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Article

Bira Arumndari Nurrahma, Mega Febia Suryajayanti, Anggi Laksmita Dewi, Zunamilla Khairia, Rio Jati Kusuma and Perdana S.T. Suyoto

The study aims to investigate the potency of fermented rice bran extract as anti-hypercholesterolemia product by looking at its effect on lipid profile levels and blood…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to investigate the potency of fermented rice bran extract as anti-hypercholesterolemia product by looking at its effect on lipid profile levels and blood glucose levels in dyslipidemia model rats.

Design/methodology/approach

Rice bran was fermented using Rhizopus oligosporus-contained tempeh mold extracted using distilled water. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley rats were divided into a control group and hypercholesterolemia groups. Hypercholesterolemia, also known as dyslipidemia, was induced with fructose-supplemented high-fat diet. Rats induced with dyslipidemia received three different fermented rice bran extract doses, 0 (negative) 1102.5 mg/kgBW/day (FRBE 1) and 2205 mg/kgBW/day (FRBE 2). Blood was collected before and after four weeks of treatment for lipid profile and blood glucose analysis.

Findings

FRBE 2 had significantly lower total cholesterol (101.6 ± 3.3 vs 187.6 ± 3.7 mg/dL), triglyceride (83.3 ± 2.8 vs 130.7 ± 3.4 mg/dL) and LDL level (27.9 ± 1.7 vs 76.7 ± 1.5 mg/dL) but higher HDL level (64.1 ± 3.0 vs 25.5 ± 1.2 mg/dL) compared to the negative group (p < 0.001). Provision of fermented rice bran showed dose-response relationship in all blood lipid markers.

Originality/value

This study was the first to investigate the effectivity of Rhizopus sp.-fermented rice bran extract to improve glucose and lipid profile.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 48 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Aachu Agrawal, Kanika Varma and Rajeev Gupta

The purpose of this study is to investigate the lipid profile and prevalence of dyslipidemia, as serum lipid levels have a major contribution in the development of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the lipid profile and prevalence of dyslipidemia, as serum lipid levels have a major contribution in the development of cardiovascular diseases, in adult urban women of Jaipur district, Rajasthan, India.

Design/methodology/approach

A house-to-house survey was done in four urban locations, and 501 women in the age group of 35-70 years were enrolled in the study. A general questionnaire was used to gather background information and general health status. Fasting blood samples were collected to determine the level of serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Dyslipidemia was assessed based on the criteria given in the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (NCEP ATP-III).

Findings

Mean age of the women was 45.63 ± 9.91 years. Population mean levels of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and TGs were 183.9 ± 15.3, 111.8 ± 18.0, 44.0 ± 6.2 and 140.6 ± 30.9 mg/dl, respectively. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 33.9 and 18.7 per cent, respectively. Of a total of 500 subjects, 13.8 per cent had TC = 200 mg/dl, 12.6 per cent had LDL = 130 mg/dl, 85.4 per cent had HDL-C < 50 mg/dl and 23.0 per cent had TG = 150 mg/dl. An increase in serum lipids was most prominent in the 40-59 year age group.

Originality/value

High prevalence of overweight and obesity was observed in the community. Prevalence of low HDL-C was very high among the subjects.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 45 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Sherazed Hamza-Reguig, Nabila Boukhari Benahmed Daidj, Sabrine Louala, Ahmed Boualga and Myriem Lamri-Senhadji

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of replacing two different fats on dyslipidemia, glycemic balance and adipose tissue redox status in obese rats.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of replacing two different fats on dyslipidemia, glycemic balance and adipose tissue redox status in obese rats.

Design/methodology/approach

Obesity was induced by feeding a high-mutton-fat diet during three months. An experimental group (n = 24) was divided into two groups that were fed during one month, 20 per cent of margarine or sardine oil. At Day 30, six rats from each group were sacrificed and the remaining rats were then subjected to a change in diet for one month: margarine was replaced by sardine oil and inversely, and then the rats were sacrificed. Three other groups (n = 6), each fed during two months, 20 per cent of margarine, sardine oil or mutton fat, served as controls.

