latifolia (CL) extract on biomarkers of oxidative stress, including lipid peroxidation products in rats fed a…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the possible effect of Citrus latifolia (CL) extract on biomarkers of oxidative stress, including lipid peroxidation products in rats fed a high cholesterol diet

Design/methodology/approach

Hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding normocholesterolemic rats 1 per cent cholesterol-enriched diet for 15 days. An experimental group (n = 20) was divided into two groups (n = 10) and fed the same diet with or without CL lyophilized aqueous extract (1 per cent) for four weeks. At day 28, ten rats from each group were killed.

Findings

Treatment with CL lyophilized aqueous extract compared with the untreated group had decreased plasma total cholesterol (TC) (−36 per cent), triacylglycerols (−48 per cent), isoprostanes values (−74 per cent) and reduced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in erythrocytes (−21 per cent). However, the supplementation of CL peels in the hypercholesterolemic diet enhanced superoxide dismutase (+69 per cent), glutathione reductase (+30 per cent) and catalase activities (+34 per cent).

Originality/value

In hypercholesterolemic rats, administering CL extract ameliorates dyslipidemia and attenuates lipid peroxidation in tissues. These results suggest that CL could be beneficial in the primary treatment of hypercholesterolemia and oxidative damage caused by a high-cholesterol diet.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Souhila Benomar, Sanaa Yahia, Faiza Dehiba, Natalia Guillen, Maria Jesús Rodriguez-Yoldi, Jesús Osada and Ahmed Boualga

– The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic activities of sardine and bogue protein hydrolysates in cholesterol-fed rats.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic activities of sardine and bogue protein hydrolysates in cholesterol-fed rats.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 18 male Wistar rats (220 ± 10 g) fed 20 per cent casein, 1 per cent cholesterol and 0.5 per cent cholic acid were divided into three groups and received a daily gavage of 250 mg of sardine (SPH) or bogue (BPH) protein hydrolysates for 30 days. The third group, named control group (CG), received in the same conditions water. Lipoproteins were fractionated by size-exclusion fast protein liquid chromatography, and serum lipids, apolipoproteins and lipoproteins were assayed.

Findings

In SPH and BPH groups, serum total cholesterol concentrations were −66 per cent lower than in CG. This corresponded to the decreased very low-density lipoprotein-C in the former groups. Moreover, BPH treatment reduced low-density lipoprotein-C compared with CG and SPH groups. Compared with CG, serum phospholipids were reduced by SPH and BPH. Furthermore, BPH increased significantly APOA4 and sphingomyelin but lowered phosphatidylcholine. In the latter group, serum lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase activity was +23 per cent higher, but with SPH, this activity was −35 per cent reduced compared with CG. Apolipoprotein A-I contents were similar in the three groups. Compared with CG, hydroperoxide and lipid peroxidation contents in serum and lipoprotein fractions were reduced by SPH and BPH. Compared with CG, serum superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were increased in the treated groups, particularly in the BPH group.

Originality/value

These results suggest that sardine protein hydrolysates and particularly those of bogue could be a very useful natural compound to prevent hypercholesterolemia by both improving the lipid profile and modulating oxidative stress in cholesterol-fed rats.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 45 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Fatima Bensalah, Nour el Imane Harrat, Fouad Affane, Hadjera Chekkal and Myriem Lamri-Senhadji

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of whole oat, oat bran and refined oat incorporation in a high-fat diet (HFD) on cardio-metabolic risk biomarkers in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of whole oat, oat bran and refined oat incorporation in a high-fat diet (HFD) on cardio-metabolic risk biomarkers in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Design/methodology/approach

T2DM was induced by feeding male rats with an HFD for 10 weeks, followed by a low dose of streptozotocin. T2DM rats were then divided into four homogeneous groups. Three groups consumed an HFD containing 45 per cent (g/100 g diet) whole oat, oat bran or refined oat. The fourth untreated group (control) received the HFD.

