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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2022

Miao Miao Guo, Tian Wang and Hao Di Zhai

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at different frequencies on working memory (WM) and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at different frequencies on working memory (WM) and neuroelectric activity in rats.

Design/methodology/approach

Three rTMS protocols involving different frequencies were applied to rats, and 16-channel local field potentials (LFPs) and spikes were recorded from the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats in each group during the WM task. First, the behavior of rats during the T-maze task was analyzed, and then, the firing rate of spikes and the energy of the θ-band and γ-band in LFPs when rats performed the WM tasks were calculated. Finally, the spectral coherence between LFPs and spikes was analyzed by wavelet transform.

Findings

The results showed that rats in the stimulation groups needed fewer days than those in the control group to reach the task correction standard during the WM experiment (p < 0.05). High-frequency rTMS increases the firing rate of spikes and the degree of synchronization of LFPs-spikes in the θ-band and γ-band in the WM process.

Originality/value

This study showed that high-frequency rTMS can improve the spatial learning ability of rats, which might be due to the increased neuronal excitability of the PFC and the enhancement of co-coding between different modes of neural signals. This study is helpful for understanding the neuroregulatory mechanism of rTMS and will provide a reference for the selection of a suitable frequency for TMS treatment.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 February 2022

Mansourou Samba Garba and Sherazede Bouderbala

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of olive cake (OC) on oxidant/antioxidant biomarkers, lipase activity and on the histological analysis of epididymal…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of olive cake (OC) on oxidant/antioxidant biomarkers, lipase activity and on the histological analysis of epididymal fat, in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats.

Design/methodology/approach

Male obese rats were divided into two groups and were fed an HFD supplemented (HFD-OC) or not (HFD) with OC for 28 days. A control group was fed a standard diet for the same experimental period.

Findings

HFD significantly increased body weight, which was reduced by OC in the HFD-OC compared to HFD (p = 0.038). Lipase activity was higher (52%; p = 0.009) in the HFD group than the control group. Administration of OC to the obese rats decreased significantly this activity (38%; p = 0.025) compared to the HFD group. Serum thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxide and advanced oxidation protein products levels were significantly increased in the HFD group than the control group (p = 0.032, p = 0.023 and p = 0.017, respectively). These levels were significantly reduced in HFD-OC compared to the HFD group (p = 0.030, p = 0.021 and p = 0.010, respectively). Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were decreased (53%; p = 0.04), (61%; p = 0.03) and (32%; p = 0.002), in the HFD group than the control group. OC restored these activities (46%; p = 0.01), (58%; p = 0.003) and (30%; p = 0.0003) in the HFD-OC rats than the HFD rats. Consumption of the HFD resulted in adipocyte hypertrophy. Indeed, epididymal adipocyte size was significantly larger in the HFD group than the control group (p = 0.0001), whereas it was reduced in the HFD-OC compared to the HFD group (p = 0.012).

Originality/value

OC possesses an anti-obesity effect. This effect might be mediated by lipase inhibition, reduced oxidative stress and increased antioxidant activities. In addition, the reduction of fat accumulation in adipose tissue by OC consumption is reflected by reducing adipocyte size.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 February 2022

Khaled M.M. Koriem, Nevein N. Fadl, Salwa R. El-Zayat, Eman N. Hosny and Fatma A. Morsy

The purpose of this study was designed to investigate anise oil and geranium oil to amend body weight, serum bile acid and vitamin D, and liver histology in depressed rats.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was designed to investigate anise oil and geranium oil to amend body weight, serum bile acid and vitamin D, and liver histology in depressed rats.

Design/methodology/approach

Eighty male albino rats were divided into normal and depressed rats. Normal rats (40 rats) were divided into four equal groups: control, venlafaxine drug, anise oil and geranium oil groups. Depressed rats (40 rats) were divided into four equal groups: depressed rats, depressed rats + venlafaxine drug, depressed rats + anise oil and depressed rats + geranium oil groups. Body weight, food consumption and water intake were detected. Animal behavior, cerebral cortex and hippocampus neurotransmitters, serum bile acid and vitamin D and liver histology were also investigated in this study.

