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Article

Pranav Chauhan, Arun K. Das, P.K. Nanda, Vishal Kumbhar and J.P. Yadav

Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) is well known for its strong, hot, peppery taste and has many nutritional, pharmaceutical and traditional therapeutic uses. The aim of this…

Abstract

Purpose

Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) is well known for its strong, hot, peppery taste and has many nutritional, pharmaceutical and traditional therapeutic uses. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant effect of different solvent extracts of black cumin seed to retard lipid and protein oxidation in raw ground pork meat during refrigerated storage (4 ± 1°C) for nine days.

Design/methodology/approach

Black cumin extracts (BCEs) were prepared using different solvents, namely, ethanol, water, ethanol:water (60:40) and methanol:hot water (60:40). Extracts were analysed for total phenolic content (TPC), 1,1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and reducing power. Based on the results, water extract (WE) and ethanol–water extract (EHWE) of black cumin were selected and incorporated at 1.5 per cent into freshly minced pork meat and compared with a synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; 100 ppm), in retarding lipid and protein oxidation. Treated and control samples were aerobically packed in low-density polyethylene bags for analysis of various parameters (pH, colour and odour score, peroxide, lipid and protein oxidation) during nine-day refrigerated storage study.

Findings

Results showed that BCEs had a good amount of TPC (4.4-7.4 mg gallic acid equivalents/g) and also DPPH scavenging activities (33.96-44.23 per cent), with WE and EHWE extracts showing highest reducing power and promising antioxidant capacity. Hence, BCEs (WE and EHWE) incorporated at 1.5 per cent into freshly minced pork meat was tested, compared to BHT (100 ppm) and control samples, in retarding lipid and protein oxidation during storage. In BCE-treated samples, thiobarbituric acid reacting substances, free fatty acids, peroxide, formation of protein carbonyls and off-odour or rancid odour development were lower than control and values were comparable with BHT. Incorporation of BCE did not negatively affect the colour of ground pork.

Originality/value

BCEs (WE and EHWE) at 1.5 per cent inhibited protein and lipid oxidation and it could be exploited commercially as an effective alternative in retarding oxidative deterioration of meat products.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Chinu Chacko and Rajamohan Thankappan

The purpose of this paper is to compare the effects of repeatedly heated coconut oil, mustard oil and sunflower oil on antioxidant status in cholesterol-fed Sprague Dawley rats.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the effects of repeatedly heated coconut oil, mustard oil and sunflower oil on antioxidant status in cholesterol-fed Sprague Dawley rats.

Design/methodology/approach

The test oils were heated at 210 ± 10°C for 15 h. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. In total, 15% fresh/heated oils and 1% cholesterol were mixed with the experimental diet and fed to the animals for 60 days.

Findings

Chemical analysis revealed that repeated heating of oils resulted in changes in fatty acid composition and elevated lipid peroxidation, the effects being lower in heated coconut oil. Body weight gain significantly decreased in heated coconut oil (p = 0.02), heated mustard oil (p = 0.022) and heated sunflower oil (p = 0.001) fed animals. Malondialdehyde level was significantly increased (p = 0.001) in tissues of heated oils fed animals. Concentration of protein oxidation products was significantly increased (p = 0.001) in heated oils fed animals. Activities of antioxidant enzymes were decreased (p = 0.001) in heated oils fed animals. Total thiols were decreased (p = 0.001) in tissues of animals that were fed heated oils. Animals that were fed heated mustard oil and heated sunflower oil showed lower antioxidant levels and higher oxidation products when compared to those fed heated coconut oil.

Originality/value

Studies comparing the effects of thermally oxidized oils that vary in fatty acid composition are rare. The effects of fresh and heated oils that vary in fatty acid constitution, namely, coconut oil, mustard oil and sunflower oil, in cholesterol-fed rats are studied.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Jessica Antigo, Lucineia Cestari, Monica Scapim, Suelen Siqueira dos Santos, Cristiane Feniman Moritz and Grasiele Scaramal Madrona

The purpose of this study was to analyze lipid oxidation and microbiological, physical, chemical and sensory attributes of dulce de leche.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to analyze lipid oxidation and microbiological, physical, chemical and sensory attributes of dulce de leche.

