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Article

S. Sarkar

An attempt has been made to highlight the recent literature related to the hypocholesterolemic effect of acidophilus milk. Higher levels of serum cholesterol are often…

Abstract

An attempt has been made to highlight the recent literature related to the hypocholesterolemic effect of acidophilus milk. Higher levels of serum cholesterol are often associated with cardiovascular diseases. Concentration of cholesterol can be kept lower by encouraging intake of polyunsaturated and monosaturated fatty acids and discouraging saturated fatty acids. Lactobacillus acidophilus, being the natural inhabitant of intestine and possessing bile‐salt hydrolase activity, can be exploited during the manufacture of acidophilus milk and its application as a means for reducing cholesterol level is recommended. Factors influencing the efficacy of acidophilus milk to lower serum cholesterol are type of milk employed for product manufacture, age, sex, food habits and initial concentration of cholesterol of test subjects. Consumption of acidophilus milk as a dietary adjunct can be recommended.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Carrie H.S. Ruxton and Brian McMillan

Research has shown that mycoprotein, a vegetable protein ingredient, can lower blood cholesterol. This paper aims to test this in a consumer setting.

Abstract

Purpose

Research has shown that mycoprotein, a vegetable protein ingredient, can lower blood cholesterol. This paper aims to test this in a consumer setting.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 21 healthy, free‐living adults, who were not usually mycoprotein consumers, were asked to eat mycoprotein, as Quorn™ products, daily for six weeks. Ten control group participants followed their habitual diets. Fasting lipids, blood pressure, blood glucose, weight, body mass index and waist circumference were measured at baseline and after six weeks.

Findings

A significant reducing effect of the intervention on total cholesterol levels was found among those participants with higher baseline blood cholesterol level. No significant differences were seen between the intervention and control groups for the sample as a whole, although there were compliance issues in the control group that may have reduced its validity. Good compliance with the mycoprotein‐rich diet also appeared to have a significant lowering effect on total blood cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. The findings confirm that mycoprotein may be a useful food ingredient for helping to manage blood cholesterol levels.

Research limitations/implications

There was no randomisation or blinding, which may have influenced compliance with a habitual diet in the control group. The sample size was small and so further work in a larger population is warranted, particularly to determine optimal mycoprotein intakes and likely mechanisms of action.

Originality/value

The paper focuses on a trial that used commercially available products in a free‐living sample.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 112 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article

Nawal Taleb-Dida, Djamil Krouf, Yasmina Bahlil, Sarra Dali, Fatima Zohra Alachaher and Akila Guenzet

This paper aims to investigate the preventive effects of a concomitant supplementation of a lyophilized aqueous extract of Globularia alypum (Ga) leaves in a high…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the preventive effects of a concomitant supplementation of a lyophilized aqueous extract of Globularia alypum (Ga) leaves in a high cholesterol-diet (HC-D) on lipid profile and lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity in hypercholesterolemic rats.

Design/methodology/approach

Twenty-four male Wistar rats weighing 232 ± 10 g were divided into four groups (n = 6). Two control groups were fed a standard-diet (St-D) supplemented (C-Ga) or not (C) with 1.66% Ga leaf extract. The two others experimental groups were fed HC-D, which contains the St-D plus 1% of cholesterol and 0.5% of cholic acid supplemented (HC-Ga) or not (HC) with the same amount of Ga. At d28, feces were collected and fasting rats were anesthetized; bloods and livers were removed to measure biochemical parameters.

Findings

In hypercholesterolemic (HC) rats, Ga supplementation in HC-D induced a significant reduction in ALT (−64%, p = 0.002) and AST (−71%; p = 0.005) activities, in plasma TC (−55%; p = 0.03) and TG (−54%; p = 0.01) concentrations, in cholesterol contents of atherogenic lipoproteins VLDL (−78%; p = 0.004) and LDL-HDL1 (−64%; p = 0.003) and inversely, an increase in those of anti-atherogenic HDL2 (+14%; p = 0.002). Feeding the HC-D-Ga exhibited a reduction in atherogenic index Apo B/Apo A-I (−72%; p = 0.002), an increase in faecal lipids, cholesterol excretion and in plasma apo A-I (+60%; p = 0.002) and HDL2-cholesteryl esters (+32%, p = 0.04) and then improved LCAT activity (+31%; p = 0.03).

Originality/value

In hypercholesterolemic rats, Globularia alypum extract was effective in preventing lipid disorders by its hypolipidemic action, had an anti-atherogenic potential and a protective effect against cardiovascular risk by enhancing LCAT activity.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Sherazede Bouderbala and Malika Bouchenak

This study aims to investigate the effect of Ajuga iva (Ai) on enzymes involved in the metabolism of cholesterol, in rat fed a cholesterol-enriched diet.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the effect of Ajuga iva (Ai) on enzymes involved in the metabolism of cholesterol, in rat fed a cholesterol-enriched diet.

