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Article

Hakima Mir, Djamil Krouf, Nawal Taleb-Dida, Sadia Berzou, Akila Guenzet and HadjMostefa Khelladi

This study aims to investigate the possible effect of Citrus latifolia (CL) extract on biomarkers of oxidative stress, including lipid peroxidation products in rats fed a…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the possible effect of Citrus latifolia (CL) extract on biomarkers of oxidative stress, including lipid peroxidation products in rats fed a high cholesterol diet

Design/methodology/approach

Hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding normocholesterolemic rats 1 per cent cholesterol-enriched diet for 15 days. An experimental group (n = 20) was divided into two groups (n = 10) and fed the same diet with or without CL lyophilized aqueous extract (1 per cent) for four weeks. At day 28, ten rats from each group were killed.

Findings

Treatment with CL lyophilized aqueous extract compared with the untreated group had decreased plasma total cholesterol (TC) (−36 per cent), triacylglycerols (−48 per cent), isoprostanes values (−74 per cent) and reduced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in erythrocytes (−21 per cent). However, the supplementation of CL peels in the hypercholesterolemic diet enhanced superoxide dismutase (+69 per cent), glutathione reductase (+30 per cent) and catalase activities (+34 per cent).

Originality/value

In hypercholesterolemic rats, administering CL extract ameliorates dyslipidemia and attenuates lipid peroxidation in tissues. These results suggest that CL could be beneficial in the primary treatment of hypercholesterolemia and oxidative damage caused by a high-cholesterol diet.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the effect of green lemon zest combined with sardine proteins in diabetic hypertensive rats (DHRs).

Design/methodology/approach

Male Wistar rats (n = 30) weighing 250 ± 10 g were divided into five groups. The first group consumed a diet containing 20 per cent casein (C). The other four groups are rendered diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg body weight), then hypertensive by subcutaneous implantation controlled time-release pellet containing ouabain (0.25 mg/pellet). One untreated group (DHR) consumed 20 per cent casein and the three other groups consumed the same diet supplemented with 2 per cent green lemon zest (DHR-lz), or with 20 per cent of sardine protein (group DHR-sp) or with the combination of both sardine proteins and green lemon zest (group DHR-sp + lz).

Findings

DHRs feeding on the combination of both sardine protein (sp) and lemon zest (lz) induced a significant decrease of diastolic blood pressure and heart rates values compared with DHR (p < 0.05). The HDLC values were increased by +55 per cent in DHR-sp + lz compared with DHR group. Moreover, plasma non-HDLC concentrations were decreased significantly compared to DHR, DHR-lz, DHR-sp and C groups. In DHR-sp + lzvs DHR group, TBARS values were decreased by −25 per cent in the liver. Moreover, kidney TBARS were significantly reduced by −66, −51, −65 and −67 per cent compared with C, DHR, DHR-lz and DHR-sp, respectively.

Originality/value

These results suggest that consumption of green lemon zest combined with sardine proteins can reduce blood pressure and tissue oxidative damage and, therefore, help to prevent cardiovascular complications in hypertensive diabetic patients.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 48 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Mohammad Ghiath Naser Aldeen, Rita Mansour and Malak AlJoubbeh

This paper aims to study the effect of cooking and food additives, such as lemon juice and vinegar, on phenols and flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of purslane.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the effect of cooking and food additives, such as lemon juice and vinegar, on phenols and flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of purslane.

Design/methodology/approach

The Folin–Ciocalteu method was used to determine total phenols content (TP), while total flavonoid content (TF) was determined by the aluminum chloride method. Two methods were used for determination of antioxidant activity: DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assay to determine radical scavenging activity, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) to measure the reducing power.

Findings

According to the results, leafs had higher values of TP, TF and antioxidant activity than aerial parts. Both lemon juice and vinegar retracted antioxidant properties of leafs. TP and TF of leaves showed deterioration after treatment with lemon by 58% and 21.8%, respectively, and FRAP and radical scavenging activity decreased by 75.8% and 74.5%, respectively (p <0.001). Also, TP, TF, FRAP and DPPH radical scavenging activity decreased in leaves by 82.2%, 30.5%, 87.8% and 90.9%, respectively, after treatment of leaves with vinegar. TF increased after cooking in studied parts, where no significant statistical difference was observed in TP and antioxidant activity (DPPH assay and FRAP) of cooked aerial parts. Adding lemon juice after cooking increased antioxidant properties of purslane (p <0.001).

