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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2009

Antu Grewal and Sudesh Jood

Digestibility of pulses is affected due to presence of antinutritional and toxic compounds. Various processing treatments are known to destroy heat labile toxic compounds…

Abstract

Purpose

Digestibility of pulses is affected due to presence of antinutritional and toxic compounds. Various processing treatments are known to destroy heat labile toxic compounds and other enzyme inhibitors, hence, to improve the texture, palatability and nutritive value of pulses. This paper, therefore, aims to focus on improving the digestibility and availability of nutrients of green gram (Vigna radiata L.) through processing treatments.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study was undertaken to see the effect of common processing and cooking treatments on newly released green gram cultivars. To achieve this objective, green gram seeds were soaked in plain water (1:4 w/v) for 12 hours at 37°C. One portion of the soaked seeds was dried at 55°C and left‐over soaked seeds were divided into three portions. One portion of the soaked seeds was dehulled manually. The second portion of the soaked seeds was ordinary and pressure‐cooked (water two times the weight of soaked seeds) for 35 minutes at 95‐100°C and at 1.05 kg/cm2 pressure for 15 minutes, respectively. The third portion of the soaked seeds was sprouted for 24 hours at 37°C. All the processed seeds were dried at 55°C in a hot air oven and then ground in a cyclone sample mill and stored for estimation of nutritional parameters using standard methods.

Findings

Soaking and cooking treatments had no significant effect on proximate composition, whereas sugar contents increased and starch contents decreased significantly. Soaking and cooking treatments also improved in vitro starch digestibility significantly. De‐hulling of soaked seeds further improved starch digestibility and also caused significant change in protein, fat, ash, crude fibre and sugar contents. Germination decreased starch, thereby raising the level of the soluble sugars and improved starch digestibility by 49 and 48 percent, respectively, in both cultivars. Similarly, pressure‐cooking also increased starch digestibility by about 44 and 49 percent, respectively, in both cultivars. Cooking may gelatinize starch and germination may mobilize starch, resulting in improved digestibility of starch by α‐amylase.

Practical implications

Evolving high‐yielding crop varieties is one of the most important strategies to fill the gap between demand and supply of food legumes and also to improve the nutritional status of the population consuming such foods. Hence, it is imperative to judge their chemical composition and improve them through inexpensive processing techniques.

Originality/value

The paper gives an overall view of nutritive values of new and traditional varieties of vegetables and will be of value to those who supply the consumer.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 111 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2009

Anshu Bhatia and Neelam Khetarpaul

Some of the indigenous fermented foods of India seem to be very nutritious but not scientifically proved. Moreover, due to urbanisation and changing food habits and…

Abstract

Purpose

Some of the indigenous fermented foods of India seem to be very nutritious but not scientifically proved. Moreover, due to urbanisation and changing food habits and lifestyles, people are abandoning such nutritious recipes. This paper aims to collect such indigenous technical knowledge, standardise it under laboratory conditions and analyse it organoleptically and for various nutrients.

Design/methodology/approach

Doli ki roti – an indigenous nutritional fermented bread popular among Indian Punjabis migrated from Pakistan – is a wheat‐based product. Natural fermentation is carried out in an earthen pot called doli in vernacular language. The final product was a stuffed puri‐like preparation (a puri is a fried small fermented wheat bread stuffed with spice‐cooked chickpeas). Its preparation was learned from rural households and standardised under laboratory conditions. The product prepared was improved further to make it rich in micronutrients and protein. It was analysed for proximate nutrients, phytic acid and in vitro digestibility of starch and protein using standard AOAC methods.

Findings

The unfermented bread had 632.3 mg phytic acid per 100 g but this reduced significantly to an extent of 5‐18 per cent due to fermentation at 35°C and for both time periods, i.e. 18 h and 24 h. This significant reduction in the phytic acid content culminated in a marked improvement in protein (28‐50 per cent) and starch (57‐88 per cent) digestibility. The higher the temperature and the longer the period of fermentation, the more significant (p<0.05) were the changes seen in the phytic acid content, and a significant and negative correlation between the two further strengthened the findings.