Findings

Body weight (117 ± 7.6 g), food consumption (5.6 ± 1.4 g/day) and water intake (8.7 ± 1.2 ml/day) were significantly decreased (p < 0.001) in depression compared to body weight (153 ± 7.6 g), food consumption (12.7 ± 1.6 g/day) and water intake (15.3 ± 1.6 ml/day) in control. Animal behavioral tests, e.g. sucrose preference (48.8 ± 1.5) test, distance traveled (70.0 ± 16.3), center square entries (0.20 ± 0.10), center square duration (52.18 ± 11.9), tail suspension (54.70 ± 2.9 s) test and forced swimming (134.4 ± 5.5 s) test were significantly decreased (p < 0.001) in depression compared to sucrose preference (89.2 ± 1.7) test, distance traveled (226 ± 90.1), center square entries (1.4 ± 1.8), center square duration (3.6 ± 2.0), tail suspension (19.3 ± 2.1 s) test and forced swimming (83.7 ± 3.6 s) test in control. Cerebral cortex and hippocampus areas neurotransmitters such as serotonin (7.4 ± 1.7 and 1.2 ± 0.54 pg/g tissue), dopamine (6.3 ± 1.5 and 0.86 ± 0.07 pg/g tissue), norepinephrine (8.1 ± 1.7 and 1.4 ± 0.41 pg/g tissue) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) (1.3 ± 0.41 and 0.08 ± 0.04 µmole/g tissue), serum bile acid (46.8 ± 3.5 µmole/L) and vitamin D (1.3 ± 0.37 ng/ml) were significantly decreased (p?0.001) in depression compared to cerebral cortex and hippocampus areas neurotransmitters such as serotonin (16.8 ± 2.1 and 4.0 ± 1.4 pg/g tissue), dopamine (15.7 ± 2.0 and 1.8 ± 0.49 pg/g tissue) norepinephrine (18.2 ± 2.3 and 3.8 ± 1.3 pg/g tissue) and GABA (2.7 ± 0.62 and 0.16 ± 0.06 µmole/g tissue), serum bile acid (90.5 ± 4.3 µmole/L) and vitamin D (2.7 ± 0.58 ng/ml) in control. Depression induced injury to hepatic tissues. Oral supplementation with anise oil and geranium oil ameliorated body weight, serum bile acid and vitamin D and liver histology in depressed rats.

Originality/value

Depression treatment persists for a long time, so the search for a new herbal treatment is of concern due to available sources, cheap and no side effects of herbal plants. Anise oil and geranium oil improved body weight, food consumption, water intake, animal behavioral tests, cerebral cortex and hippocampus areas neurotransmitters, serum bile acid and vitamin D and liver histology in depression.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Progress in Psychobiology and Physiological Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-12-542118-8

Abstract

Details

Progress in Psychobiology and Physiological Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-12-542118-8

Abstract

Details

Progress in Psychobiology and Physiological Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-12-542118-8

Article
Publication date: 28 December 2021

Modupeola Oguntoye, Olufunke Ezekiel and Olayinka Oridupa

This study aims to evaluate the effect of probiotic provitamin A cassava hydrolysate with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (hLGG) on weight and lipid profile of Wistar rats and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluate the effect of probiotic provitamin A cassava hydrolysate with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (hLGG) on weight and lipid profile of Wistar rats and its glycemic index using Wistar rats and human subjects.

Design/methodology/approach

Adult male Wistar rats (n = 40, 120–150 g) were orally administered provitamin A cassava hydrolysate with 1 × 1010, 2 × 1010 and 4 × 1010 CFU/g encapsulated or CFU/mL free Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG for 30 days, during which weight and lipid profile of rats were monitored. Blood glucose levels of rats and human subjects were also measured in Oral Glucose Tolerance Test to determine the Glycemic indices of hLGG.