Findings

Substitution of sardine oil by margarine compared to control sardine oil had increased triacylglycerols (TGs), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and isoprostanes (IsoPs) values, but decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and superoxide dismutase activity. Replacing margarine by sardine oil compared to control margarine reduced total cholesterol, TG, HbA1c, TBARS and IsoP contents but enhanced glutathione reductase and peroxidase activities. Nevertheless, comparing with the mutton fat, the two substitutions had improved glycemic and lipidic abnormalities and attenuated lipoperoxidation by enhancing enzymatic antioxidant defense. These favorable effects were better when margarine was replaced by sardine oil.

Originality/value

Substituting margarine with sardine oil seems to attenuate beneficial cardiometabolic risk markers associated to obesity and potentiate efficiency adipose tissue against the oxidative stress induced by the obesogenic diet.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Hakima Mir, Djamil Krouf, Nawal Taleb-Dida, Sadia Berzou, Akila Guenzet and HadjMostefa Khelladi

This study aims to investigate the possible effect of Citrus latifolia (CL) extract on biomarkers of oxidative stress, including lipid peroxidation products in rats fed a…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the possible effect of Citrus latifolia (CL) extract on biomarkers of oxidative stress, including lipid peroxidation products in rats fed a high cholesterol diet

Design/methodology/approach

Hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding normocholesterolemic rats 1 per cent cholesterol-enriched diet for 15 days. An experimental group (n = 20) was divided into two groups (n = 10) and fed the same diet with or without CL lyophilized aqueous extract (1 per cent) for four weeks. At day 28, ten rats from each group were killed.

Findings

Treatment with CL lyophilized aqueous extract compared with the untreated group had decreased plasma total cholesterol (TC) (−36 per cent), triacylglycerols (−48 per cent), isoprostanes values (−74 per cent) and reduced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in erythrocytes (−21 per cent). However, the supplementation of CL peels in the hypercholesterolemic diet enhanced superoxide dismutase (+69 per cent), glutathione reductase (+30 per cent) and catalase activities (+34 per cent).

Originality/value

In hypercholesterolemic rats, administering CL extract ameliorates dyslipidemia and attenuates lipid peroxidation in tissues. These results suggest that CL could be beneficial in the primary treatment of hypercholesterolemia and oxidative damage caused by a high-cholesterol diet.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Jingyi Yan, Jin-Xiu Zhu, Nan Lu, Shanshan Gao, Jianfeng Ye, Chengzhi Yu, Minghui Yue and Xuerui Tan

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the superior relationship between blood lipid- and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related hematological parameters using superior…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the superior relationship between blood lipid- and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related hematological parameters using superior grey relational analysis (GRA).

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 294 individuals who underwent simultaneous routine blood examination and blood lipid examination in the Physical Examination Center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College were included in this study. Superior GRA was performed to find out the superior factor in CVD-related hematological parameters and blood lipids. CVD-related hematological parameters included red blood cell distribution width, white cell count, and platelet count, platelet distribution width, mean platelet volume, as well as platelet crit. The indicators of blood lipids analyzed here consist of low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride and total cholesterol.

Findings

The results showed that all the grey relational degree of hematological parameters and blood lipids were over 0.8; the superior factor in hematological parameters was PLT, whereas TC was the superior factor in blood lipids.

Practical implications

Findings of this study suggested that hematological parameters are closely related to blood lipids and a potential role for hematological parameters in the prediction of dyslipidemia, which need further study; TC has the greatest influence on hematological parameters, whereas TG displays a minimal impact.

Originality/value

To the authors’ best knowledge, it was the first study to analyze the relationship between various CVD-related hematological parameters and blood lipids via superior GRA.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

Keywords

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the nutritional effects in Wistar rats of supplementation with stand-alone saturated fatty acid (SFA) or monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), the replacement of SFA by MUFA and the combination of both (SFA + MUFA) over a long period of time (13 weeks).