Research limitations/implications

Such a product can be further improved nutritionally by making it rich in beta‐carotene. Instead of frying, it can be baked in the oven for health‐conscious people suffering from hypercholesterolemia.

Practical implications

On the basis of the findings of the present study, people should be encouraged not to abandon healthy eating practices but continue with their traditional healthy food habits. They should be motivated to prepare and eat fermented foods having the right combination of cereals, pulses and leafy vegetables.

Originality/value

This is an original paper based on an original idea. It is based on the research findings of the MSc thesis of the first author, who worked under the guidance of the second author.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

G. Singh, S. Sehgal, A. Kawatra and Preeti

To develop the biscuit from pearl millet flour prepared from pearl millet grains subjected to processing treatment, i.e. blanching and malting. Purpose was also to analyze…

Abstract

Purpose

To develop the biscuit from pearl millet flour prepared from pearl millet grains subjected to processing treatment, i.e. blanching and malting. Purpose was also to analyze the developed biscuit for nutritional evaluation.

Design/methodology/approach

Pearl millet is under utilized crop and its consumption is limited to low‐income group in the forms of chapatti, dalia, rabari, etc. However, when pearl millet grain was subjected to processing treatment, i.e. blanching and malting (methods are given in research paper), it helped to reduce the anti‐nutrients, rancidity and bitterness in the flour. After that, this processed flour was incorporated in biscuit to increase the consumption in human beings. Biscuit was also developed in combination with soybean flour to improve the protein quality, as pearl millet is deficient in lysine whereas soybean flour is rich in lysine.

Findings

The research revealed that all types of biscuit were organoleptically acceptable, with good mineral profile and low amount of anti‐nutrients. However, biscuit prepared from blanched flour had high calcium, phosphorus, iron and manganese content as compared to that prepared from malted flour. Low anti‐nutrient content and high in vitro digestibility were observed in biscuit prepared from blanched flour. Addition of soybean flour to biscuit also helps to increase the mineral profile as compared to that prepared without incorporation of soybean flour.

Originality/value

Utilization of processed pearl millet for product development was scanty. Work on blanching technique for product development and its comparison with product developed from malted flour was very less. The results indicate that processing method will help in lowering the amount of anti‐nutrients and lead to improvement in protein and starch digestibility. This research paper is valuable for processing industries, scientists and general public.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2012

Santosh Hooda and Asha Kawatra

Baby corn (Zea mays) is young, finger‐like, unfertilized cobs of maize with one to three centimeters of emerged silk, preferably harvested within 24 hours of silk…

Abstract

Purpose

Baby corn (Zea mays) is young, finger‐like, unfertilized cobs of maize with one to three centimeters of emerged silk, preferably harvested within 24 hours of silk emergence depending upon the growing season. It is a very perishable vegetable and hence the purpose of this present study is to standardize the freezing method for extending the shelf life of baby corn and to study the effect of frozen storage of 90 days on its nutritional composition.

Design/methodology/approach

Frozen baby corn was analysed for various nutritional parameters, namely proximate composition, minerals, in vitro starch and protein digestibility and vitamin, at regular intervals of 30 days for nine months.

Findings

Moisture, crude protein, crude fat and crude fibre content of baby corn showed no significant change during 90 days of frozen storage. A significant reduction was observed in calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron content of frozen baby corn. In vitro starch and protein digestibility showed a non‐significant change during frozen storage. Ascorbic acid and beta‐carotene content of frozen baby corn decreased significantly by 11.60 and 10.75 percent, respectively, by the end of 90 days of storage.

Originality/value

The present study indicates that freezing is an effective processing technology to enhance the storage life of baby corn.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 18 July 2008

G. Singh and S. Sehgal

The purpose of this paper is to develop two types of ladoo from pearl millet grain subjected to processing treatment i.e. popping. The paper also aims to analyse the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop two types of ladoo from pearl millet grain subjected to processing treatment i.e. popping. The paper also aims to analyse the developed popped pearl millet ladoo for nutritional evaluation.

