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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2022

Taylor Davis, Tracy W. Nelson and Nathan B. Crane

dding dopants to a powder bed could be a cost-effective method for spatially varying the material properties in laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) or for evaluating new…

Abstract

Purpose

dding dopants to a powder bed could be a cost-effective method for spatially varying the material properties in laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) or for evaluating new materials and processing relationships. However, these additions may impact the selection of processing parameters. Furthermore, these impacts may be different when depositing nanoparticles into the powder bed than when the same composition is incorporated into the powder particles as by ball milling of powders or mixing similarly sized powders. This study aims to measure the changes in the single bead characteristics with laser power, laser scan speed, laser spot size and quantity of zirconia nanoparticle dopant added to SS 316 L powder.

Design/methodology/approach

A zirconia slurry was inkjet-printed into a single layer of 316 SS powder and dried. Single bead experiments were conducted on the composite powder. The line type (continuous vs balling) and the melt pool geometry were compared at various levels of zirconia doping.

Findings

The balling regime expands dramatically with the zirconia dopant to both higher and lower energy density values indicating the presence of multiple physical mechanisms that influence the resulting melt track morphology. However, the energy density required for continuous tracks was not impacted as significantly by zirconia addition. These results suggest that the addition of dopants may alter the process parameter ranges suitable for the fabrication of high-quality parts.

Originality/value

This work provides new insight into the potential impact of material doping on the ranges of energy density values that form continuous lines in single bead tests. It also illustrates a potential method for spatially varying material composition for process development or even part optimization in powder bed fusion without producing a mixed powder that cannot be recycled.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 September 2021

Jared Allison, John Pearce, Joseph Beaman and Carolyn Seepersad

Additive manufacturing (AM) of thermoplastic polymers for powder bed fusion processes typically requires each layer to be fused before the next can be deposited. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Additive manufacturing (AM) of thermoplastic polymers for powder bed fusion processes typically requires each layer to be fused before the next can be deposited. The purpose of this paper is to present a volumetric AM method in the form of deeply penetrating radio frequency (RF) radiation to improve the speed of the process and the mechanical properties of the polymer parts.

Design/methodology/approach

The focus of this study was to demonstrate the volumetric fusion of composite mixtures containing polyamide (nylon) 12 and graphite powders using RF radiation as the sole energy source to establish the feasibility of a volumetric AM process for thermoplastic polymers. Impedance spectroscopy was used to measure the dielectric properties of the mixtures as a function of increasing graphite content and identify the percolation limit. The mixtures were then tested in a parallel plate electrode chamber connected to an RF generator to measure the heating effectiveness of different graphite concentrations. During the experiments, the surface temperature of the doped mixtures was monitored.

Findings

Nylon 12 mixtures containing between 10% and 60% graphite by weight were created, and the loss tangent reached a maximum of 35%. Selective RF heating was shown through the formation of fused composite parts within the powder beds.

Originality/value

The feasibility of a novel volumetric AM process for thermoplastic polymers was demonstrated in this study, in which RF radiation was used to achieve fusion in graphite-doped nylon powders.

Article
Publication date: 8 September 2021

Giampaolo Campana, Eckart Uhlmann, Mattia Mele, Luca Raffaelli, André Bergmann, Jaroslaw Kochan and Julian Polte

Support structures used in laser powder bed fusion are often difficult to clean from unsintered powder at the end of the process. This issue can be significantly reduced…

Abstract

Purpose

Support structures used in laser powder bed fusion are often difficult to clean from unsintered powder at the end of the process. This issue can be significantly reduced through a proper design of these auxiliary structures. This paper aims to investigate preliminary the airflow within differently oriented support structures and to provide design guidelines to enhance their cleanability, especially the depowdering of them.

Design/methodology/approach

This study investigates the cleanability of support structures in powder bed fusion technology. Digital models of cleaning operations were designed through computer-aided engineering systems. Simulations of the airflow running into the powder entrapped within the thin walls of auxiliary supports were implemented by computational fluid dynamics. This approach was applied to a set of randomly generated geometrical configurations to determine the air turbulence intensity depending on their design.

Findings

The results, which are based on the assumption that a relationship exists between turbulence and powder removal effectiveness, demonstrated that the maximum cleanability is obtainable through specific relative rotations between consecutive support structures. Furthermore, it was possible to highlight the considerable influence of the auxiliary structures next to the fluid inlet. These relevant findings establish optimal design rules for the cleanability of parts manufactured by powder bed fusion processes.

Originality/value

This study presents a preliminary investigation into the cleanability of support structures in laser powder bed fusion, which has not been addressed by previous literature. The results allow for a better understanding of the fluid dynamics during cleaning operations. New guidelines to enhance the cleanability of support structures are provided based on the results of simulations.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 September 2021

Yaasin Abraham Mayi, Alexis Queva, Morgan Dal, Gildas Guillemot, Charlotte Metton, Clara Moriconi, Patrice Peyre and Michel Bellet

During thermal laser processes, heat transfer and fluid flow in the melt pool are primary driven by complex physical phenomena that take place at liquid/vapor interface…

234

Abstract

Purpose

During thermal laser processes, heat transfer and fluid flow in the melt pool are primary driven by complex physical phenomena that take place at liquid/vapor interface. Hence, the choice and setting of front description methods must be done carefully. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate to what extent front description methods may bias physical representativeness of numerical models of laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) process at melt pool scale.

