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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2014

William Renzo Cortez-Vega, Irene Rodrigues Freitas, Sandriane Pizato and Carlos Prentice

The purpose of this study was to isolate Whitemouth croaker protein by alkaline solubilization process and evaluate their nutritional quality to evaluate the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to isolate Whitemouth croaker protein by alkaline solubilization process and evaluate their nutritional quality to evaluate the bioavailability of essential amino acids.

Design/methodology/approach

The proximate composition, essential amino acid composition, in vitro digestibility, apparent bioavailability, chemical score of amino acids and SDS-PAGE were determined for the isolated croaker proteins.

Findings

The isolated protein showed a high level of protein 92.21 percent and low amount of lipids 0.57 percent. The protein is rich in lysine and leucine, 108.73 and 96.75 mg/g protein, respectively. The protein isolate had high digestibility, 94.32 percent, which indicates proper utilization of this protein source, while the tryptophan had lower bioavailability (12.58 mg amino acid/mg protein). The high chemical scores were found for the amino acids lysine, methionine+cysteine (6.79 and 5.14). SDS-PAGE of proteins extracted showed appearance of the heavy chain of myosin (220 kDa), actin (50 kDa) and other fractions, with molecular weight between 20 and 50 kDa, such as troponin I, C and T.

Originality/value

The products obtained from croaker muscle can be incorporated as a high value supplements in human diets. The isolated protein exhibited a high content of essential amino acids and digestibility, indicating that the protein has a high nutritional quality.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2013

Yuwei Luo and Weihua Xie

The bioavailability of iron from faba bean is low because it is present as an insoluble complex with food components such as phytate, fiber and tannin. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

The bioavailability of iron from faba bean is low because it is present as an insoluble complex with food components such as phytate, fiber and tannin. The purpose of this paper is to try to identify the nature of the complexes between anti‐nutritional factors and iron in faba bean and legume fractions by using simulations of gastro‐intestinal digestion.

Design/methodology/approach

To this aim, the authors evaluated the effect of the action of fiber‐ and/or phytate‐degrading enzymes on solubilization of iron from insoluble residues obtained after gastro‐intestinal digestion of faba bean flour and fractions.

Findings

In insoluble residues of raw faba bean flour, simultaneous action of cellulase and phytases made it possible to release about 28 percent units more iron than that released with the treatment without enzymes. About 49.8 percent of iron in raw faba bean flour was solubilized after in vitro digestion and simultaneous action of cellulase and phytase. In the residues of the hull fraction, a significant increase in iron solubility has not been seen (p>0.05) after action of cellulase or phytases. Simultaneous action of cellulase and phytase led to the release of more than 60 and 18 percent units of additional iron for residues of dehulled faba bean and hull fractions, respectively.

Originality/value

In dehulled faba bean, iron was chelated by phytates and fibers. In the hull of faba bean, a high proportion of iron was chelated by iron‐tannins, while the rest of iron was chelated in complexes between phytates and fibers.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 115 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

M.M. Azab, S.K. Bader and A.F. Shaaban

A novel two series of self‐sequestering surfactants have been prepared by the reaction of itaconic acid, phthalic anhydride, citric acid with oxypropylated 1,4‐butane diol…

Abstract

A novel two series of self‐sequestering surfactants have been prepared by the reaction of itaconic acid, phthalic anhydride, citric acid with oxypropylated 1,4‐butane diol and oxypropylated 1,6‐hexane diol. The structure features of these surfactants have been confirmed by IR and 1H NMR spectra. These surfactants exhibit excellent properties of self‐sequestering. Besides good surface active properties including surface tension, interfacial tension, low foaming, good wetting properties, good stability towards acidic and basic media, emulsifying power and dispresent properties, solubilization properties and good biodegradability, they possess autonomous sequestering ability without any help of additional sequestering agent.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1986

O.N. Ananhd, V.P. Malik, K.D. Neemla and Vijayu Kumar

The rust inhibiting characteristics of barium/calcium petroleum sulphonates, prepared from two indigenously available base stocks of different origin have been determined…