Design/methodology/approach

Pearl millet forms a staple food for large population living below poverty line. The fat, proteins and minerals of millet is comparable to other cereals but rough texture, lack of gluten and typical flavour of grain limit their uses in various food preparation. So pearl millet grain was subjected to popping (method given in research paper). Popping produces low bulk density and improved in vitro digestibility. Two types of ladoo were prepared from popped pearl millet. In I type, roasted and dehulled chickpea and groundnut were also added to improve the nutritional quality, whereas II type of ladoo was prepared using 100 per cent popped pearl millet.

Findings

The research revealed that type I popped pearl millet ladoo had significantly higher calcium, phosphorus and iron content. Higher polyphenol and phytic acid and lower in vitro protein and starch digestibility were also found in type I ladoo. Cellulose and lignin content was found to be more in type II ladoo compared to type I ladoo.

Originality/value

Literature regarding the puffing of pearl millet was very less and utilization of popped pearl millet for product development was scanty. Moreover, not much study has been done on nutritional evaluation of popped pearl millet product. This research paper provides a new avenue for diversifying the uses of this underutilized pearl millet for increasing its consumption.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2004

K. Saharan, N. Khetarpaul and S. Bishnoi

Ricebean (RB‐32) contained significantly (p < 0.05) higher amounts of total soluble (5.6g/100g) and non‐reducing sugars (5.0g/100g) than fababean (VH‐82‐1). On the other…

Abstract

Ricebean (RB‐32) contained significantly (p < 0.05) higher amounts of total soluble (5.6g/100g) and non‐reducing sugars (5.0g/100g) than fababean (VH‐82‐1). On the other hand, the contents of starch and reducing sugars were more in fababean (53.2g/100g; 608.7mg/100g) than those in ricebean (50.7g/100g; 547.3mg/100g). The starch digestibility (mg maltose released/g meal) of whole raw seeds and husk of ricebean and fababean was 30.8; 6.3 and 42.1; 6.3, respectively. Due to soaking, sprouting and dehulling, a significant (p < 0.05) improvement occurred in in vitro starch digestibility of both ricebean and fababean. Germination for 24 hours in ricebean and 48 hours in fababean was found to be the best as it could improve the starch digestibility to the extent of 100 to 90 per cent over the control.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Marta Aurelia Horianski, Juan Manuel Peralta and Luis Alberto Brumovsky

The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of epichlorohydrin (ECH) concentration and reaction time on the food-grade resistant starch production and its…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of epichlorohydrin (ECH) concentration and reaction time on the food-grade resistant starch production and its pasting properties by using native cassava starch of Misiones-Argentina origin.

Design/methodology/approach

Cassava starch was modified using ECH (0.30 and 0.15 per cent) during 4 or 8 h. Digestibility was evaluated by determining resistant starch as total dietary fiber. Pasting properties and the cross-linking degree were studied using a micro-viscoamylograph (Brabender).

Findings

Resistant starch content was not influenced by ECH concentration and reaction time. Cross-linking was detected at higher reaction times (8 h) and ECH concentrations (0.30 per cent), where a decrease in viscosity peaks by more than 80 per cent was observed. Both pasting temperature and breakdown were increased, whereas a decrease in retrogradation was detected.

Practical implications

Starches can be suitable for different food applications. This is because of the ability to modify its pasting properties and the invariability of the in vitro digestibility of cassava starch as a result of using ECH (at concentrations approved by local and regional legislation) and reaction times of 4 and 8 h.

Originality/value

Information related to the modification of cassava starch using ECH is scarce or not available nowadays in literature.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2019

Neelam Yadav, Devinder Kaur, Ritika Malaviya, Pinki Saini and Saba Anjum

Iron deficiency anaemia and zinc deficiency are major public health problems across the globe. Cereals and pulses are important vegetarian source of minerals like zinc…

Abstract

Purpose

Iron deficiency anaemia and zinc deficiency are major public health problems across the globe. Cereals and pulses are important vegetarian source of minerals like zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe), however, poor digestibility impairs proper availability of micro minerals in the body. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) were selected for study as they are important pulse crops consumed worldwide. Therefore, in order to remove antinutrients and enhance bioavailability of nutrients in chickpea and cowpea, extrusion cooking was selected as a technology and its impact was studied by an in vitro method. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

Four chickpea cultivars, two desi (K 850 and PUSA 362) and two kabuli (PUSA 1108 and PUSA 1053) and one cowpea (Gomati) cultivars were selected for the study. Pulses were processed in a laboratory using a single screw food extruder. Raw and extruded pulses were analysed for antinutrients content, micronutrients content (Fe, Zn) and their bioavailability.

