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Progress in Psychobiology and Physiological Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-12-542118-8

Abstract

Details

Progress in Psychobiology and Physiological Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-12-542118-8

Abstract

Details

Progress in Psychobiology and Physiological Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-12-542118-8

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Article

Yasmina Bahlil, Djamil Krouf, Zoheir Mellouk, Nawal Taleb-Dida and Akila Guenzet

This study aims to examine whether Globularia alypum (Ga) lyophilized aqueous leaves extract treatment improves cardiometabolic syndromes such as hyperglycemia, lipid…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine whether Globularia alypum (Ga) lyophilized aqueous leaves extract treatment improves cardiometabolic syndromes such as hyperglycemia, lipid profiles and oxidative damage resulting from a high-fructose diet induced in hypertriglyceridemic rats.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 24 male Wistar rats weighing 80 ± 5 g were first randomly divided into 2 groups. A total of 12 control rats (C) were fed a standard-diet (St-D) and 12 high fructose (HF) rats were fed a high-fructose diet (HF-D) containing St-D in which cornstarch was substituted by fructose (61.4%). After 15 weeks of feeding, body weight (BW) was about 320 ± 20 g and hypertriglyceridemia was noted in HF vs C group (2.69 ± 0.49 mmol/L) vs (1.25 ± 0.33 mmol/L). Each group of rats was then divided into two equal groups (n = 6) and fed during four weeks either a St-D or HF-D, treated or not with 1% of Ga extract (C-Ga) and (HF-Ga). After 28 days, fasting rats were anesthetized and blood and tissues were removed to measure biochemical parameters.

Findings

The results showed no significant differences in BW and insulinemia between all groups. Ga extract supplementation reduced glycemia (−36%), glycosylated hemoglobin (−37%), Homeostasis Model of Assessment-Insulin Resistance index (−34%) and triacylglycerol’s contents in plasma (−33%), very low density lipoproteins–low density lipoproteins (VLDL-LDL) (−48%), liver (−52%) and aorta (−39%); total cholesterol concentrations in aorta was 3.7-fold lower in HF-Ga vs HF group. Ga treatment reduced lipid peroxidation in plasma, VLDL-LDL, red blood cells (RBC), liver, muscle and kidney by improving superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in RBC and catalase (CAT) activity in kidney (p < 0.05). Moreover, Ga ameliorates glutathione (GSH) production in RBC (+41%) and kidney tissues (+35%).

Originality/value

Ga extract ameliorated cardiometabolic syndrome by its hypotriglyceridemic effect and prevented development of insulin resistance. It reduces lipid peroxidation by enhancing non-enzymatic (GSH) and enzymatic (SOD, GPx and CAT) antioxidant defense systems in high-fructose hypertriglyceridemic rats. Therefore, supplementation of Ga leaves extract as an adjuvant could be used for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia and the prevention and/or the management of cardio-metabolic adverse effects.

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Nutrition & Food Science , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Eunice Ngozi Ezembu, Chioke Amaefuna Okolo, James Obiegbuna and Florence Chika Ikeogu

The purpose of this study is to examine the acute toxicity and antidiabetic activity of Asystacia gangetica leaf ethanol extract.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the acute toxicity and antidiabetic activity of Asystacia gangetica leaf ethanol extract.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was designed as completely randomized in vivo experimental model. Where acute toxicity study was carried out using 30 albino mice, randomly assigned into six groups of five mice each. Toxicity signs and mortality were observed in the rats within a period of 24 h. The acute and sub-acute antidiabetic study was carried out using 50 rats, randomly assigned into five groups of 10 rats each. The rats’ blood glucose levels were determined and used to assess the acute and sub-acute antidiabetic activity of the extract.