Abstract

The rust inhibiting characteristics of barium/calcium petroleum sulphonates, prepared from two indigenously available base stocks of different origin have been determined in concentration ranging from 0.5 to 3.0% W/W in mineral oil as per ASTM D‐1748 method. The products have been characterised as ‘outstanding’, ‘good’ and ‘satisfactory’ on the basis of their performance in the humidity cabinet. It has been observed that Ba/Ca petroleum sulphonates possessing outstanding rust inhibiting characteristics show low oil/water interfacial tension and high water solubilization characteristics as compared to other sulphonates. It has also been observed that the rust inhibiting characteristics are profoundly influenced by the structural parameter of the hydrocarbon portion of the petroleum sulphonates. The larger the alkyl side chain, the better is the rust inhibiting properties.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 33 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2013

N. A. Ibrahim, Z. M. El-Sayed, H. M. Fahmy, A. G. Hassabo and M. H. Abo-Shosha

The inclusion of softeners (20 g/l), namely, Siligen VN (silicon based), Basosoft SWK (cationic), or Leomin NI (nonionic), in a dimethyloldihydroxy ethylene urea (DMDHEU…

Abstract

The inclusion of softeners (20 g/l), namely, Siligen VN (silicon based), Basosoft SWK (cationic), or Leomin NI (nonionic), in a dimethyloldihydroxy ethylene urea (DMDHEU, 50 g/l) finishing formulation of 65/35 cotton/polyester blended fabric, enhances the resiliency of the fabric, which is expressed as the dry wrinkle recovery angle (WRA). The fabric acquires the ability to keep a rose oil fragrance upon storage up to 3 months. Improving the WRA and acquiring the ability to keep the fragrance can be descendingly arranged as follows: Siligen VN>Basosoft SWK>Leomin NI. Increasing the Siligen VN concentration (0-30 g/l) in the finishing formulation is accompanied by a small increase in the WRA, and a noticeable enhancement in the ability to keep the rose oil fragrance upon storage. By increasing the rose oil concentration (100-300 g/l) in a perfumed bath of cross-linked/Siligen VN, the softened fabric is accompanied by a slight drop in the WRA, and a decreasing ability to keep the fragrance up to 3 months.

However, the extent of the fragrance is higher at higher rose oil concentrations, regardless of the storage time. The ability of the fabric to keep the fragrance can be attributed to solubilization and/or encapsulation of the perfume in the oleophilic segments of the softener, and its slow release with time, so that the smell can be sensed. This ability decreases after increasing the storage time up to 3 months, and depending on the type of perfume oil used, is descendingly arranged as follows: jasmine oil > rose oil > sandal oil.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1985

B.N. Ellis

This is the second part of a theoretical treatise focusing on the mechanics, physics and chemistry of cleaning (in simple terms) of electronics components and assemblies.

Abstract

This is the second part of a theoretical treatise focusing on the mechanics, physics and chemistry of cleaning (in simple terms) of electronics components and assemblies.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2018

Carlos Cavalheiro, Claudia Ruiz-Capillas, Ana Maria Herrero, Francisco Jiménez-Colmenero, Cristiano Ragagnin de Menezes and Leadir Lucy Fries

This study aims to protect Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium encapsulated in alginate beads during stress treatments, such as high temperatures and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to protect Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium encapsulated in alginate beads during stress treatments, such as high temperatures and concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) and sodium nitrite (NaNO2).

Design/methodology/approach

Free and encapsulated probiotics were subjected to 70 and 80°C during 5, 10, 20 and 30 min. In addition, the probiotics were subjected to concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 per cent NaCl and 0.5 and 1.0per cent of NaNO2.

Findings

Free Lactobacillus plantarum was more resistant to heat than free Enterococcus faecium. Alginate-encapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum (ALP) also was more resistant to heat treatments than alginate-encapsulated Enterococcus faecium (AEF). After 30 min at 70°C, ALP showed levels about 6.9 log CFU/g while AEF presented 4.3 log CFU/g (p = 0.005). However, at 80°C, ALP maintained levels higher than 6 log CFU/g for up to 10 min, while AEF was able to maintain those levels only for approximately 5 min (p = 0.003). Encapsulation process provided adequate protection for both probiotics against NaCl. In relation to NaNO2 concentrations, 0.5 and 1.0 per cent reduced viability of both probiotics (p = 0.014), either as free cells or as alginate-encapsulated forms.