Design/methodology/approach

Male Wistar rats (n =12), weighing 120 ± 5 g were fed on 1 per cent cholesterol-enriched diet [hypercholesterolemic (HC)] for 15 days (d15). After this adaptation phase, HC rats (total cholesterol = 6.5 ± 0.6 mmol/L) were divided into two groups fed the same diet and treated (Ai-HC) or not with (HC) with Ai for d15.

Findings

At day 15, in Ai-HC group compared to HC, serum triacylglycerol (TG) values were 1.4-fold lower (p =0.002), whereas unesterified cholesterol (UC) contents were 1.8-fold higher (p =0.0001). Serum phospholipids (PL) and cholesteryl esters (CE) contents and liver TG, UC, PL and CE values were not sensitive to Ai. TC/HDL-C and LDL-HDL1-C/HDL-C ratios were, respectively, 1.8- and 4-fold lower (p =0.006 and p =0.04). HDL2-C and HDL3-C amounts were enhanced by 40 and 74 per cent, respectively (p =0.003 and p =0.0001). HDL3-UC was 1.6-fold higher (p =0.006); whereas PL contents were 1.4-fold lower (p =0.003). HDL3-apo and HDL2-CE contents were similar between groups. A decreased of hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase activities (−44 and −25 per cent; p =0.003 and p =0.02, respectively) were noted. Lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase activity was 1.5-fold higher (p =0.001).

Originality/value

In HC rat, Ai is able to induce hypotriglyceridemia. However, it turns out that Ai may reduce cardiovascular risk by decreasing the reports of atherogenicity and modifying the activities of enzymes involved in the cholesterol metabolism.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Hind Abu-Hiamed

Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit and its rind are known to contain phytochemicals that may have health benefits. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential…

Abstract

Purpose

Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit and its rind are known to contain phytochemicals that may have health benefits. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential hypocholesterolemic effect of watermelon fruit rind (WR) using rats who are fed a high-cholesterol diet.

Design/methodology/approach

Rats were divided into six groups and fed diets for eight weeks containing normal control diet or normal control diet with either 1% cholesterol, 5% WR, 10% WR, 1% cholesterol + 5% WR or 1% cholesterol + 10% WR. Triglycerides, total cholesterol and lipoprotein levels in serum and liver samples were determined, and histopathological examination of liver tissues was carried out.

Findings

Diets containing 1% cholesterol led to hypercholesterolemia, characterized by increased levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins in rat serum and liver samples. Incorporation of 10% WR into the diet of the otherwise hypercholesterolemic rats led to significant reduction in serum levels of total cholesterol (from 266.2 to 222.7 mg/dL) and low-density lipoproteins (from 159.5 to 94.4 mg/dL). In addition, these rats also exhibited improvements in hepatic tissue structure compared to the hypercholesterolemic rats.

Originality/value

These results support the potential use of WR as a hypocholesterolemic agent. Further research is needed to ascertain the hypocholesterolemic effect of WR in human.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 48 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

John I. Ahmad

The health problem commonly associated with consuming a diet rich incholesterol – what is generally termed atherosclerosis – is widespread inthe Western world and the…

Abstract

The health problem commonly associated with consuming a diet rich in cholesterol – what is generally termed atherosclerosis – is widespread in the Western world and the single most prevalent cause of death. Public awareness about cholesterol is, however, patchy owing to conflicting and confusing information in the media. Attempts to give an understanding about chemical composition, the mode of presence, metabolism, and other general current information and practices about cholesterol and how it may be controlled to maintain safe levels in the body.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 94 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Bouderbala Shérazède, Lamri‐Senhadji Myriem, Boualga Ahmed, Belleville Jacques, Prost Josiane and Bouchenak Malika

The purpose of this paper is to determine the effects of different dietary protein and lipid origins on serum HDL2 and HDL3 compositions and lecithin: cholesterol

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the effects of different dietary protein and lipid origins on serum HDL2 and HDL3 compositions and lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity in growing rats fed a 0.5 per cent cholesterol‐enriched diet with either 20 per cent casein (C), chick pea (CP) or lentil (L) proteins combined to 10 per cent olive (O) or salmon (S) oil for 28 days.

Design/methodology/approach

HDL2 and HDL3 separation according to Sjöblom and Eklund and LCAT activity according to Glomset and Wright.

Findings

Serum total cholesterol was 1.3‐fold lower in CPS than in CPO group. HDL3 amounts were 2‐ and 1.5‐fold higher in CPO and LO groups, respectively, compared to CO group. HDL3‐unesterified cholesterol values were, respectively, 2‐ and 5‐fold lower in CPO and LO groups than in CO group, and were threefold decreased in CPS and LS groups vs CS group. HDL3‐phospholipids in LO group represented 12 and 51 per cent of the CO and CPO group values, respectively. HDL2‐triacylglycerol amounts were decreased in LO group vs CO group (−67 per cent) and in CPS and LS groups (−62 per cent) compared to CS group. HDL3‐apolipoprotein A‐I values were lower in LO group vs CO and CPO groups, and in CPS group vs CS group. However, LCAT activity was similar in all the studied groups.