Findings

Rats administered the highest doses of free or encapsulated hLGG [(4 × 1010 CFU) (PHE4 and PHF4, respectively)] had the lowest (18.2 ± 0.7 and 8.0 ± 0.6%, respectively, p < 0.001) percentage body weight gain compared to control (40 ± 0.6%). Lowest cholesterol and triglyceride (42.4 ± 0.5 and 44.4 ± 0.7 g/dL, p < 0.001, respectively) were observed in rats administered PHE4, with the lowest plasma glucose concentrations in PHE4 and PHF4 groups (43 ± 1 and 49 ± 0.7 g/dL, p < 0.001, respectively). Oral Glucose Tolerance Test for rats and human subjects showed lower peak blood glucose levels and glycemic indices in hLGG groups compared to controls in a dose-dependent manner.

Originality/value

Consumption of soft drinks, which supply non-nutritive energy, may lead to degenerative metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. Beverages with probiotics such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, on the other hand, offer a positive weight management approach. Development of non-dairy beverages such as provitamin A cassava hLGG is ongoing. Provitamin A cassava hLGG showed its ability to control weight gain, blood glucose levels and serum lipids. Thus, the beverage can be consumed as a healthy alternative to soft drinks and for weight management.

Article
Publication date: 13 August 2021

Mohammad Alshuniaber, Omar Alhaj, Qasem Abdallah and Haitham Jahrami

This study aims to investigate the antihypertensive effect of camel milk hydrolysate in rats with fructose-induced hypertension.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the antihypertensive effect of camel milk hydrolysate in rats with fructose-induced hypertension.

Design/methodology/approach

The antihypertensive effect of fermented camel milk was determined using 6 groups comprising 36 Wistar male rats. Blood pressure of rats was altered via exposure to a 10% fructose (w/v) diet in drinking water for 3 weeks before conducting 21 days of treatment. The authors conducted the experiment for short and long term using different doses of 800 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight. Serum was used to assay total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), glucose and insulin levels using standard biochemical kits.

Findings

The group that received 1,200 mg hydrolysate camel milk (HM) has significantly (p = 0.003) reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure after a short exposure time (4–8 h). These effects were significantly (p = 0.005) comparable to the nifedipine (NIF) drug group. Similar long-term (21 days) effects on blood pressure were observed in 1,200 mg HM and NIF groups. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and levels were also reduced in a correlation with blood pressure reduction only in HM1200 and HM800 treated groups. The authors observed no significant effect on blood pressure in groups receiving the 800 mg HM or 1,200 mg unhydrolyzed camel milk (UM). Rats receiving the 10% fructose diet showed significant differences from control rats regarding their blood biochemistry, including TG, TC, blood glucose and insulin levels. Rats in groups NIF, HM1200 and HM800 showed a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in serum glucose, insulin, TG and TC levels toward the baseline level.

Research limitations/implications

Further mechanistic investigation on the HM antihypertensive activity is highly recommended before suggesting HM as a product to reduce blood pressure. While drug–food interaction between HM and antihypertensive drugs, especially ACE inhibitors, is probable, UM seems not to affect blood pressure or ACE activity and therefore is expected to have no or minimal effects on the activity of other antihypertensive drugs. Investigation of ACE expression from various organs including lungs and leukocytes is highly recommended in future works using sodium dodecyl-sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blot analysis or reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.

Originality/value

No previous studies have measured the antihypertensive activity of milk hydrolysate mediated by the reduction of ACE activity and levels in plasma. Mechanisms involved in attenuating the levels of ACE warrant further investigation.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 52 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 May 2021

Muhammad Fakhruddin Irfan Sazali, Maleeka Abdullah Hilmy, Norshafarina Shari, Lilik Herawati, Nurul Izza Nordin and Zulhabri Othman

Calorie restricted diets are known to improve health and promote healthy aging. This happens because of controlled inflammation and metabolism in the body. This study aims…

Abstract

Purpose

Calorie restricted diets are known to improve health and promote healthy aging. This happens because of controlled inflammation and metabolism in the body. This study aims to evaluate the differences in anthropometric and biochemical parameters in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats because of consumption of a calorie restricted diet.

