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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

X.A. Cao, G.Q. Shao and K.H. Hu

The purpose of this paper is to explore the tribological properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) modified by carbon soot from the combustion of No. 0 diesel.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the tribological properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) modified by carbon soot from the combustion of No. 0 diesel.

Design/methodology/approach

Carbon soot is characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy. The tribological properties of HDPE samples with carbon soot are investigated on a materials surface tester with a ball-on-disk friction pair.

Findings

The collected carbon soot mainly comprises amorphous carbon nanoparticles of 50-100 nm in diameter. The main wear behaviours of pure HDPE include abrasive wear and plastic deformation. After adding carbon soot nanoparticles to HDPE, HDPE wear decreases. The appropriate carbon soot content is 8 per cent in HDPE under the selected testing conditions. Compared with other HDPE samples, HDPE with 8 per cent carbon soot has higher melting temperature, lower abrasive wear and better wear resistance. The lubrication of HDPE with carbon soot is due to the formation of a transferring film composed of HDPE, amorphous carbon and graphite carbon.

Originality/value

The paper reveals the HDPE modification and lubrication mechanisms by using carbon soot from the combustion of diesel. Related research can perhaps provide a potential approach for the treatment of carbon soot exhaust emission.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 68 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Hussein Adam Abdalla Gibreil and Cheng Pei Feng

In high-temperature regions (tropical regions) temperatures rises in summer, which affects the performance of asphalt pavement. Therefore, we must consider the conditions…

Abstract

Purpose

In high-temperature regions (tropical regions) temperatures rises in summer, which affects the performance of asphalt pavement. Therefore, we must consider the conditions of asphalt pavement, especially in these regions. This study aims to investigate the influence of high temperature on the stability performance of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and crumb rubber powder (CRP) modified hot mix asphalt (HMA) using Marshall design parameters and rutting test.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, three HMA mixtures with 4 per cent HDPE and 15 per cent CRP, 5 per cent HDPE and 10 per cent CRP, and 6 per cent HDPE and 5 per cent CRP concentrations were used for the Marshall stability test and dynamic stability (rutting test) at 60-75°C, and water stability test at 60°C.

Findings

The results showed that when test temperature was increased from 60°C to 75°C, the Marshall stability and dynamic stability of three HDPE- and CRP-modified HMA mixtures decreased, and these three HDPE- and CRP-modified HMA mixtures have a good moisture damage resistance. Of the three HMA mixtures with different HDPE and CRP concentrations, HMA mixtures with 5 per cent HDPE and 10 per cent CRP concentration exhibit optimal Marshall stability, dynamic stability and water stability.

Originality/value

This study showed the effects of high-temperatures changes on the stability performance of HDPE- and CRP-modified HMA mixtures.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

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Article
Publication date: 19 August 2019

Ghadanfer Hussein Ali and Sabah Khammass Hussein

The purpose of this paper is to join an anodized aluminium alloy AA6061 sheet with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) using friction spot process.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to join an anodized aluminium alloy AA6061 sheet with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) using friction spot process.

Design/methodology/approach

The surface of AA6061 sheet was anodized to increase the pores’ size. A lap joint configuration was used to join the AA6061 with HDPE sheets by the friction spot process. The joining process was carried out using a rotating tool of different diameters: 14, 16 and 18 mm. Three tool-plunging depths were used – 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mm – with three values of the processing time – 20, 30 and 40 s. The joining process parameters were designed according to the Taguchi approach. Two sets of samples were joined: the as-received AA6061/HDPE and the anodized AA6061/HDPE.

Findings

Frictional heat melted the HDPE layers near the lap joint line and penetrated it through the surface pores of the AA6061 sheet via the applied pressure of the tool. The tool diameter exhibited higher effect on the joint strength than processing time and the tool-plunging depth. Specimens of highest and lowest tensile force were failed by necking the polymer side and shearing the polymer layers at the lap joint, respectively. Molten HDPE was mechanically interlocked into the pores of the anodized surface of AA6061 with an interface line of 18-m width.