Design/methodology/approach

Two multiphysical LPBF models are confronted: a Level-Set (LS) front capturing model based on a C++ code and a front tracking model, developed with COMSOL Multiphysics® and based on Arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian (ALE) method. To do so, two minimal test cases of increasing complexity are defined. They are simplified to the largest degree, but they integrate multiphysics phenomena that are still relevant to LPBF process.

Findings

LS and ALE methods provide very similar descriptions of thermo-hydrodynamic phenomena that occur during LPBF, providing LS interface thickness is correctly calibrated and laser heat source is implemented with a modified continuum surface force formulation. With these calibrations, thermal predictions are identical. However, the velocity field in the LS model is systematically underestimated compared to the ALE approach, but the consequences on the predicted melt pool dimensions are minor.

Originality/value

This study fulfils the need for comprehensive methodology bases for modeling and calibrating multiphysical models of LPBF at melt pool scale. This paper also provides with reference data that may be used by any researcher willing to verify their own numerical method.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 September 2022

Agnieszka Chmielewska, Bartlomiej Adam Wysocki, Elżbieta Gadalińska, Eric MacDonald, Bogusława Adamczyk-Cieślak, David Dean and Wojciech Świeszkowski

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of remelting each layer on the homogeneity of nickel-titanium (NiTi) parts fabricated from elemental nickel and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of remelting each layer on the homogeneity of nickel-titanium (NiTi) parts fabricated from elemental nickel and titanium powders using laser powder bed fusion (LPBF). In addition, the influence of manufacturing parameters and different melting strategies, including multiple cycles of remelting, on printability and macro defects, such as pore and crack formation, have been investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

An LPBF process was used to manufacture NiTi alloy from elementally blended powders and was evaluated with the use of a remelting scanning strategy to improve the homogeneity of fabricated specimens. Furthermore, both single melt and up to two remeltings were used.

Findings

The results indicate that remelting can be beneficial for density improvement as well as chemical and phase composition homogenization. Backscattered electron mode in scanning electron microscope showed a reduction in the presence of unmixed Ni and Ti elemental powders in response to increasing the number of remelts. The microhardness values of NiTi parts for the different numbers of melts studied were similar and ranged from 487 to 495 HV. Nevertheless, it was observed that measurement error decreases as the number of remelts increases, suggesting an increase in chemical and phase composition homogeneity. However, X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the presence of multiple phases regardless of the number of melt runs.

Originality/value

For the first time, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, elementally blended NiTi powders were fabricated via LPBF using remelting scanning strategies.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 15 March 2022

Mehrshad Mehrpouya, Daniel Tuma, Tom Vaneker, Mohamadreza Afrasiabi, Markus Bambach and Ian Gibson

This study aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of the art in powder bed fusion (PBF) techniques for additive manufacturing of multiple materials…

2324

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of the art in powder bed fusion (PBF) techniques for additive manufacturing of multiple materials. It reviews the emerging technologies in PBF multimaterial printing and summarizes the latest simulation approaches for modeling them. The topic of “multimaterial PBF techniques” is still very new, undeveloped, and of interest to academia and industry on many levels.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a review paper. The study approach was to carefully search for and investigate notable works and peer-reviewed publications concerning multimaterial three-dimensional printing using PBF techniques. The current methodologies, as well as their advantages and disadvantages, are cross-compared through a systematic review.

Findings

The results show that the development of multimaterial PBF techniques is still in its infancy as many fundamental “research” questions have yet to be addressed before production. Experimentation has many limitations and is costly; therefore, modeling and simulation can be very helpful and is, of course, possible; however, it is heavily dependent on the material data and computational power, so it needs further development in future studies.

Originality/value

This work investigates the multimaterial PBF techniques and discusses the novel printing methods with practical examples. Our literature survey revealed that the number of accounts on the predictive modeling of stresses and optimizing laser scan strategies in multimaterial PBF is low with a (very) limited range of applications. To facilitate future developments in this direction, the key information of the simulation efforts and the state-of-the-art computational models of multimaterial PBF are provided.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 28 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 February 2020

Zhenglin Du, Hui-Chi Chen, Ming Jen Tan, Guijun Bi and Chee Kai Chua

In recent years, additive manufacturing techniques have attracted much research attention because of their ability to fabricate customised parts with complex geometry. The…

Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, additive manufacturing techniques have attracted much research attention because of their ability to fabricate customised parts with complex geometry. The range of composites suitable for laser-based powder bed fusion technique is limited, and has not been investigated yet. This paper aims to study the fabrication of AlSi10Mg reinforced with nAl2O3 using the laser-based powder bed fusion technique.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental approach was used to investigate the densification of AlSi10Mg–nAl2O3 composites using laser-based powder bed fusion technique. Optimisation of the porosity was performed, and microstructure evolution was evaluated.