Practical implications

Alginate beads containing probiotics is an interesting alternative for application in foods such as cooked meat products.

Originality/value

Alginate beads elaborated with milk powder, inulin and trehalose were effective to protect probiotics in stress situations similar to those can be found in the processing of foods, such as cooked meat products.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1992

B.N. Ellis

This paper summarises briefly all the substitutive techniques for CFC‐113 and 1,1,1 ‐trichloroethane blend cleaning, including the use of ‘no‐clean’ and controlled…

Abstract

This paper summarises briefly all the substitutive techniques for CFC‐113 and 1,1,1 ‐trichloroethane blend cleaning, including the use of ‘no‐clean’ and controlled atmosphere soldering, with emphasis on high‐reliability applications. Each technique is discussed with regard to its influence on the final reliability of the assembly under normal and abnormal storage and working conditions. Reliability is determined by numerous other parameters which are frequently ignored, such as the component layout for best cleaning quality. The requirements of conformal coating are also frequently given scant attention. In practical terms, this paper may help those selecting a substitutive soldering/cleaning process to choose one which will meet their quality requirements at minimum cost.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2014

Baomin Fan, Gang Wei, Zhan Zhang and Ning Qiao

This work was focused upon the main factors that influence the formation of a hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) supramolecular complex with octadecylamine (ODA) and…

Abstract

Purpose

This work was focused upon the main factors that influence the formation of a hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) supramolecular complex with octadecylamine (ODA) and their optimal processing conditions. The anti-corrosion properties of the products in the simulated boiler water condensate of power plants also needed to be tested. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A grinding method was applied to synthesize the supramolecular structures. Using Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR), the specific structures of the complex were clarified. The anti-corrosion properties were obtained from gravimetric results, potentiodynamic polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements.

Findings

The results reveal the highly soluble supramolecular complex could be formed between two HP-β-CD molecules and one ODA molecule at 85°C with a processing period of 15 minutes. In the condensate, the corrosion inhibition efficiency of the complex was over 95 percent, much higher than the inhibition efficiency of the hydrophobic ODA compound.

Practical implications

The supramolecular corrosion inhibitor could be used as an anti-corrosion method for industrial boiler condensate to reduce the content of corrosive ions. In this way, it is easier to reuse the condensate without re-polishing.

Originality/value

The research introduces supramolecular chemistry into corrosion science for the first time. The results provide a new option to modify the traditional corrosion inhibitors.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 61 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

Amin Ismail and Emmy Hainida Khairul Ikram

This study was aimed to estimate and compare the contents of protein and amino acids in raw, boiled and fried fishes of Indian mackerel “kembong” (Rastrelliger kanagurta)…

Abstract

This study was aimed to estimate and compare the contents of protein and amino acids in raw, boiled and fried fishes of Indian mackerel “kembong” (Rastrelliger kanagurta), sardine (Sardina pilchardus), red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicusx) and black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Protein contents of raw mackerel, sardine, red and black tilapia were 8.1±0.0, 8.4±0.1, 9.6±0.4 and 9.0±0.0 percent, respectively. In a boiled fish, the protein contents were 7.9±0.1, 7.7±0.0, 7.5±0.1 and 8.9±0.1 percent, respectively, and for a fried fish the values were 8.6±0.5, 8.9±0.1, 9.1±0.2 and 8.4±0.0 percent, respectively. It was found that there was a significant difference (p<0.01) in the protein content of the raw fish compared to the heat‐treated ones for all the fishes. The study detected 17 components of essential amino acids (lysine, histidine, threonine, valine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine and phenylalanine) and non‐essential amino acids (arginine, aspartic acid, serine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, cystein and tyrosine) in all the fishes. There was no significant difference in amino acids content among the boiled and fried fishes. In conclusion, heat treatment for five minutes in boiling water (100°C) and frying for three minutes in palm oil (160°C) did not alter the quality of protein in all the fishes studied.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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