Originality/value

For the first time, HDPE was joined with the anodized AA6061 by the friction spot process. The joint strength reached an ideal efficiency of 100 per cent.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2007

Shiaw‐Wen Tien, Chung‐Ching Chiu, Yi‐Chan Chung, Chih‐Hung Tsai and Chin‐Fa Chang

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) aims to analyze possible impact upon manufacturing process and availability of products, and also study the environmental considerations and…

Abstract

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) aims to analyze possible impact upon manufacturing process and availability of products, and also study the environmental considerations and potential influence during entire life cycle ranging from procurement, production and utilization to treatment (namely, from cradle to tomb). Based on high‐density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe manufacturing of company A, this case study would involve evaluation of environmental influence during the production process. When the manufacturing process has been improved during “production process” and “forming cooling” stage, it is found that capital input on “electric power” and “water supply” could be reduced, thus helping to sharpen the competitive power of company A, and also ensure sustainable economic and industrial development in accordance with national policies on environmental protection.

Details

Asian Journal on Quality, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1598-2688

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Lien Zhu, Di Wu, Baolong Wang, Jing Zhao, Zheng Jin and Kai Zhao

The purpose of this paper is to find a new method to reinforce high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with polyacrylonitrile fibers (PAN). Furthermore, the crystallinity…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to find a new method to reinforce high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with polyacrylonitrile fibers (PAN). Furthermore, the crystallinity, viscoelasticity and thermal properties of HDPE composites have also been investigated and compared.

Design/methodology/approach

For effective reinforcing, samples with different content fillers were prepared. HDPE composites were prepared by melt blending with double-screw extruder prior to cutting into particles and the samples for testing were made using an injection molding machine.

Findings

With the addition of 9 Wt.% PAN fibers, it was found that the tensile strength and flexural modulus got the maximum value in all HDPE composites and increased by 1.2 times than pure HDPE. The shore hardness, storage modulus and vicat softening point of the composites improved continuously with the increase in the proportion of the fibers. The thermal stability and processability of composites did not change rapidly with the addition of PAN fibers. The degree of crystallinity increased with the addition of PAN fibers. In general, the composites achieve the best comprehensive mechanical properties with the fiber content of 9 Wt.%.

Practical implications

The fibers improve the strength of the polyethylene and enhance its ability to resist deformation.

Originality/value

The modified HDPE by PAN fibers in this study have high tensile strength and resistance to deformation and can be used as an efficient material in engineering, packaging and automotive applications.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 47 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

Y. Yildiz, N. Kizilcan and N. Uyanik

Proposes to examine acceleration of photo‐oxidative degradation of high‐density polyethylene (HDPE) by using photosensitive acetophenone‐formaldehyde resin (AFR).

Abstract

Purpose

Proposes to examine acceleration of photo‐oxidative degradation of high‐density polyethylene (HDPE) by using photosensitive acetophenone‐formaldehyde resin (AFR).

Design/methodology/approach

Degradation of HDPE by UV light was investigated in the presence of photosensitive AFR on natural weathering. The experiments were done at constant temperatures (40, 65 and 90°C). The results were determined by FT‐IR spectrophotometric and viscometric methods. Measurement of the rate of formation of carbonyl groups on the FT‐IR showed the evidence of degradation. The carbonyl indices of photo‐oxidation of HDPE with/without AFR were determined by FT‐IR spectroscopy. The molecular weights of the samples (Mη values) were measured by viscometry.

Findings

The amount of carbonyl present in the AFR containing HDPE samples and the changes in their molecular weights were found to depend on the irradiation period, temperature and amount of AFR in the mixture. The improvements in UV performance have been observed by using 1 per cent photosensitive AFR in the mixture. Photo‐oxidative degradation also appeared to be accelerated by heat.

Research limitations/implications

This study can be focused on using photosensitive resins for the polymer degradations just as powder mixture, but the HDPE sample used did not contain antioxidants. From this point of view, commercial HDPE and AFR must be mixed as a film‐former and the AFR concentration will be higher than those of this work.

Practical implications

This work provides technical information for the application of photosensitive resins for easy degradation of HDPE packaging materials.

Originality/value

The method in which a photosensitive resin is used in the polymer degradation may be a reference for other relevant studies.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 35 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2020

Emad S. Shafik, Medhat L. Tawfic and Adel F. Younan

The purpose of this study is to manufacture composites from sawdust and polymer high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with different loading from alum as natural and cheap…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to manufacture composites from sawdust and polymer high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with different loading from alum as natural and cheap flame retardant and subsequently characterized using standard analytical tools.