Findings

In this study, laser volumetric energy density (approximately 109 J/mm3) was found to be required for the fabrication of AlSi10Mg–nAl2O3 composites with a relative volumetric density approximating 99%. The use of laser volumetric energy density resulted in larger grains. Columnar grain structure was observed via the use of electron backscatter diffraction mapping.

Originality/value

This paper examines the processing of new aluminium composite material suitable for the fabrication via the laser-based powder bed fusion technique.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 January 2017

Shaw C. Feng, Paul Witherell, Gaurav Ameta and Duck Bong Kim

Additive manufacturing (AM) processes are the integration of many different science and engineering-related disciplines, such as material metrology, design, process…

Abstract

Purpose

Additive manufacturing (AM) processes are the integration of many different science and engineering-related disciplines, such as material metrology, design, process planning, in-situ and off-line measurements and controls. Major integration challenges arise because of the increasing complexity of AM systems and a lack of support among vendors for interoperability. The result is that data cannot be readily shared among the components of that system. In an attempt to better homogenization this data, this paper aims to provide a reference model for data sharing of the activities to be under-taken in the AM process, laser-based powder bed fusion (PBF).

Design/methodology/approach

The activity model identifies requirements for developing a process data model. The authors’ approach begins by formally decomposing the PBF processes using an activity-modeling methodology. The resulting activity model is a means to structure process-related PBF data and align that data with specific PBF sub-processes.

Findings

This model in this paper provides the means to understand the organization of process activities and sub-activities and the flows among them in AM PBF processes.

Research limitations/implications

The model is for modeling AM activities and data associated with these activity. Data modeling is not included in this work.

Social implications

After modeling the selected PBF process and its sub-processes as activities, the authors discuss requirements for developing the development of more advanced process data models. Such models will provide a common terminology and new process knowledge that improve data management from various stages in AM.

Originality/value

Fundamental challenges in sharing/reusing data among heterogeneous systems include the lack of common data structures, vocabulary management systems and data interoperability methods. In this paper, the authors investigate these challenges specifically as they relate to process information for PBF – how it is captured, represented, stored and accessed. To do this, they focus on using methodical, information-modeling techniques in the context of design, process planning, fabrication, inspection and quality control.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 May 2022

Zixin Liu, Yongqiang Yang, Di Wang, Jie Chen, Yunmian Xiao, Hanxiang Zhou, Ziyu Chen and Changhui Song

This study aims to investigate the influence of the gas-flow field distribution and design on the parts quality of 316L stainless steel and the vapor–spatter behavior.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the influence of the gas-flow field distribution and design on the parts quality of 316L stainless steel and the vapor–spatter behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the hot-wire wind speed test method, the exact value of the gas velocity at different locations was accurately measured to establish the effect on the porosity and the mechanical properties of the parts. The influence of the placement of single or dual blow screens on the performance of the parts quality was also studied. Through scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer, high-speed photography and other methods, the influence mechanism was explained.

Findings

It was found that too high or too low gas velocity both play a negative role, for 316L stainless steel, the range of 1.3–2.0 m/s is a suitable gas field velocity during the multilaser powder bed fusion process. And printing quality using dual blow screens is better than single.

Practical implications

The optimization of gas field design and optimal gas velocity (1.3–2.0 m/s) applied during laser melting can improve the quality of ML-PBF of 316L stainless steel.

Originality/value

This study showed the influence of the gas field on the spatter–vapor in the process during ML-PBF, and the unfavorable gas field led to the formation of pores and unmelted powders.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 September 2021

Sareh Götelid, Taoran Ma, Christophe Lyphout, Jesper Vang, Emil Stålnacke, Jonas Holmberg, Seyed Hosseini and Annika Strondl

This study aims to investigate additive manufacturing of nickel-based superalloy IN718 made by powder bed fusion processes: powder bed fusion laser beam (PBF-LB) and powder

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate additive manufacturing of nickel-based superalloy IN718 made by powder bed fusion processes: powder bed fusion laser beam (PBF-LB) and powder bed fusion electron beam (PBF-EB).

Design/methodology/approach

This work has focused on the influence of building methods and post-fabrication processes on the final part properties, including microstructure, surface quality, residual stresses and mechanical properties.

Findings

PBF-LB produced a much smoother surface. Blasting and shot peening (SP) reduced the roughness even more but did not affect the PBF-EB surface finish as much. As-printed PBF-EB parts have low residual stresses in all directions, whereas it was much higher for PBF-LB. However, heat treatment removed the stresses and SP created compressive stresses for samples from both PBF processes. The standard Arcam process parameter for PBF-EB for IN718 is not fully optimized, which leads to porosity and inferior mechanical properties. However, impact toughness after hot isostatic pressing was surprisingly high.

Originality/value

The two processes gave different results and also responses to post-treatments, which could be of advantage or disadvantage for different applications. Suggestions for improving the properties of parts produced by each method are presented.

1 – 10 of 491