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Expert briefing
Publication date: 21 December 2016

Sugar market dynamics.

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1997

Sigrid Gibson

Children’s diets tend to be higher in sugars than those of adults, and parents often associate sugar with obesity. Contrary to this hypothesis, surveys of various age…

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Abstract

Children’s diets tend to be higher in sugars than those of adults, and parents often associate sugar with obesity. Contrary to this hypothesis, surveys of various age groups all tend to show an inverse relationship between sugars and body mass index (BMI). In the latest National Diet and Nutrition Survey of children aged 11/2 to 41/2 years, children with the lowest sugar intakes, or whose diets were lowest in biscuits and cakes, or table sugar and preserves, had the highest BMI. Over‐emphasizing the avoidance of sugars may, paradoxically, be counterproductive in preventing obesity. Due to the phenomenon known as the sugar:fat see‐saw, a diet low in sugars tends to be proportionately high in fat. It is concluded that there is little justification in limiting NME sugars to 10 per cent of energy, for the avoidance of obesity.

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Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 97 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Case study
Publication date: 20 January 2017

Nabil Al-Najjar, Sandeep Baliga and Chris Forman

Since 1981, the U.S. federal government has operated a price support program to help sugar beet and sugar cane producers and processors. This complex program works through…

Abstract

Since 1981, the U.S. federal government has operated a price support program to help sugar beet and sugar cane producers and processors. This complex program works through a combination of loans, import quotas, and duties. As a result, sugar prices in the United States are significantly higher than world prices. For example, in December 2001, U.S. consumers paid 22.9 cents per pound, while the world price was just 9 cents per pound. The General Accounting Office estimates that the total cost to consumers is $1.9 billion a year. Uses a simple demand-and-supply framework with real-world data to assess the economic and political consequences of the U.S. sugar program.

To illustrate welfare concepts such as consumer surplus, producer surplus, and dead-weight loss in a concrete, real-world market context.

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Kellogg School of Management Cases, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2474-6568
Published by: Kellogg School of Management

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Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2017

P. Lynn Kennedy, Karen E. Lewis and Andrew Schmitz

While genetically modified (GM) crops have provided tremendous agricultural productivity gains, many consumers oppose GM products and maintain they are unsafe. We use the…

Abstract

While genetically modified (GM) crops have provided tremendous agricultural productivity gains, many consumers oppose GM products and maintain they are unsafe. We use the case of GM sugar beets and their adoption by the US producers to examine the implications of GM technology on food security. A partial equilibrium framework is used to examine the implications of GM technology on food security. This analysis provides a unique opportunity to examine the impact of GM adoption in one product (sugar beets) relative to non-GM adoption in a substitute product (sugarcane). This analysis examines the potential gains to food security through the adoption of biotechnology versus consumer fear of GM technology. Research and development (R&D) has potential implications not only through its impact on supply, but also on demand as well. This study shows that demand impacts can negate the supply-induced food security gains of R&D. Regulations such as mandatory labeling requirements can impact this outcome.

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World Agricultural Resources and Food Security
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-515-3

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2021

André Felipe Soares, Alice Raissa Honorio, Diana Clara Nunes de Lima and Alline Artigiani Lima Tribst

This paper aims to study how diabetics/pre-diabetics (D) and non-diabetic (regular consumers of sweeteners (C) or not (NC)) perceive and consume sweetened processed food in Brazil.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study how diabetics/pre-diabetics (D) and non-diabetic (regular consumers of sweeteners (C) or not (NC)) perceive and consume sweetened processed food in Brazil.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional study (n = 2,204) was carried out to gather information about: consumption of 14 sweetened food/beverage categories, perception of sugar/sweeteners (check-all-that-apply (CATA) test), understanding of sugar claims and socioeconomic/demographic/consume profile. Chi-square test/Fisher exact tests were used to analyze the contingency tables. CATA test results were evaluated using Cochran Q test, RV coefficient and Kruskal-Wallis test.

Findings

Results revealed that although diabetics/pre-diabetics consumed less sugary products than non-diabetics (p < 0.001), >50.0% of them preferred sugary candies, bakeries, ready-to-drink fruit juice, ice cream, chocolate and ready-to-eat desserts. D, NC and C similarly perceived (RV = 0.99) sugar (sensory desirable, but penalized due to its health impact), naturally extracted sweeteners (opposite description of sugar) and chemically synthesized sweeteners (penalized by sensory and health impacts). Regarding the claims, those that mean the absence of sugar were correctly understood for = 90.0% participants, while incorrect interpretations were observed for “containing sugars from own ingredients” (42.7%) and “light on sugar” (21.0%), without differences between consumer groups (p = 0.93).

Research limitations/implications

This study was carried out with a convenience sample.

Practical implications

Results can be applied to support food policies and educational campaigns (improving consumer information on processed sweetened foods) and to guide product development in the food industry.

Originality/value

This is the first study to evaluate the Brazilians’ behavior regarding the perception of sugar and sweeteners, the choice of different sweetened processed food, and understanding of sugar claims.

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Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2021

Antti Kähäri

This study investigates how the consumption of sugar products and non-alcoholic beverages has changed across birth cohorts. In addition, this study examines how the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates how the consumption of sugar products and non-alcoholic beverages has changed across birth cohorts. In addition, this study examines how the socio-economic gaps in the consumption of said products have evolved across birth cohorts.