Design/methodology/approach

Dulce de leche samples were produced from various essential oil (EOs), control (no EO), clove, cinnamon and a clove and cinnamon mixture. After manufacturing, the products were stored at 25°C for 210 days. During storage, the samples were analyzed for texture, color, protein, lipids, lipid oxidation, pH, moisture, ash and enumeration of Salmonella sp., coliforms at 45°C, Staphylococcus sp. coagulase positive and mesophilic bacteria. The sensory analysis used a hedonic scale for appearance, smell, taste and texture attributes and overall acceptance.

Findings

The addition of EOs (clove and cinnamon) did not alter (p > 0.05) the proximal composition, texture, color or sensory attributes of dulce de leche. All products presented a good acceptance rate (>70 per cent). However, among the samples containing EO, dulce de leche with cinnamon presented a higher acceptance (81.67 per cent), and after 210 days of storage, it had lower (40.9 μg malonaldehyde/g p-value <0.01) lipid oxidation. Microbiological analyses indicated that the EOs are active antimicrobial components and are viable inclusions in this type of product.

Originality/value

The inclusion of EOs in dulce de leche provided an overall sensory acceptance similar to the traditional product and all products, including the control, were comparable. Dulce de leche produced with EOs is marketable.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Hyeoung-Su Lee and Dong-Ho Bae

The purpose of this paper is to determine the influences of fat content and storage temperature on the quality of frozen pork patties during storage to evaluate the shelf…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the influences of fat content and storage temperature on the quality of frozen pork patties during storage to evaluate the shelf life set by the manufacturer.

Design/methodology/approach

Changes in moisture content, acid value, peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid value, total volatile basic nitrogen content, and the sensory score of frozen pork patties with 10 and 15 percent fat contents during storage at −5, −15, and −23°C for six months.

Findings

Although microbiological quality remained unchanged, moisture content decreased, and lipid rancidity and protein putrefaction increased significantly during storage. More rapid deterioration in quality was observed in patties stored at −5°C than those stored at lower temperatures. Lipid rancidity and protein putrefaction increased more rapidly (but not significantly) in patties with 15 percent fat than those with 10 percent fat. Overall acceptance of the sensory properties was closely correlated with the above quality indicators, except thiobarbituric acid value. Acceptable qualities of the samples were maintained for the first two, four, and six months under storage at −5, −15, and −23°C, respectively.

Practical implications

The current shelf life of frozen pork patties set by manufacturers, assuming a storage temperature of −18°C, needs to be readjusted considering practical storage temperatures.

Originality/value

No studies have comprehensively explored the effects of fat content and storage temperatures on the quality of ground meat products during frozen storage. These approaches to determine quality changes may be useful for manufacturers to predict and control the quality of their products.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article

Z. F. Bhat, Sunil Kumar and Hina Fayaz Bhat

The aim of the article was to focus on various peptides identified in the egg and their probable application as novel ingredients in the development of functional food…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the article was to focus on various peptides identified in the egg and their probable application as novel ingredients in the development of functional food products. Bioactive peptides of egg origin have attracted increasing interest as one of the prominent candidates for development of various health-promoting functional and designer foods.

Design/methodology/approach

Traditionally known as a source of highly valuable proteins in human nutrition, eggs are nowadays also considered as an important source of many bioactive peptides which may find wide application in medicine and food production. These specific protein fragments from egg proteins which, above and beyond their nutritional capabilities, have a positive impact on the body’s function or condition by affecting the digestive, endocrine, cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems, and may ultimately influence health.

Findings

Several peptides that are released in vitro or in vivo from egg proteins have been attributed to different health effects, including antihypertensive effects, antimicrobial properties, antioxidant activities, anticancer activity, immunomodulating activity, antiadhesive properties and enhancement of nutrient absorption and/or bioavailability. Extensive research has been undertaken to identify and characterize these biologically active peptides of egg origin which has changed the image of egg as a new source of biologically active ingredients for the development of functional foods with specific benefits for human health and treatment and prevention of diseases.