Originality/value

Purslane has antioxidant activity because it is rich in polyphenols and flavonoids. Effects of food additives and cooking were studied using different measurements. According to the authors’ knowledge, this is the first work that studied the effect of food additives on antioxidant properties of purslane.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Amir-Hossein Avestaei, Mahdi Yaghchiyan, Alireza Ali-Hemmati, Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi, Mehran Mesgari-Abbasi and Parviz Shahabi

Obesity is a major risk factor for chronic renal fibrosis and kidneys’ structural and inflammatory impairments. This study aims to examine the possible therapeutic effects…

Abstract

Purpose

Obesity is a major risk factor for chronic renal fibrosis and kidneys’ structural and inflammatory impairments. This study aims to examine the possible therapeutic effects of vitamin D supplementation against renal inflammatory and kidney’s structural fibrosis and degeneration.

Design/methodology/approach

Forty male Wistar rats were divided into two groups for 16 weeks: normal diet (ND) and high-fat diet (HFD); then, each group was subdivided into two groups including ND, ND + vitamin D and HFD, HFD + vitamin D. Vitamin D supplementation was done for five weeks at 500 IU/kg dosage. Renal tissue concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin 6, interleukin 1 beta, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), serum values of lipids, markers of glucose homeostasis and urea, creatinine and uric acid and renal tissue histological and structural changes were determined.

Findings

HFD feeding caused remarkable histological and structural changes including higher TNF-α, MCP-1 and TGF-β concentrations in renal tissues of rats, whereas vitamin D has potent anti-inflammatory effects (P = 0.036, 0.047 and 0.02, respectively). Vitamin D administration also reduced urea and uric acid concentrations (P = 0.023 and 0.049, respectively). Moreover, vitamin D reduced glomerulomegaly, reduced lipid accumulation and limited dilated Bowman’s space in rats and improved glycemic status by increasing insulin (P = 0.04) and reducing insulin resistance (P = 0.006).

Research limitations/implications

The current study has some limitations. It was better to measure the level of inflammatory cytokines’ expression in the kidney tissues. Additionally, the measurement of baseline values of inflammatory cytokines was not possible because of the possibility of animals’ drop-out.

Practical implications

According to the study findings, vitamin D treatment in the current report showed a significant therapeutic role in reducing inflammation, improving glycemic and lipid abnormalities and structural and histological modifications in renal tissues of rats. These findings have a great value because after confirming in a human model, vitamin D can be suggested as a potential therapeutic tool in clinical practice.

Social implications

After being confirmed by other animal or human researches, the results of the current work could have great social implications by reducing the prevalence of obesity-related renal complications and highlighting the beneficial roles of vitamin D.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the histological and inflammatory changes in the kidneys and metabolic parameters in the HFD induced rats and also clarified the therapeutic roles of vitamin D in ameliorating the inflammatory, histological, metabolic and functional changes in the kidneys of obese rats.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 50 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Vinti Singh, Jyotsana Singh, Radha Kushwaha, Monika Singh, Sandeep Kumar and Awadhesh Kumar Rai

Flowers and fruits of Madhuca longifolia (Koenig) (mahua) tree are edible and used as traditional Indian medicines. The physicochemical properties of different parts of…

Abstract

Purpose

Flowers and fruits of Madhuca longifolia (Koenig) (mahua) tree are edible and used as traditional Indian medicines. The physicochemical properties of different parts of mahua are investigated. This study aims to estimate the different mineral contents, polyphenols compounds and antioxidant activities by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl inhibition, reducing power, free radical scavenging activity using 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays of mahua flower, ripe and unripe fruit.

Design/methodology/approach

Flavonoids were identified and quantified in yellow flowers and fruits of M. longifolia tree by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector. Low molecular weight carbohydrates were determined by the ICBio scan, a specific method for determining of carbohydrates. Mineral content is determined by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Physicochemical, nutritional and mineral properties of mahua flower, ripe and unripe fruit were investigated by the statistical approach of principal component analysis (PCA).

Findings

Ascorbic acid, gallic acid (GA), quercetin and myrcetin were the phenolic compounds identified and quantified in mahua flower and fruit extracts. Sugar profiling of mahua flowers and fruits confirmed the presence of inositol, sorbitol, mannitol, dextrose, fructose, sucrose, raffinose and maltose. The mineral content of Na, K, Mg and Ca was present in quite a good amount in all samples. Total phenolic content (TPC) was significantly high in mahua flower (25.3 ± 1.0 mg GA equivalent/g FW) followed by mahua unripe (15.8 ± 1.0 mg GA equivalent/g FW) and ripe fruit (14.3 ± 1.0 mg GA equivalent/g FW) at p = 5%. In contrast, total flavonoid contents (TFCs) were highest in ripe fruit, then mahua flower and unripe fruit. Positive correlations were predicted by PCA for mahua flower with TPC, antioxidant activity assays and minerals except for Na; ripe fruit with TFC and Na; and unripe fruit with maltose and sorbitol.