Findings

Results obtained from the acute toxicity study indicated no death in any of the study groups, even at 5,000 mg/kg body weight and showed no signs of toxicity. The acute antidiabetic study showed that treatment with 400 mg/kg of the extract significantly (p = 0.01) lowered glucose level in the diabetic rats from 430.6 to 177.4 mg/dl while 800 mg/kg brought down glucose level from 370 to 144.2 mg/dl by the end of 6 h following administration when compared with the diabetic control group. It was observed that the effect of the extract mostly at 800 mg/kg also compared favorably with that of the standard drug (glibenclamide), which lowered glucose level in diabetic rats from 374.2 to 176.4 mg/dl. Furthermore, the significant reduction was evident from 4, 2 and 2 h for 400 mg/kg extract, 800 mg/kg extract and 5 mg/kg glibenclamide, respectively. At sub-acute level the blood glucose was lowered from 155.6 to 127.2 mg/dl, 137 to 124.4 mg/dl and 151.8 to 121.8 mg/dl for diabetic rats treated with 400 mg/kg, 800 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg glibenclamide, respectively, when compared to the diabetic untreated rats, which ranged from 417.6 to 358.6 mg/dl. The biochemical profile, lipid profile and hematological examination were all positively restored near to normal with the herbal treatment at the different doses. At histopathology level, the liver of the rats treated with 400 mg/kg had moderate portal inflammation without interface or lobular hepatitis while that of 800 mg/kg showed severe portal inflammation with the interface and lobular hepatitis with extensive confluents necrosis. The pancreatic cells of the treated rat showed no significant difference in the β-cells of the islets of Langerhans with hyperplasia of the acinar cell when compared to the diabetic untreated.

Research limitations/implications

The record of no death and signs of toxicity implies that the extract is safe for consumption even at a high dosage of 5,000 mg/kg body weight. The significant (p = 0.01) reduction in the plasma glucose level of the treated rats as compared to the control is an indication of blood glucose-lowering potential of the extract at two different doses. The significant reduction evident of the extract at different hours and days for the two doses implies that the extract rate of lowering potentials is dose-dependent. The evidence of moderate-severe portal inflammation with the interface and lobular hepatitis at 800 mg/kg treatment is an indication that the intake of this herb at high dosage for long period is not safe for the liver tissue.

Practical implications

The outcome of this study suggested that the Asystacia gangetica should also be used as a vegetable in-home food preparation and food processing to use its antidiabetic effect. The herbal extract could also be incorporated into a food product and processed into herbal tea bag for convenient. The subjection of this herbal plant to heat treatment during processing could be a possible avenue to make it safe.

Social implications

The economic burden and complications of diabetes mellitus management will be reduced if the practical implication of this research finding is implemented in foods as vegetable and in functional food production.

Originality/value

This study revealed that Asystacia gangetica leaf extract may be safe and effective for use at a low dose for acute management of diabetes mellitus. This research may be of value to those living with diabetes mellitus.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Hind Abu-Hiamed

Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit and its rind are known to contain phytochemicals that may have health benefits. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential…

Abstract

Purpose

Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit and its rind are known to contain phytochemicals that may have health benefits. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential hypocholesterolemic effect of watermelon fruit rind (WR) using rats who are fed a high-cholesterol diet.

Design/methodology/approach

Rats were divided into six groups and fed diets for eight weeks containing normal control diet or normal control diet with either 1% cholesterol, 5% WR, 10% WR, 1% cholesterol + 5% WR or 1% cholesterol + 10% WR. Triglycerides, total cholesterol and lipoprotein levels in serum and liver samples were determined, and histopathological examination of liver tissues was carried out.

Findings

Diets containing 1% cholesterol led to hypercholesterolemia, characterized by increased levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins in rat serum and liver samples. Incorporation of 10% WR into the diet of the otherwise hypercholesterolemic rats led to significant reduction in serum levels of total cholesterol (from 266.2 to 222.7 mg/dL) and low-density lipoproteins (from 159.5 to 94.4 mg/dL). In addition, these rats also exhibited improvements in hepatic tissue structure compared to the hypercholesterolemic rats.

Originality/value

These results support the potential use of WR as a hypocholesterolemic agent. Further research is needed to ascertain the hypocholesterolemic effect of WR in human.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 48 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Nur Azlina Mohd Fahami, Nafeeza Mohd Ismail and Khalid Bin Abdul Kadir

This study seeks to investigate the effect of palm‐based phytonutrient complex (PPC) on stress‐induced gastric lesions and accompanying changes in the gastric acidity and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to investigate the effect of palm‐based phytonutrient complex (PPC) on stress‐induced gastric lesions and accompanying changes in the gastric acidity and gastrin level.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 40 rats were divided between a control group that was given a vitamin E deficient diet and a treatment group that was given a vitamin deficient diet with oral supplementation of PPC at 60 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. At the end of the treatment period half of the number of rats were subjected to restraint‐stress for two hours for four consecutive days. Following stress exposure, blood was taken for measurement of gastrin level, after which all the rats were disposed of. The gastric acid was collected for measurement of acid concentration, while the stomachs were opened along the greater curvature and examined for lesions.