Originality/value

The paper mainly describes the above-stated properties of bioactive peptides derived from egg proteins.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

William Renzo Cortez-Vega, Irene Rodrigues Freitas, Sandriane Pizato and Carlos Prentice

The purpose of this study was to isolate Whitemouth croaker protein by alkaline solubilization process and evaluate their nutritional quality to evaluate the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to isolate Whitemouth croaker protein by alkaline solubilization process and evaluate their nutritional quality to evaluate the bioavailability of essential amino acids.

Design/methodology/approach

The proximate composition, essential amino acid composition, in vitro digestibility, apparent bioavailability, chemical score of amino acids and SDS-PAGE were determined for the isolated croaker proteins.

Findings

The isolated protein showed a high level of protein 92.21 percent and low amount of lipids 0.57 percent. The protein is rich in lysine and leucine, 108.73 and 96.75 mg/g protein, respectively. The protein isolate had high digestibility, 94.32 percent, which indicates proper utilization of this protein source, while the tryptophan had lower bioavailability (12.58 mg amino acid/mg protein). The high chemical scores were found for the amino acids lysine, methionine+cysteine (6.79 and 5.14). SDS-PAGE of proteins extracted showed appearance of the heavy chain of myosin (220 kDa), actin (50 kDa) and other fractions, with molecular weight between 20 and 50 kDa, such as troponin I, C and T.

Originality/value

The products obtained from croaker muscle can be incorporated as a high value supplements in human diets. The isolated protein exhibited a high content of essential amino acids and digestibility, indicating that the protein has a high nutritional quality.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Hadjera Chekkal, Nour el Imane Harrat, Fatima Bensalah, Fouad Affane, Sabrine Louala and Myriem Lamri-Senhadji

The effects of Opuntia ficus indica (OFI) cladodes on uricemia level, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative damage were studied in young rats fed a cafeteria diet (CD).

Abstract

Purpose

The effects of Opuntia ficus indica (OFI) cladodes on uricemia level, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative damage were studied in young rats fed a cafeteria diet (CD).

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 16 young male Wistar rats (weighing 110 ± 20 g and four weeks old) were divided into two homogenous groups. The first group received a CD containing 50% of hyperlipidic diet and 50% of junk food mix (processed mix: hyper-fat, hyper-salted and sweetened) (CD group), and the second group (CD + OFI nopalitos) received the same diet supplemented with 50 g of fresh OFI nopalitos (young cladodes) for 30 days.

Findings

OFI nopalitos regulate the hyperuricemia, improve the endothelial dysfunction by raising the bioavailability of nitric oxide(NO) and reduce prooxidant markers by reducing lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation (p < 0.05) and boosting antioxidant capacity and enhancing the antioxidant enzymes activities (p < 0.05) in blood and aorta tissues of rats early fed with a high-fat diet /junk food.

Social implications

By-products of OFI have specific functional properties that may be beneficial in metabolic disorders and offer a better alternative with an economic and sustainable development perspective.

Originality/value

By-products of OFI highlight potential functional properties mainly based on its potent antioxidant capacity. By-products of OFI can be used as a promising nutraceutical resource to prevent various metabolic disorders in relation with cardiovascular diseases or hyperuricemia in subjects consuming junk food and or living in the Western society to reach the objectives of health policy and maintain a sustainable health system development.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

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Article

Maryam Sardarodiyan and Ali Mohamadi Sani

The study aims to describe the main classes of antioxidants existing in fruit, beverages, vegetables and herbs and the different extraction and application of antioxidants…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to describe the main classes of antioxidants existing in fruit, beverages, vegetables and herbs and the different extraction and application of antioxidants in food. Oxidative degradation of lipids, especially induced by reactive oxygen species, leads to quality deterioration of foods and cosmetics and could have harmful effects on health. A major challenge is to develop tools to assess the antioxidant capacity and real efficacy of these molecules. Recently, many review papers regarding antioxidants from different sources and different extraction and quantification procedures have been published. However, none of them has all the information regarding antioxidants (sources, extraction and application in food).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper tries to take a different perspective on antioxidants for the new researcher involved in this field.

