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Article
Publication date: 20 August 2019

Ghadanfer Hussein Ali and Sabah Khammass Hussein

The purpose of this paper is to join an anodized aluminium alloy AA6061 sheet with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) using friction spot process.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to join an anodized aluminium alloy AA6061 sheet with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) using friction spot process.

Design/methodology/approach

The surface of AA6061 sheet was anodized to increase the pores’ size. A lap joint configuration was used to join the AA6061 with HDPE sheets by the friction spot process. The joining process was carried out using a rotating tool of different diameters: 14, 16 and 18 mm. Three tool-plunging depths were used – 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mm – with three values of the processing time – 20, 30 and 40 s. The joining process parameters were designed according to the Taguchi approach. Two sets of samples were joined: the as-received AA6061/HDPE and the anodized AA6061/HDPE.

Findings

Frictional heat melted the HDPE layers near the lap joint line and penetrated it through the surface pores of the AA6061 sheet via the applied pressure of the tool. The tool diameter exhibited higher effect on the joint strength than processing time and the tool-plunging depth. Specimens of highest and lowest tensile force were failed by necking the polymer side and shearing the polymer layers at the lap joint, respectively. Molten HDPE was mechanically interlocked into the pores of the anodized surface of AA6061 with an interface line of 18-m width.

Originality/value

For the first time, HDPE was joined with the anodized AA6061 by the friction spot process. The joint strength reached an ideal efficiency of 100 per cent.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 16 September 2013

S. Venkat Prasat and R. Subramanian

The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of fly ash and graphite particles as low cost reinforcing materials for improved wear resistance, enhanced mechanical…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of fly ash and graphite particles as low cost reinforcing materials for improved wear resistance, enhanced mechanical properties and reduction in density of hybrid composites.

Design/methodology/approach

The AlSi10Mg/fly ash/graphite (Al/FA/Gr) hybrid composite was synthesised by stir casting method. The dry sliding wear and friction behaviour of hybrid composites were studied using pin-on-disc machine by varying parameters like load and weight fraction of fly ash, and compared with the base metal alloy and aluminium-graphite composite. The tests were conducted with a constant sliding speed of 2 m/s and sliding distance of 2,400 m.

Findings

The hybrid composites exhibit higher hardness, higher tensile strength and lower density when compared to unreinforced alloy and aluminium-graphite composite. The incorporation of fly ash and graphite particles as reinforcements caused a reduction in the wear rate and coefficient of friction (COF) of the hybrid composites. The improvement in the tribological characteristics occured due to the load carrying capacity of hard fly ash particles and the formation of a lubricating film of graphite between the sliding interfaces. The wear rates and COF of unreinforced aluminium alloy and composites increase with an increase in the applied normal load. The wear rates and COF of hybrid composites decrease with an increase in the fly ash content. 9 wt.% fly ash and 3 wt.% graphite reinforced hybrid composite exhibited the highest wear resistance and lowest COF at all applied loads. Abrasive wear and delamination were dominant in the mild wear regime of aluminium alloy and composites. Due to subsurface deformation and crack propagation, plate-like wear debris were generated during delamination wear. In the severe wear regime, the dominant wear mechanism was adhesive wear with formation of transfer layers.

Practical implications

It is expected that these findings will contribute towards the development of lightweight and low cost aluminium products with improved tribological and mechanical properties.

Originality/value

The wear and friction data have been made available in this article for the use of Al/FA/Gr hybrid composites in tribological applications.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 65 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2021

Taha Yasin Eken, Cevat Sarioglu and Israfil Kucuk

The purpose of this paper is to investigate and find out the surface and electrochemical behaviours of twin roll cast (TRC) 8006 aluminium alloy with different thicknesses…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate and find out the surface and electrochemical behaviours of twin roll cast (TRC) 8006 aluminium alloy with different thicknesses due to the cold rolling rates after the TRC process.