Findings

The results showed that whole oat and oat bran, compared with refined oat and control, effectively reduced food intake (p < 0.007), arterial blood pressure (p = 0.0001), glycemia (p < 0.001), insulinemia (p < 0.01), glycosylated haemoglobin (p < 0.001) as well as homeostasis insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p < 0.001). They also improved blood lipid levels and reverse cholesterol transport by reducing serum total cholesterol (p = 0.0001), triacylglycerols (p < 0.05), very-low- (p = 0.0001) and low-density lipoproteins cholesterol contents (p < 0.02) increasing lipids (p < 0.002) and cholesterol excretion (p = 0.0001), and high-density lipoprotein cholesteryl esters (HDL2-CE) concentrations (p = 0.0001) and stimulating lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity (p = 0.0001). Moreover, they attenuated lipid peroxidation by increasing paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) atheroprotective activity (p < 0.05).

Originality/value

In T2DM rats, whole oat and particularly, its bran incorporated into an HFD improves arterial blood pressure, glycemic balance and lipid metabolic pathway by reducing hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia and increasing atheroprotective activities of LCAT and PON-1. In contrast, refined oat accentuates the risk factors associated with diabetes.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Hadjera Chekkal, Nour el Imane Harrat, Fatima Bensalah, Fouad Affane, Sabrine Louala and Myriem Lamri-Senhadji

The effects of Opuntia ficus indica (OFI) cladodes on uricemia level, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative damage were studied in young rats fed a cafeteria diet (CD).

Abstract

Purpose

The effects of Opuntia ficus indica (OFI) cladodes on uricemia level, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative damage were studied in young rats fed a cafeteria diet (CD).

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 16 young male Wistar rats (weighing 110 ± 20 g and four weeks old) were divided into two homogenous groups. The first group received a CD containing 50% of hyperlipidic diet and 50% of junk food mix (processed mix: hyper-fat, hyper-salted and sweetened) (CD group), and the second group (CD + OFI nopalitos) received the same diet supplemented with 50 g of fresh OFI nopalitos (young cladodes) for 30 days.

Findings

OFI nopalitos regulate the hyperuricemia, improve the endothelial dysfunction by raising the bioavailability of nitric oxide(NO) and reduce prooxidant markers by reducing lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation (p < 0.05) and boosting antioxidant capacity and enhancing the antioxidant enzymes activities (p < 0.05) in blood and aorta tissues of rats early fed with a high-fat diet /junk food.

Social implications

By-products of OFI have specific functional properties that may be beneficial in metabolic disorders and offer a better alternative with an economic and sustainable development perspective.

Originality/value

By-products of OFI highlight potential functional properties mainly based on its potent antioxidant capacity. By-products of OFI can be used as a promising nutraceutical resource to prevent various metabolic disorders in relation with cardiovascular diseases or hyperuricemia in subjects consuming junk food and or living in the Western society to reach the objectives of health policy and maintain a sustainable health system development.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the protective potential of prickly pear cactus fresh cladodes (opuntia ficus indica (OFI)) on glycemic disorders, dyslipidemia, prooxidant/antioxidant stress biomarkers and reverse cholesterol transport (by evaluating the activity of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT)) and paraoxonase (PON1) in rats prematurely exposed to cafeteria diet (CD).

Design/methodology/approach

Sixteen young rats were divided into two groups fed CD containing 50 per cent of hyperlipidic diet (HLD) and 50 per cent of junk food mix supplemented or not with 50 g of fresh young cladodes of OFI to 100 g of CD, during 30 days.

Findings

OFI cladodes supplementation decreased significantly body weight (p < 0.001), food intake (p < 0.05), adipose tissue weight (p < 0.01), fasting glycemia and glycosylated hemoglobin (p < 0.01), homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and insulinemia (p < 0.001), levels of cholesterol (C) (p < 0.05) and triacylglycerols (TG) (p < 0.01) in serum and in very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL-C p < 0.05 and VLDL-TG p < 0.01) and improves reverse cholesterol transport by increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesteryl-esters concentrations (p < 0.001) and by stimulating LCAT activity. Moreover, they attenuated lipid peroxidation in VLDL and low-density lipoproteins by increasing atheroprotective activity of PON-1 and in liver and adipose tissue by enhancing enzymatic antioxidant defence.