Design/methodology/approach

The research data are drawn from the Finnish household expenditure surveys covering the period 1985–2016 (n = 44,286). An age-period-cohort methodology is utilised through the age-period-cohort-trended lag model. The model assumes that the linear long-term component of change is caused by generations replacing one-another, and that the age effect is similar across cohorts.

Findings

Sugar products and non-alcoholic beverages occupied a larger portion of more recent birth cohorts' food baskets. Cohort differences were larger in beverage consumption. Lower income was associated with a higher food expenditure share of sugar products in several cohorts. A higher education level was linked to a higher food expenditure share of sugar products in more cohorts than a lower education level. In cohorts born before the 1950s, non-alcoholic beverages occupied a larger portion of the food baskets of the high socio-economic status groups. This gap reversed over time, leading to larger food expenditure shares of non-alcoholic beverages in low socio-economic status groups.

Originality/value

This study assessed how the consumption of sugar products and non-alcoholic beverages has changed across birth cohorts. In addition, this study assessed how socio-economic differences in the consumption of said products have changed. The results highlight that sugar products and non-alcoholic beverages occupy larger portions of more recent birth cohorts’ food baskets. The results also highlight a reversal of socioeconomic differences in non-alcoholic beverage consumption.

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British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 13
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Book part
Publication date: 26 October 2005

Dale Tomich

While scholars have commonly inquired into how capital structures the material world, far less attention has been paid to how the material world has structured the…

Abstract

While scholars have commonly inquired into how capital structures the material world, far less attention has been paid to how the material world has structured the historical relations of the capitalist world economy. This chapter is concerned with the expansion of Caribbean sugar industry in the world economic conjuncture of the first half of the nineteenth century. It examines the relation of the material requirements of sugar production, regional geography, and productive space. The ability of planters in particular locations to respond to world economic conditions was subject to material and spatial constraints. Increased output and technological innovation were dependent on the creation of new productive spaces – including both the formation of new commodity frontiers and the reconstitution the sugar plantation – that conformed to the changing requirements of sugar manufacture. Thus, the spatial and material conditions of staple production shaped the pattern of accumulation and political economic development.

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Nature, Raw Materials, and Political Economy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-314-3

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Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2017

Andrew Schmitz, P. Lynn Kennedy and Michael Salassi

In this chapter the development of new sugarcane varieties in Florida and Louisiana is examined, along with the accompanying advancement in mechanization technology…

Abstract

In this chapter the development of new sugarcane varieties in Florida and Louisiana is examined, along with the accompanying advancement in mechanization technology through the widespread adoption of sugarcane harvesters. An econometric analysis is carried out to determine the impact of the price of raw sugar on raw-sugar yields in Louisiana and Florida. This study found that in the case of Louisiana, the 3-year lagged US raw-sugar price had a positive and significant impact on sugar yields. The change in raw-sugar prices did not have a significant impact on sugar yields for the Florida industry. Sugar production has increased over time, in part, due to the development of new sugarcane varieties accompanied by modern sugarcane harvesters. Given the relationship between price and yield, particularly in Louisiana, policy makers and producers must be mindful of the potential impact of policy-induced research and development (R&D) on the competitiveness of their industry.

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World Agricultural Resources and Food Security
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-515-3

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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2021

Tianchang Zhai, Wenjin Long and Wei Si

The purpose of this study is to explain the rapid growth of urban residents' sugar consumption in China from the perspective of habit formation.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explain the rapid growth of urban residents' sugar consumption in China from the perspective of habit formation.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the provincial panel data of Chinese urban households from 1995 to 2012, this study uses the two-step System Generalized Moment Method (GMM) to test the habit formation effect on residents' sugar expenditure in urban China. We also use system GMM and the recursive estimated method to explore the changes of the habit formation coefficients in different years.

Findings

We find a significant habit formation effect on overall residents' sugar expenditure and different types of sugary foods expenditure. The habit formation effect on total residents' sugar expenditure and different types of sugary foods is decreasing over the years. The patterns of the changes of the habit formation effect on different types of sugar foods are slightly different.

Research limitations/implications

Due to data limitations, we are not able to do household-level analysis and to examine the heterogeneity of the habit formation effect.

Originality/value

This is the first study that examines changes in the habit formation effect on residents' sugar expenditure in urban China. Our findings provide a reasonable explanation for the rapid growth of residents' sugar consumption in urban China. The result helps to formulate targeted policies for future interventions to control the growth of sugar consumption.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2021

Ahmed Diab

This study investigates state institutions' influence on corporate accountability and control practices in a rural African context. Exploring the different rationales…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates state institutions' influence on corporate accountability and control practices in a rural African context. Exploring the different rationales behind state existence in the context of sugar production in Egypt, this work clarifies how accountability is practised differently in the case of the high centrality of state logics in the business sector.

Design/methodology/approach

Theoretically, the study draws insights from the institutional logics perspective. Following the case study approach, data are collected through interviews, observations and documents.

Findings

The study found that state institutions can play a supportive rather than a mere constraining role in the management, accountability and control processes. Notably, it clarified how state-related institutions were highly central and influential in a way that enabled them to curb the (negative) influences of the community and business institutions. In this context, it is social – rather than functional – accountability which emerges as the central control practice to achieve answerability and enforcement.

Originality/value

Thus, this study's reported findings confirm the role of institutional (political) logics as supportive in society.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

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