Originality/value

This study demonstrates the application of LIBS for the determination of elements present in the mahua flowers and fruits and reveals that mahua can be a good source of nutrients. Sugar profiling of mahua flower showed that it is a rich source of reducing and non-reducing sugar, proving that mahua flower juice can be used as a natural sweetener in the development of different food products, namely, biscuits, cookies, cake, jam, jelly, juice and squash.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Eunice Ngozi Ezembu, Chioke Amaefuna Okolo, James Obiegbuna and Florence Chika Ikeogu

The purpose of this study is to examine the acute toxicity and antidiabetic activity of Asystacia gangetica leaf ethanol extract.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the acute toxicity and antidiabetic activity of Asystacia gangetica leaf ethanol extract.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was designed as completely randomized in vivo experimental model. Where acute toxicity study was carried out using 30 albino mice, randomly assigned into six groups of five mice each. Toxicity signs and mortality were observed in the rats within a period of 24 h. The acute and sub-acute antidiabetic study was carried out using 50 rats, randomly assigned into five groups of 10 rats each. The rats’ blood glucose levels were determined and used to assess the acute and sub-acute antidiabetic activity of the extract.

Findings

Results obtained from the acute toxicity study indicated no death in any of the study groups, even at 5,000 mg/kg body weight and showed no signs of toxicity. The acute antidiabetic study showed that treatment with 400 mg/kg of the extract significantly (p = 0.01) lowered glucose level in the diabetic rats from 430.6 to 177.4 mg/dl while 800 mg/kg brought down glucose level from 370 to 144.2 mg/dl by the end of 6 h following administration when compared with the diabetic control group. It was observed that the effect of the extract mostly at 800 mg/kg also compared favorably with that of the standard drug (glibenclamide), which lowered glucose level in diabetic rats from 374.2 to 176.4 mg/dl. Furthermore, the significant reduction was evident from 4, 2 and 2 h for 400 mg/kg extract, 800 mg/kg extract and 5 mg/kg glibenclamide, respectively. At sub-acute level the blood glucose was lowered from 155.6 to 127.2 mg/dl, 137 to 124.4 mg/dl and 151.8 to 121.8 mg/dl for diabetic rats treated with 400 mg/kg, 800 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg glibenclamide, respectively, when compared to the diabetic untreated rats, which ranged from 417.6 to 358.6 mg/dl. The biochemical profile, lipid profile and hematological examination were all positively restored near to normal with the herbal treatment at the different doses. At histopathology level, the liver of the rats treated with 400 mg/kg had moderate portal inflammation without interface or lobular hepatitis while that of 800 mg/kg showed severe portal inflammation with the interface and lobular hepatitis with extensive confluents necrosis. The pancreatic cells of the treated rat showed no significant difference in the β-cells of the islets of Langerhans with hyperplasia of the acinar cell when compared to the diabetic untreated.

Research limitations/implications

The record of no death and signs of toxicity implies that the extract is safe for consumption even at a high dosage of 5,000 mg/kg body weight. The significant (p = 0.01) reduction in the plasma glucose level of the treated rats as compared to the control is an indication of blood glucose-lowering potential of the extract at two different doses. The significant reduction evident of the extract at different hours and days for the two doses implies that the extract rate of lowering potentials is dose-dependent. The evidence of moderate-severe portal inflammation with the interface and lobular hepatitis at 800 mg/kg treatment is an indication that the intake of this herb at high dosage for long period is not safe for the liver tissue.

Practical implications

The outcome of this study suggested that the Asystacia gangetica should also be used as a vegetable in-home food preparation and food processing to use its antidiabetic effect. The herbal extract could also be incorporated into a food product and processed into herbal tea bag for convenient. The subjection of this herbal plant to heat treatment during processing could be a possible avenue to make it safe.

Social implications

The economic burden and complications of diabetes mellitus management will be reduced if the practical implication of this research finding is implemented in foods as vegetable and in functional food production.

Originality/value

This study revealed that Asystacia gangetica leaf extract may be safe and effective for use at a low dose for acute management of diabetes mellitus. This research may be of value to those living with diabetes mellitus.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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