Social implications

The young cladodes of OFI because of their antiobesity benefits could constitute a novel functional ingredient in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications.

Originality/value

Young cladodes of OFI in rat precociously submitted to a hyperlipidic diet/junk food (cafeteria model) seem to prevent metabolic disorders associated with obesity.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Sherazed Hamza-Reguig, Nabila Boukhari Benahmed Daidj, Sabrine Louala, Ahmed Boualga and Myriem Lamri-Senhadji

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of replacing two different fats on dyslipidemia, glycemic balance and adipose tissue redox status in obese rats.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of replacing two different fats on dyslipidemia, glycemic balance and adipose tissue redox status in obese rats.

Design/methodology/approach

Obesity was induced by feeding a high-mutton-fat diet during three months. An experimental group (n = 24) was divided into two groups that were fed during one month, 20 per cent of margarine or sardine oil. At Day 30, six rats from each group were sacrificed and the remaining rats were then subjected to a change in diet for one month: margarine was replaced by sardine oil and inversely, and then the rats were sacrificed. Three other groups (n = 6), each fed during two months, 20 per cent of margarine, sardine oil or mutton fat, served as controls.

Findings

Substitution of sardine oil by margarine compared to control sardine oil had increased triacylglycerols (TGs), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and isoprostanes (IsoPs) values, but decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and superoxide dismutase activity. Replacing margarine by sardine oil compared to control margarine reduced total cholesterol, TG, HbA1c, TBARS and IsoP contents but enhanced glutathione reductase and peroxidase activities. Nevertheless, comparing with the mutton fat, the two substitutions had improved glycemic and lipidic abnormalities and attenuated lipoperoxidation by enhancing enzymatic antioxidant defense. These favorable effects were better when margarine was replaced by sardine oil.

Originality/value

Substituting margarine with sardine oil seems to attenuate beneficial cardiometabolic risk markers associated to obesity and potentiate efficiency adipose tissue against the oxidative stress induced by the obesogenic diet.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Luthfia Dewi, Lara Ayu Lestari, Azizah Nur Astiningrum, Vita Fadhila, Nur Amala, Muhamad Abdal Bakrie and Nurul Hidayah

This study aims to evaluate the effect of the combination of tempeh and red ginger flour in hypercholesterolemic rats.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluate the effect of the combination of tempeh and red ginger flour in hypercholesterolemic rats.

Design/methodology/approach

Sprague Dawley male rats (n = 30; body weight 150-200 g) were randomly divided by five groups (n = 6), consist of negative control (K−) group: group fed by normal diet (laboratory standard diet laboratory, 4.35 kcal/g, 0% cholesterol); positive control (K+) group: group fed by high cholesterol diet (5.28 kcal/g, 12.1% cholesterol); Treatment 1 (P1) group: group fed by high cholesterol diet and treated by tempeh flour (TF) 1.9 g/200 g body weight; Treatment 2 (P2) group: group fed by high cholesterol diet and treated by red ginger flour (RGF) 0.036 g/200 g body weight; and Treatment 3 (P3) group: group fed by high cholesterol diet and treated by a combination TF 0.95 g/200 g body weight and red ginger 0.018 g/200 g body weight. The lipid profiles and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed.

Findings

The combination of tempeh and red ginger has successfully exerted the total cholesterol (121.9 ± 3.41 mg/dL; p < 0.01), triglycerides (TG) (89.3 ± 2.94 mg/dL; p < 0.01), low-density lipoprotein (39.1 ± 1.59 mg/dL) and MDA (2.0 ± 0.24 mg/dL; p < 0.01) lower than the other treatments. Also, the combination of tempeh and red ginger treatment appeared the highest high-density lipoprotein concentration (63.4 ± 2.26 mg/dL; p < 0.01) compared to the other treatment groups. Total cholesterol and TG were predicted as the increasing of MDA concentration.

Originality/value

The combination treatments successfully improved the lipid profiles and MDA. Furthermore, the combination of tempeh and red ginger could be effective in supporting therapy as the hypolipidemic condition.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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