Findings

Rats exposed to stress developed hemorrhagic gastric lesions. PPC supplemented rats had fewer gastric lesions compared with their respective control group. Stress without supplementation with PPC also caused a reduction in the gastric acid concentration and the serum gastrin levels. Compared with their corresponding controls, the pre‐ and post‐values of gastric acid and serum gastrin concentration in rats with PPC supplementation remained comparable.

Originality/value

Stress is an identified risk factor for the development of gastric lesions. The current study showed that PPC was able to reduce the development of gastric lesions induced by stress and blocks the stress‐induced changes in the gastric acid concentration and gastrin level. It is possible that part of the protective effect of PPC in stress is through maintenance of the normal gastrin level, which results in the maintenance of gastrin trophic action in the gastric mucosa.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Narasimhanaidu Kamalakkannan and Khalid S. Alnumair

The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of rutin, a polyphenolic flavonoid on the fatty acid composition in liver and kidney of streptozotocin (STZ)‐induced diabetic rats.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of rutin, a polyphenolic flavonoid on the fatty acid composition in liver and kidney of streptozotocin (STZ)‐induced diabetic rats.

Design/methodology/approach

Extensive literature review was carried out and no reports on the effect of rutin on the fatty acid composition in diabetic tissues were found.

Findings

Streptozotocin‐induced diabetic rats showed altered lipid concentration in liver and kidney. The fatty acid composition was also altered in these tissues. Treatment with rutin to diabetic rats significantly decreased the concentration of palmitic acid, stearic acid and oleic acid, whereas linolenic and arachidonic acids were significantly increased in liver and kidney of diabetic rats. Rutin administration to normal rats did not show any significant effect on the fatty acid composition in liver and kidney.

Originality/value

This paper gives an idea of the changes in the fatty acid composition of diabetic tissues and during treatment with rutin.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 39 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Elok Zubaidah, Raida Amelia Ifadah, Umi Kalsum, Diana Lyrawati, Widya Dwi Rukmi Putri, Ignatius Srianta and Philippe J. Blanc

This paper aims to study the anti-diabetes activity of the Kombucha prepared from different snake fruit cultivars.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the anti-diabetes activity of the Kombucha prepared from different snake fruit cultivars.

Design/methodology/approach

The juices of snake fruits of Suwaru, Madura, Pondoh and Bali cultivars were fermented for 14 days. Anti-diabetes activity of the products was analyzed. Twenty-four male albino Wistar rats were used and randomly divided into six experimental groups, i.e. four groups of the diabetic rats treated with the Kombucha, plus the normal group and diabetic control group. The Kombucha were orally administered to the streptozotocin induced-diabetic rats at 5 mL/kg body weight per day during the 28-day experiment. The fasting plasma glucose (FPG), oxidative stress indices (superoxide dismutase [SOD] activity and Malondialdehyde [MDA] level) and lipid profile of the blood plasma were measured. The pancreas was used for immunohistochemical study and β-cells quantification. Data were analysed by ANOVA followed by Fisher test using Minitab version 16.0.

Findings

FPG of the diabetic rats treated with the Kombucha (110.3-189.3 mg/dL) was significantly lower (p = 0.000) than the diabetic control group (413.3 mg/dL). Those were in line with the number of pancreatic β-cells of 42.1 in diabetic rats that lower (p = 006) than those in treated the diabetic rats (61.2-73.5). The treated diabetic rats had lower oxidative stress (SOD activity: 20.9-44.6 unit/100 µL with p = 0.000; MDA level: 0.37-0.48 ng/100 µL with p = 0.000) than those in the diabetic rats (SOD activity: 18.7 unit/100µL; MDA level: 0.84 ng/100 µL). The treated diabetic rats also showed better lipid profile than those in the diabetic control rats. There were cultivar differences, and the Suwaru and Madura snake fruit Kombucha demonstrated the most potential for diabetes management.

Originality/value

This is the first study on in vivo anti-diabetes activity of snake fruit Kombucha prepared from different snake fruit cultivars.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Peter Barrett and Michael Howard

Offers advice to surveyors and property managers as to how to dealwith an infestation of rats in buildings. Considers the scale of andchanges in the rat population, and…

Abstract

Offers advice to surveyors and property managers as to how to deal with an infestation of rats in buildings. Considers the scale of and changes in the rat population, and discusses their habits and needs, the implication of which are highlighted by a case study on the Hulme Estate in Manchester. Describes the various types of damage that can be caused, and shows how evidence of an infestation can be detected. Explores alternative remedies to the problem and suggests clauses for a report. Declares that infestations are the consequence of either poor building design or poor property management.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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