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 30 Wistar rats were used and randomly assigned to receive (n = 6): control – lab chow; lard (L20%) – lab chow with added lard (20%); olive oil (O20%) – lab chow with added olive oil (20%); lard replacement with olive oil (L20% –O20%) – during six weeks lab chow with added lard (20%) replaced by lab chow with added olive oil (20%) given during the past seven weeks of the trial; lard combination with olive oil (L10% + O10%) – lab chow with added lard (10%) and olive oil (10%). Food and caloric intake, weight gain, food and energy efficiency, body mass index, bone mineral composition and blood biochemistry were evaluated.

Findings

All diets with added fatty acids showed higher energy intake (p < 0.001), weight gain (p = 0.01), accumulation of adipose tissue (p = 0.02) and food and energy efficiency (p = 0.01) compared to the control group. All groups exhibited higher levels of blood triglycerides compared to the control group (p = 0.02). In addition, the L10% + O10% group developed hyperglycemia (p < 0.001); the L group showed higher amounts of non- high density lipoprotein (HDL-c) (p = 0.04); and the L20%−O20% group exhibited high levels of the triglyceride/HDL-c ratio (p = 0.04) in relation to the control.

Originality/value

These results indicate that regardless of the fatty acid type, consumption in large quantities of fatty acids for long periods of time can cause obesity and dyslipidemia.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Muhammad Ilyas Nadeem, Yasrul Izad Abu Bakar, Sana Akram and Atif Amin Baig

This study aims to determine the correlation of anthropometric measurements with serum lipid profile among Malay subjects in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to determine the correlation of anthropometric measurements with serum lipid profile among Malay subjects in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

This cross-sectional study was conducted in Kuala Terengganu on a total of 193 individuals aged 18-60 years. Subjects were recruited via direct interview as per inclusion criteria and anthropometric measurements, i.e. body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio, abdominal volume index and conicity index, were taken using International Standards for Anthropometric Assessment Guidelines. Fasting blood samples were collected for serum lipid profile analysis that measures triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), TG/HDL, TC/HDL and LDL/HDL. Besides socio-demographic characteristics, means and association of anthropometric parameters with lipid profiles were performed using simple linear regression and multivariate-adjusted regression analysis.

Findings

The mean age of obese (male [39.2 ± 8.7] and female [41.1 ± 1.0]) and non-obese (male [29.8 ± 1.3] and female [33.3 ± 1.3]) respondents was compared. Means of anthropometric indices and lipid profile were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in obese than in non-obese group. Multivariate-adjusted regression showed that weight and BMI increased risks for prevalent high TC, TG, LDL, TC/HDL, TG/HDL, LDL/HDL, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and dyslipidemia. Regardless of sex, age and prevalent obese status, WHR increased risks for high prevalence of TC, TG, LDL, TC/HDL and LDL/HDL, and presents an independent risk factor for hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia. WC was highly associated with TG, while HC was associated with atherogenic lipid profile ratios: TC/HDL, TG/HDL and LDL/HDL.

Originality/value

In conclusion, the lipid profile (TC, TG and TG/HDL) of triglyceridemia and hypercholesteremia is highly correlated with anthropometric measurements (BMI, WC and WHR) of central obesity that predict obesity-associated cardiac risks.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the protective potential of prickly pear cactus fresh cladodes (opuntia ficus indica (OFI)) on glycemic disorders, dyslipidemia, prooxidant/antioxidant stress biomarkers and reverse cholesterol transport (by evaluating the activity of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT)) and paraoxonase (PON1) in rats prematurely exposed to cafeteria diet (CD).

Design/methodology/approach

Sixteen young rats were divided into two groups fed CD containing 50 per cent of hyperlipidic diet (HLD) and 50 per cent of junk food mix supplemented or not with 50 g of fresh young cladodes of OFI to 100 g of CD, during 30 days.