Design/methodology/approach

The 8006 aluminium alloys are mostly used for the food packaging industry, as they are corrosion resistant, lightweight and shapable materials. The present work investigates the surface and corrosion behaviours of 8006 aluminium alloys at different thicknesses. TRC aluminium alloys were cold-rolled at two different reduction rates before investigation. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) tests were used to examine the phase and elemental analyses. FE-SEM and 3D profilometry also used to observe surface morphology. Open circuit potential (OCP), potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests (EIS) were carried out to find out corrosion behaviours. The results show that the more cold rolling reduction (CRR), the more corrosion rate and surface affection of the TRC 8006 aluminium alloys.

Findings

According to the electrochemical tests (OCP, potentiodynamic polarization test and EIS) and surface morphology results (such as SEM, 3D profilometry and XRD) the more the rolling rate the less the corrosion resistance.

Originality/value

First corrosion behaviour investigation of twin-rolled 8006 Al alloys using electrochemical techniques. First investigation of CRR effects on electrochemical corrosion behaviour of 8006 Al alloys with 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution using EIS. First investigation of 8006 Al alloys as a food packaging material with electrochemical ways.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2019

Alagarsamy S.V. and Ravichandran M.

Aluminium and its alloys are the most preferred material in aerospace and automotive industries because of their high strength-to-weight ratio. However, these alloys are…

Abstract

Purpose

Aluminium and its alloys are the most preferred material in aerospace and automotive industries because of their high strength-to-weight ratio. However, these alloys are found to be low wear resistance. Hence, the incorporation of ceramic particles with the aluminium alloy may be enhanced the mechanical and tribological properties. The purpose of this study is to optimize the specific wear rate and friction coefficient of titanium dioxide (TiO2) reinforced AA7075 matrix composites. The four wear control factors are considered, i.e. reinforcement (Wt.%), applied load (N), sliding velocity (m/s) and sliding distance (m).

Design/methodology/approach

The composites were fabricated through stir casting route with varying weight percentages (0, 5, 10 and 15 Wt.%) of TiO2 particulates. The mechanical properties of the composites were studied. The specific wear rate and friction coefficient of the newly prepared composites was determined by using a pin-on-disc apparatus under dry sliding conditions. Experiments were planned as per Taguchi’s L16 orthogonal design. Signal-to-noise ratio analysis was used to find the optimal combination of parameters.

Findings

The mechanical properties such as yield strength, tensile strength and hardness of the composites significantly improved with the addition of TiO2 particles. The analysis of variance result shows that the applied load and reinforcement Wt.% are the most influencing parameters on specific wear rate and friction coefficient during dry sliding conditions. The scanning electron microscope morphology of the worn surface shows that TiO2 particles protect the matrix from more removal of material at all conditions.

Originality/value

This paper provides a solution for optimal parameters on specific wear rate and friction coefficient of aluminium matrix composites (AMCs) using Taguchi methodology. The obtained results are useful in improving the wear resistance of the AA7075-TiO2 composites.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 71 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2018

Hafida Kahoul, Samira Belhour, Ahmed Bellaouar and Jean Paul Dron

This paper aims to present the fatigue life behaviour of upper arm suspension. The main objectives are to predict the fatigue life of the component and to identify the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the fatigue life behaviour of upper arm suspension. The main objectives are to predict the fatigue life of the component and to identify the critical location. In this analysis, three aluminium alloys were used for the suspension, and their fatigue life was compared to select the suitable material for the suspension arm.

Design/methodology/approach

CAD model was prepared using Solid Works software, and finite element analysis was done using ANSYS 14.0 software by importing the Parasolid file to ANSYS. The model is subjected to loading and boundary conditions; the authors consider a vertical force with constant amplitude applied at the bushing that connected to the tire, the others two bushing that connected to the body of the car are constraint. Tetrahedral elements given enhanced results as compared to other types of elements; therefore, the elements (TET 10) are used. The maximum principal stress was considered in the linear static analysis, and fatigue analysis was done using strain life approach.

Findings

Life and damage are evaluated and the critical location was considered at node 63,754. From the fatigue analysis, aluminium alloys 7175-T73 (Al 90%-Zn 5.6%-Mg 2.5% -… …) and 2014-T6 (Al 93.5%-Cu 4.4%-Mg 0.5%… …) present a similar behaviour as compared to 6061-T6 (Al 97.9%-Mg 1.0%-Si 0.6%… … .); in this case of study, these lather are considered to be the materials of choice to manufacture the suspension arms; but 7175-T73 aluminium alloys remain the material with a better resistance to fatigue.