Findings

Extrusion cooking significantly decreased phytate in all cultivars of chick pea and cowpea with highest reduction (72.92 per cent) in PUSA 362; similarly, tannin and trypsin inhibitor decreased by 87.5 and 71.54 per cent, respectively, in Gomati cultivar of cowpea. All cultivars showed significant increase in protein digestibility. Iron bioavailability in all samples enhanced significantly; however, only 50 per cent cultivars (K 850, PUSA 362 and PUSA 1108) showed improvement in Zn bioavailability.

Originality/value

The present research therefore brought the outcome as an enhanced in vitro protein digestibility and bioavailability of micro mineral and protein in certain pulses having minimized antinutrients. Therefore, it is concluded that extrusion cooking is an effective tool in enhancing protein and micro mineral bioavailability.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 121 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2014

William Renzo Cortez-Vega, Irene Rodrigues Freitas, Sandriane Pizato and Carlos Prentice

The purpose of this study was to isolate Whitemouth croaker protein by alkaline solubilization process and evaluate their nutritional quality to evaluate the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to isolate Whitemouth croaker protein by alkaline solubilization process and evaluate their nutritional quality to evaluate the bioavailability of essential amino acids.

Design/methodology/approach

The proximate composition, essential amino acid composition, in vitro digestibility, apparent bioavailability, chemical score of amino acids and SDS-PAGE were determined for the isolated croaker proteins.

Findings

The isolated protein showed a high level of protein 92.21 percent and low amount of lipids 0.57 percent. The protein is rich in lysine and leucine, 108.73 and 96.75 mg/g protein, respectively. The protein isolate had high digestibility, 94.32 percent, which indicates proper utilization of this protein source, while the tryptophan had lower bioavailability (12.58 mg amino acid/mg protein). The high chemical scores were found for the amino acids lysine, methionine+cysteine (6.79 and 5.14). SDS-PAGE of proteins extracted showed appearance of the heavy chain of myosin (220 kDa), actin (50 kDa) and other fractions, with molecular weight between 20 and 50 kDa, such as troponin I, C and T.

Originality/value

The products obtained from croaker muscle can be incorporated as a high value supplements in human diets. The isolated protein exhibited a high content of essential amino acids and digestibility, indicating that the protein has a high nutritional quality.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Rohini Jain and Neerja Singla

Due to the high prevalence of malnutrition and iron-deficiency anaemia in children and women, the purpose of this paper is the development and nutritional evaluation of…

Abstract

Purpose

Due to the high prevalence of malnutrition and iron-deficiency anaemia in children and women, the purpose of this paper is the development and nutritional evaluation of food products supplemented with niger seeds.

Design/methodology/approach

Three products, namely, atta ladoo, mathi and salty biscuits, were developed using standardized recipes with different levels of niger seeds. These products were organoleptically evaluated by a trained panel of 12 judges using an eight-point hedonic rating scale. Nutritional evaluation was also carried out to draw comparison between the developed product and its control counterpart. Proximate composition, in vitro protein digestibility and iron estimation were carried out using standard methods.

Findings

The findings revealed that the products supplemented with niger seeds at a level of 20 per cent were acceptable. The supplemented products were found to have higher protein (13-15 per cent), fat (20-31 per cent), fibre (4.5-5.7 per cent) and iron (11.8-16.1 mg/100 g) content as compared to their control (0 per cent supplementation) counterparts. Along with that, addition of niger seeds resulted in significant (p < 0.05) increase in the in vitro protein digestibility of the supplemented products.

Research limitations/implications

Further, the feeding trials can be conducted by using formulated products so as to check the nutrient bioavailability of these products.

Originality/value

Keeping in view the economic and nutritional benefits of niger seeds, the products supplemented with them can be incorporated in daily diet so as to enhance the nutritional status of an individual. While niger seeds have been used in the animal’s and bird’s feed, limited research has focused on their use in food products used for human consumption in daily diet. Further, their nutritional role in the human diet has not been explored much.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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