Findings

OFI cladodes supplementation decreased significantly body weight (p < 0.001), food intake (p < 0.05), adipose tissue weight (p < 0.01), fasting glycemia and glycosylated hemoglobin (p < 0.01), homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and insulinemia (p < 0.001), levels of cholesterol (C) (p < 0.05) and triacylglycerols (TG) (p < 0.01) in serum and in very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL-C p < 0.05 and VLDL-TG p < 0.01) and improves reverse cholesterol transport by increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesteryl-esters concentrations (p < 0.001) and by stimulating LCAT activity. Moreover, they attenuated lipid peroxidation in VLDL and low-density lipoproteins by increasing atheroprotective activity of PON-1 and in liver and adipose tissue by enhancing enzymatic antioxidant defence.

Social implications

The young cladodes of OFI because of their antiobesity benefits could constitute a novel functional ingredient in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications.

Originality/value

Young cladodes of OFI in rat precociously submitted to a hyperlipidic diet/junk food (cafeteria model) seem to prevent metabolic disorders associated with obesity.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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Article

Sarra Dali, Djamil Krouf, Zoheir Mellouk and Nawal Taleb-Dida

This paper aims to study the effects of a diet supplemented with flaxseeds on dyslipidemia, oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines, in rats consuming a…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the effects of a diet supplemented with flaxseeds on dyslipidemia, oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines, in rats consuming a high-cholesterol diet.

Design/methodology/approach

Male Wistar rats (n = 30) weighing (250 ± 5 g) of which 10 were control and 20 were rendered hypercholesterolemic (HC) by feeding a diet enriched with 1% of cholesterol, for 15 days. After this phase, rats were divided into two groups; hypercholesterolemic group (HC) (n = 10), fed 20% casein diet enriched with 1% cholesterol; and hypercholesterolemic rats fed the same diet (n = 10), but additionally supplemented with flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum) (Lu) powder, i.e. HC-Lu. Animals of the control group (n = 10) were fed the casein diet. All the animals were maintained on the respective diets for four weeks.

Findings

This study showed that in HC-Lu as compared to HC group, plasma total cholesterol, triacylglycerols and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations were respectively 2.4-, 1.5- and 3-fold lower. Also, the lipid peroxidation was reduced in red blood cells, organs (liver, heart and aorta) and lipoproteins (HDL2, HDL3 and VDL-LDL). A higher superoxide dismutase activity was observed in liver (+61%), heart (+62%) and aorta (+59%), whereas plasma proinflammatory cytokine (IL-1beta and IL-6) levels were decreased.

Originality/value

These results suggest that flaxseeds help to reduce hypercholesterolemia, oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with hypercholesterolemia.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Claire Johnson, Iva Bien-Aimé and Lise Dubois

Very little is known about how weight gain during incarceration influences the health of people living in Canadian federal penitentiaries. To fill this knowledge gap, this…

Abstract

Purpose

Very little is known about how weight gain during incarceration influences the health of people living in Canadian federal penitentiaries. To fill this knowledge gap, this study aims to determine how the observed weight gain influenced the development of obesity-related chronic diseases during incarceration.

Design/methodology/approach

This retrospective cohort study examined the association between weight gain and obesity-related chronic diseases for 1,420 participants incarcerated in federal penitentiaries in Ontario, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. To participate, individuals had to be incarcerated for at least six months at the time of the study (2016–2017). Current anthropometric data were measured or taken from medical records, then compared to anthropometric data at the beginning of incarceration (mean follow-up of 5.0 years) to determine weight change (kg) and body mass index change (kg/m2) during incarceration. Then, information about obesity-related chronic diseases was drawn from the participants’ medical records.

Findings

Chi-square and nonparametric median comparison tests were performed to detect statistically significant changes in anthropometric data, to determine if a relationship was present. This study observed a significant association between weight gain and disease development for many types of obesity-related chronic diseases (e.g. cancer, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and sleep apnea). This confirmed an association between weight gain and chronic disease development in the prison population.

Originality/value

Participants who gained a significant amount of weight, during incarceration, were also more frequently diagnosed with obesity-related chronic diseases. These findings suggest that weight gain may contribute to the deterioration of peoples’ health during incarceration.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

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