Findings

Antioxidants from fruit, vegetables and beverages play an important role in human health, for example, preventing cancer and cardiovascular diseases and lowering the incidence of different diseases. A number of plant products act as scavengers of free radical species and so have been classified as antioxidants. Antioxidants are an important group of food additives that have the ability to protect against detrimental change of oxidizable nutrients and consequently they extend shelf-life of foods.

Research limitations/implications

Most of the antioxidants present in foods are phenolic and polyphenolic compounds, but their efficacy in food for the prevention of oxidation or in the body for dealing with oxidative stress and its consequences depends on different factors.

Originality/value

This study collected the last finding in the field of sources and applications of natural antioxidants.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Amin Ismail and Emmy Hainida Khairul Ikram

This study was aimed to estimate and compare the contents of protein and amino acids in raw, boiled and fried fishes of Indian mackerel “kembong” (Rastrelliger kanagurta)…

Abstract

This study was aimed to estimate and compare the contents of protein and amino acids in raw, boiled and fried fishes of Indian mackerel “kembong” (Rastrelliger kanagurta), sardine (Sardina pilchardus), red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicusx) and black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Protein contents of raw mackerel, sardine, red and black tilapia were 8.1±0.0, 8.4±0.1, 9.6±0.4 and 9.0±0.0 percent, respectively. In a boiled fish, the protein contents were 7.9±0.1, 7.7±0.0, 7.5±0.1 and 8.9±0.1 percent, respectively, and for a fried fish the values were 8.6±0.5, 8.9±0.1, 9.1±0.2 and 8.4±0.0 percent, respectively. It was found that there was a significant difference (p<0.01) in the protein content of the raw fish compared to the heat‐treated ones for all the fishes. The study detected 17 components of essential amino acids (lysine, histidine, threonine, valine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine and phenylalanine) and non‐essential amino acids (arginine, aspartic acid, serine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, cystein and tyrosine) in all the fishes. There was no significant difference in amino acids content among the boiled and fried fishes. In conclusion, heat treatment for five minutes in boiling water (100°C) and frying for three minutes in palm oil (160°C) did not alter the quality of protein in all the fishes studied.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Roungdao Klinjapo, Kamonchanok Areerat and Pornpong Sutthirak

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential of fruit waste materials from fruit industry as sources of powerful natural antioxidants.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential of fruit waste materials from fruit industry as sources of powerful natural antioxidants.

Design/methodology/approach

The peels of mango, rambutan, and santol were extracted and analyzed for their antioxidant activity. Pork ball samples were prepared and treated with different natural extracts at various concentrations, namely 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20% (v/w), compared with the control (no natural extract), and then stored at 4°C. The samples were investigated at the zeroth, third, fifth, eighth and tenth day to find out the antioxidant activity of the total phenolic content and lipid oxidation including the evaluation of the change of rancid flavor and color during storage. All statistical results were analyzed by RCBD using SPSS at p⩽0.05.

Findings

During storage, the amount of phenolic compound in a pork ball by adding fruit extracts at various concentrations slightly decreased, while the lipid oxidation slightly increased. Mango extract showed the best efficiency to delay lipid oxidation in the pork ball for ten days followed by santol extract and rambutan extract. For sensory evaluation, the pork ball with fruit extract at various concentrations showed the lower rancidity development than control, and mango extract at 0.20% (v/w) showed the best delaying rancidity during ten-day storage. Thus, mango peel extract at 0.20% (v/w) showed the highest effectiveness of antioxidant activity against lipid oxidation in pork ball.

Originality/value

This study was continued from the previous research which investigated the best extraction condition for by-products of mango, rambutan, and santol. From that study, the authors found that the crude extracts need further research on their antioxidant property in foods. The research findings have provided information regarding the interesting new natural antioxidant that can be applied into lipid-containing foods to delay the rancidity and extend the shelf life.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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