Originality/value

By the finite element analysis method and assistance of ANSYS software, it is able to analyse the different car components from varied aspects such as fatigue, and consequently save time and cost. For further research, the experimental works under controlled laboratory conditions should be done to determine the validation of the result from the software analysis.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1993

THE desire to provide today's aircraft with high payload and long range performance capabilities has led to the search for new and innovative ways of reducing weight and…

Abstract

THE desire to provide today's aircraft with high payload and long range performance capabilities has led to the search for new and innovative ways of reducing weight and increasing the strength of materials used in their construction. Justin Ratcliffe of The Shapemakers explains the role of aluminium extrusions in these developments.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 65 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2019

Akhil Khajuria, Modassir Akhtar, Manish Kumar Pandey, Mayur Pratap Singh, Ankush Raina, Raman Bedi and Balbir Singh

AA2014 is a copper-based alloy and is typically used for production of complex machined components, given its better machinability. The purpose of this paper was to study…

Abstract

Purpose

AA2014 is a copper-based alloy and is typically used for production of complex machined components, given its better machinability. The purpose of this paper was to study the effects of variation in weight percentage of ceramic Al2O3 particulates during electrical discharge machining (EDM) of stir cast AA2014 composites. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination was carried out to study characteristics of EDMed surface of Al2O3/AA2014 composites.

Design/methodology/approach

The effect of machining parameters on performance measures during sinker EDM of stir cast Al2O3/AA2014 composites was examined by “one factor at a time” (OFAT) method. The stir cast samples were obtained by using three levels of weight percentage of Al2O3 particulates, i.e. 0 Wt.%, 10 Wt.% and 20 Wt.% with density 1.87 g/cc, 2.35 g/cc and 2.98 g/cc respectively. Machining parameters varied were peak current (1-30 amp), discharge voltage (30-100 V), pulse on time (15-300 µs) and pulse off time (15-450 µs) to study their influence on material removal rate (MRR), tool wear rate (TWR) and surface roughness (SR).

Findings

MRR and SR decreased with an increase in weight percentage of ceramic Al2O3 particulates at the expense of TWR. This was attributed to increased microhardness for reinforced stir cast composites. However, microhardness of EDMed samples at fixed values of machining parameters, i.e. 9 amp current, 60 V voltage, 90 µs pulse off time and 90 µs pulse on time reduced by 58.34, 52.25 and 46.85 per cent for stir cast AA2014, 10 Wt.% Al2O3/AA2014 and 20 Wt.% Al2O3/AA2014, respectively. SEM and quantitative energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed ceramic Al2O3 particulate thermal spalling in 20 Wt.% Al2O3/AA2014 composite. This was because of increased particulate weight percentage leading to steep temperature gradients in between layers of base material and heat affected zone.

Originality/value

This work was an essential step to assess the machinability for material design of Al2O3 reinforced aluminium metal matrix composites (AMMCs). Experimental investigation on sinker EDM of high weight fraction of particulates in AA2014, i.e. 10 Wt.% Al2O3 and 20 Wt.% Al2O3, has not been reported in archival literature. The AMMCs were EDMed at variable peak currents, voltages, pulse on and pulse off times. The effects of process parameters on MRR, TWR and SR were analysed with comparisons made to show the effect of Al2O3 particulate contents.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 5 November 2020

Sultan AlRedha, Anton Shterenlikht, Mahmoud Mostafavi, Derreck Van Gelderen, Omar Eduardo Lopez-Botello, Luis Arturo Reyes, Patricia Zambrano and Carlos Garza

A key challenge found in additive manufacturing is the difficulty to produce components with replicable microstructure and mechanical performance in distinct orientations…

Abstract

Purpose

A key challenge found in additive manufacturing is the difficulty to produce components with replicable microstructure and mechanical performance in distinct orientations. This study aims to investigate the influence of build orientation on the fracture toughness of additively manufactured AlSi10Mg specimens.