Originality/value

The paper shows that when diets containing casein, chick pea or lentil proteins combined with olive or salmon oil are supplemented with cholesterol, HDL2 and HDL3 compositions are impaired despite unchanged LCAT activity. Moreover, if oils modify HDL compositions, dietary proteins play a critical role in these modifications.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Sanaa Yahia, Souhila Benomar, Faiza Dehiba, Amine Allaoui, Natalia Guillen, Maria Jesús Rodriguez-Yoldi, Jesús Osada and Ahmed Boualga

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) protein hydrolysates prepared at two degrees of hydrolysis (DH) on lipoprotein profile…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) protein hydrolysates prepared at two degrees of hydrolysis (DH) on lipoprotein profile and on oxidant status in cholesterol-fed rats.

Design/methodology/approach

Eighteen male Wistar rats (220 ± 10 g) were divided into three groups and fed for 30 days a diet containing 20 per cent casein supplemented with 1 per cent cholesterol and 0.5 per cent cholic acid. During the experimentation, the first and the second groups received daily by gavage 250 mg of chickpea protein hydrolysates/rat at DH = 8 per cent (CPH8) and DH = 17 per cent (CPH17), respectively. The third group, named control group (CG), received water under the same conditions.

Findings

Serum total cholesterol concentrations were reduced in CPH8 (p < 0.0073) and CPH17 (p < 0.0004) groups versus CG. This reduction corresponded to a lower very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol (p < 0,0019). CPH17 reduced low-density lipoprotein- and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (p < 0.0001) but increased apolipoprotein A4 (p < 0.002) concentrations and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity (p < 0.0001). APOA1 remained unchanged in the treated groups. Liver total and esterified cholesterol contents were twofold lower in both treated groups versus CG. CPH8 increased triacylglycerols and phospholipids (p < 0.0001) contents, while CPH17 decreased those of unesterified cholesterol (p < 0.0016). Compared with CG, CPH8 and CPH17 reduced serum (p < 0.0001) and lipoprotein hydroperoxides by stimulating paraoxonase activity (p < 0.0001). However, only CPH17 treatment reduced serum, VLDL- and HDL-malondialdehyde contents and improved glutathione peroxidase activity (p < 0.061).

Originality/value

Thus, chickpea protein hydrolysates and especially hydrolysed at DH = 17 per cent may have a great potential for use as a nutraceutical to reduce hypercholesterolaemia and, by consequence, oxidative stress. Therefore, the degree of enzymatic hydrolysis has a significant influence on the production of potent bioactive peptides.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Souhila Benomar, Sanaa Yahia, Faiza Dehiba, Natalia Guillen, Maria Jesús Rodriguez-Yoldi, Jesús Osada and Ahmed Boualga

– The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic activities of sardine and bogue protein hydrolysates in cholesterol-fed rats.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic activities of sardine and bogue protein hydrolysates in cholesterol-fed rats.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 18 male Wistar rats (220 ± 10 g) fed 20 per cent casein, 1 per cent cholesterol and 0.5 per cent cholic acid were divided into three groups and received a daily gavage of 250 mg of sardine (SPH) or bogue (BPH) protein hydrolysates for 30 days. The third group, named control group (CG), received in the same conditions water. Lipoproteins were fractionated by size-exclusion fast protein liquid chromatography, and serum lipids, apolipoproteins and lipoproteins were assayed.

Findings

In SPH and BPH groups, serum total cholesterol concentrations were −66 per cent lower than in CG. This corresponded to the decreased very low-density lipoprotein-C in the former groups. Moreover, BPH treatment reduced low-density lipoprotein-C compared with CG and SPH groups. Compared with CG, serum phospholipids were reduced by SPH and BPH. Furthermore, BPH increased significantly APOA4 and sphingomyelin but lowered phosphatidylcholine. In the latter group, serum lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase activity was +23 per cent higher, but with SPH, this activity was −35 per cent reduced compared with CG. Apolipoprotein A-I contents were similar in the three groups. Compared with CG, hydroperoxide and lipid peroxidation contents in serum and lipoprotein fractions were reduced by SPH and BPH. Compared with CG, serum superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were increased in the treated groups, particularly in the BPH group.

Originality/value

These results suggest that sardine protein hydrolysates and particularly those of bogue could be a very useful natural compound to prevent hypercholesterolemia by both improving the lipid profile and modulating oxidative stress in cholesterol-fed rats.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 45 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Michael Gordon

Cholesterol is one of the most talked about substances in modern nutrition. This is due to the publicity given by the media to the relation between plasma cholesterol

Abstract

Cholesterol is one of the most talked about substances in modern nutrition. This is due to the publicity given by the media to the relation between plasma cholesterol levels and coronary heart disease. However, the properties of cholesterol itself are less widely known, and this article seeks to describe some of its characteristics.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 85 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

1 – 10 of over 2000