Design/methodology/approach

Artificial wood plastic composites (WPCs) were prepared by mixing HDPE with sawdust as a filler with constant ratio (2:1) using hot press. Polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PE-g-MAH) used as a coupling agent between two parents of the composites with different ratios (2.5, 5, 7 and 10). Alum as a flame retardant was incorporated into HDPE with 5 phr polyethylene grafted with maleic anhydride (PE-g-MAH) with different ratios (10, 15 and 20). Flame retardant efficiency was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry, thermal gravimetric analysis and the technique of ASTM E162.

Findings

The results revealed that the composite containing 5 phr from (PE-g-MAH) exhibited higher mechanical properties and this proved that (PE-g-MAH) act as an efficient coupling agent using the aforementioned ratio. The results also revealed that incorporation of alum as a flame retardant increased the thermal stability of the composites.

Originality/value

Artificial WPCs are ecofriendly materials with a wide range of applications in the constructions field. Moreover, they have high mechanical and physical properties with low cost. Evaluate alum as a natural and cheap flame retardant.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2019

Isam Tareq Abdullah and Sabah Khammass Hussein

The purpose of this paper is to join a sheet of the AA7075 with the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) by a lap joint using friction spot processing and investigate the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to join a sheet of the AA7075 with the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) by a lap joint using friction spot processing and investigate the temperature distribution of joint during this process using the finite element method (FEM).

Design/methodology/approach

A semi-conical hole was manufactured in the AA7075 specimen and a lap joint configuration was prepared with the HDPE specimen. A rotating tool was used to generate the required heat to melt the polymer by the friction with the AA7075 specimen. The applied tool force moved the molten polymer through the hole. Four parameters were used: lower diameter of hole, rotating speed, plunging depth and time. The results of shear test were analyzed using the Taguchi method. A FEM was presented to estimate the temperature distribution of joint during the process.

Findings

All specimens failed by shearing the polymer at the lap joint region without dislocation. The specimens of the smallest diameter exhibited the highest shear strength at the lap joint. The maximum ranges of temperature were recorded at the contact region between the rotating tool and the AA7075 specimen. The tool plunging depth recorded the highest effect on the generated heat compared with the rotating speed and plunging time.

Originality/value

For the first time, the AA7075 sheet was joined with the HDPE sheet by friction spot processing. The temperature distribution of this joint was simulated using the FEM.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2005

Mary E. Kinsella, Blaine Lilly, Benjamin E. Gardner and Nick J. Jacobs

To determine static friction coefficients between rapid tooled materials and thermoplastic materials to better understand ejection force requirements for the injection…

Abstract

Purpose

To determine static friction coefficients between rapid tooled materials and thermoplastic materials to better understand ejection force requirements for the injection molding process using rapid‐tooled mold inserts.

Design/methodology/approach

Static coefficients of friction were determined for semi‐crystalline high‐density polyethylene (HDPE) and amorphous high‐impact polystyrene (HIPS) against two rapid tooling materials, sintered steel with bronze (LaserForm ST‐100) and stereolithography resin (SL5170), and against P‐20 mold steel. Friction tests, using the ASTM D 1894 standard, were run for all material pairs at room temperature, at typical part ejection temperatures, and at ejection temperatures preceded by processing temperatures. The tests at high temperature were designed to simulate injection molding process conditions.

Findings

The friction coefficients for HDPE were similar on P‐20 Steel, LaserForm ST‐100, and SL5170 Resin at all temperature conditions. The HIPS coefficients, however, varied significantly among tooling materials in heated tests. Both polymers showed highest coefficients on SL5170 Resin at all temperature conditions. Friction coefficients were especially high for HIPS on the SL5170 Resin tooling material.

Research limitations/implications

Applications of these findings must consider that elevated temperature tests more closely simulated the injection‐molding environment, but did not exactly duplicate it.

Practical implications

The data obtained from these tests allow for more accurate determination of friction conditions and ejection forces, which can improve future design of injection molds using rapid tooling technologies.

Originality/value

This work provides previously unavailable friction data for two common thermoplastics against two rapid tooling materials and one steel tooling material, and under conditions that more closely simulate the injection‐molding environment.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 9 January 2009

Abstract

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 56 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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