Design/methodology/approach

The AlSi10Mg specimens were manufactured using the selective laser melting (SLM) technology. The fracture toughness was experimentally determined (under ASTM E399-09) using C(T) specimens manufactured in different orientations. The microstructure of the specimens was examined using metallography to determine the effects of grain orientation on fracture toughness.

Findings

The fracture toughness magnitude of manufactured specimens ranged between 36 and 50 MPam, which closely matched conventional bulk material and literature values regarding AlSi10Mg components. The C(T) specimens printed in the T-L orientation yielded the highest fracture toughness. The grain orientation and fracture toughness values confirm the anisotropic nature of SLM parts where the T-L-oriented specimen obtained the highest KIC value. A clear interaction between the melt pool boundaries and micro-slipping during the loading application was observed.

Originality/value

The novelty of this paper consists in elucidating the relationship between grain orientation and fracture toughness of additively manufactured AlSi10Mg specimens because of the anisotropy generated by the different melting pool boundaries and orientations in SLM. The findings show that melt pool boundaries can behave as easier pathways for cracks to propagate and subsequently reduce the fracture toughness of specimens with cracks perpendicular to the build direction.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 26 March 2021

Eshan Agrawal and Vinod Tungikar

Aluminium matrix composites are subjected to wear as well as higher temperature applications such as pistons, cylinder heads and blocks for car engines. Therefore, it is…

Abstract

Purpose

Aluminium matrix composites are subjected to wear as well as higher temperature applications such as pistons, cylinder heads and blocks for car engines. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the performance of aluminium metal matrix composite at elevated temperature.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present work wear performance of Al-TiC composite with 7.5% reinforcement of TiC powder is carried out at elevated temperature. The composite specimens are prepared with the help of centrifugal casting method to get the large segregation of reinforcement on the outer layer of the composite which is subjected to wear. Taguchi method is used for preparing design of experiments.

Findings

The wear test is performed on DUCOM pin on disc setup having the heating chamber facility. The results of wear test are analysed with the help of MINITAB 19 software. The results show that temperature has dominant effect on the wear rate. The mathematical model through regression is predicted for wear rate and coefficient of friction. The study of worn-out surface is performed with the help of scanning electron microscope. The micrographs show that the type of wear is changes from abrasive to severe wear and some delamination.

Originality/value

The experiments are conducted as per ASTM standards. The results give the mathematical equation for wear rate and coefficient of friction at elevated temperatures.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2017

Chor Yen Yap, Hongyi Kenneth Tan, Zhenglin Du, Chee Kai Chua and Zhili Dong

Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing technology that is gaining industrial and research interest as it can directly fabricate near full density…

Abstract

Purpose

Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing technology that is gaining industrial and research interest as it can directly fabricate near full density metallic components. The paper aims to identify suitable process parameters for SLM of processing of pure nickel powder and to study the microstructure of such products. The study also aims to characterize the microhardness and tensile properties of pure nickel produced by SLM.

Design/methodology/approach

A 24 factorial design experiment was carried out to identify the most significant factors on the resultant porosity of nickel parts. A subsequent experiment was carried out with a laser power of 350 W. The scanning speeds and hatch spacings were varied.

Findings

Scanning speed and hatch spacing have significant effects on the porosity of SLM components. A high relative density of 98.9 per cent was achieved, and microhardness of 140 to 160 Hv was obtained from these samples. A tensile strength 452 MPa was obtained.

Research limitations/implications

As the energy input levels were made in steps of 20 J/mm3 for the optimization study, the true optimal combination of parameters may have been missed. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to test the parameters with smaller variations in energy levels.

Practical implications

The paper provides a set of optimized parameters for the SLM of pure nickel. This study enables the three-dimensional (3D) printing of objects with nickel, which has applications in chemical catalyses and in microelectromechanical systems with its magnetostrictive properties.

Originality value

This research is the first in direct processing of pure nickel using SLM, with the identification of suitable process parameters. The study also provides an understanding of the porosity, microhardness, strength and microstructure of SLM produced nickel parts. This work paves the way for standardization of 3D printed nickel components and enables the applications of pure nickel via SLM.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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