Design/methodology/approach

The study divided SD rats (n = 15) into 3 groups consuming high calorie intake (HCI), medium calorie intake and low calorie intake (LCI). Anthropometric parameters were determined through measurement of abdominal circumference (AC), thoracic circumference (TC), body length and body weight (BW). Biochemical parameters analyzed in this study were fasting blood glucose level and full blood lipid profile. Nutritional status was obtained based on food consumption, energy intake (EI) and food efficiency rate. Measurements were taken for a period of four weeks.

Findings

Analysis on anthropometric parameters indicates a significant difference in mean BW between HCI (230.44 ± 1.47 g) and LCI (188.54 ± 1.50 g). There is a significant difference in abdominal TC ratio (p < 0.001; F = 13.599) in the LCI group (1.01 ± 0.00714) compared to the HCI group (1.04 ± 0.00858). Post hoc for nutrition parameters indicates a significant difference in mean EI between HCI (9.71 ± 0.006 kJ) and LCI (3.21 ± 0.001 kJ). There is a significant effect (p < 0.0001; F = 3042872.02) of EI on rats in all three groups. HDL levels were significantly higher (p < 0.0001; F = 1536.89) in the LCI group (68.60 ± 0.55 mg/dL) compared to the HCI group (49.40 ± 0.55 mg/dL). The Pearson’s correlation results show a strong positive correlation in EI with BW (p < 0.01; r = 0.988), AC (p < 0.01; r = 0.970) and body mass index (p < 0.01; r = 0.972).

Originality/value

Low calorie diet has been proven to affect anthropometric development and has shown improvements in biochemical parameters of the rats. This may result in healthy aging which could prevent later-life diseases.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 August 2021

Stanley Ifeanyi Anyanwu-Azuka, Gabriel Sunday Aloh, Winner Oyidiya Kalu and Chinedum Eleazu

This study aims to report the phytochemical screening and anti-diarrhoea properties of methanol extract of Diodia sarmentosa Swartz (DSS) leave (at 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to report the phytochemical screening and anti-diarrhoea properties of methanol extract of Diodia sarmentosa Swartz (DSS) leave (at 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg) in albino rats.

Design/methodology/approach

Three types of diarrhoea models (castor oil-induced diarrhoea, castor oil-induced gastrointestinal motility and castor oil-induced enteropooling), as well as an assay for serum and faecal electrolyte concentrations, were used. Acute toxicity study and phytochemical screening of the extract were carried out using standard techniques.

Findings

The percentage inhibition of diarrhoea by DSS 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg was obtained as 25.7%, 55% and 84.6%, respectively, compared with loperamide that had 87.6% inhibition. DSS dose dependently modulated the number and frequency of defecation, the weight of the faeces of the diarrhoea rats, the distance that was travelled by charcoal meal, mean differences in the full lengths of the intestines and the distance travelled by charcoal meal, weight and volume of intestinal contents, serum and faecal concentrations of potassium, sodium, chloride, magnesium, bicarbonate, iron and zinc relative to the negative control and in a manner akin to loperamide (for the extract at 600 mg/kg). DSS or loperamide attenuated the loss of calcium in the faeces of the rats. DSS possesses anti-diarrhoea properties, which may be attributed to the phytochemicals in it. Finally, the study showed the safety in the usage of DSS.

Originality/value

DSS exerted its anti-diarrhoea action in castor oil-induced diarrhoea rats, by modulating their intestinal secretory and motile activity in a manner akin to loperamide (for DSS at 600 mg/kg).

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 52 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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