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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

Amar Aouzelleg

This article aims to consider the use of high pressure processing in order to gain functional advantages through proteins structure control. High pressure processing has…

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to consider the use of high pressure processing in order to gain functional advantages through proteins structure control. High pressure processing has been used to produce high-quality food with extended shelf life and could also be used to modify foods functionality.

Design/methodology/approach

The effect of high pressure on protein structure and functionality is looked at and comparisons are made with heat effect in places. β-lactoglobulin and whey proteins are mainly taken as examples.

Findings

A controlled partial protein unfolding through mild high pressure processing could lead to a range of intermediate molecular structures. These are distinct from the native and completely unfolded structure and have been referred to as molten globules. The partly unfolded molecular states, hence, are postulated to have increased functionality and could be interesting for the food industry.

Originality/value

The opportunity and challenges represented by these theoretical elements are discussed. In particular, the effect of protein concentration and aggregation is emphasised.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 44 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1974

D.E. Crisp

World shortages of certain raw materials leading to appreciable price increases is currently a regular feature of our daily lives— and is likely to be so, unfortunately…

Abstract

World shortages of certain raw materials leading to appreciable price increases is currently a regular feature of our daily lives— and is likely to be so, unfortunately, for the next few years. Meat has been increasing in price owing to various shortages in animal feeding stuffs. The fact that the populations of developing countries rightly demand that home produced meat is made available for their home consumption rather than for export is also adding to the problem as far as developed nations are concerned. The obtaining of sufficient protein for everyone's dietary needs is as basic and important as the need to have sufficient supplies of energy to meet world requirements. The amount of protein to be found on this earth is in excess of our projected needs, but there could well be severe shortages of protein foods for humans in an acceptable or usable state, especially if we continue to rely so heavily upon animal protein. There is, therefore, a real and urgent need for scientists to develop ways and means of transforming basic protein raw materials into acceptable products.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 74 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2011

Ritika B. Yadav, Baljeet S. Yadav and Deepu Chaudhary

The purpose of this paper is to study the utilization of the rice bran protein concentrate (RBPC) in biscuits to upgrade the nutritional quality.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the utilization of the rice bran protein concentrate (RBPC) in biscuits to upgrade the nutritional quality.

Design/methodology/approach

Extraction of rice bran protein concentrate (RBPC) from defatted rice bran was standardized using alkali extraction method. Defatted rice bran and RBPC were analyzed for their proximate composition. RBPC was analyzed for its bulk density, foaming capacity (FC), emulsion activity (EA), and water and oil absorption capacity. RBPC was incorporated in biscuits at 5, 10 and 15 per cent levels. The biscuits were analyzed for their physicochemical, fracture strength (texture analyzer) and sensory attributes (nine‐point hedonic scale) to assess their acceptability.

Findings

The maximum yield of 13.2 per cent for RBPC was obtained at alkaline pH of 11, temperature of 60°C and extraction time of 60 minutes. The bulk density, foaming capacity, emulsifying ability, water and oil absorption capacity of RBPC were 0.4 g/ml, 11 per cent, 40 per cent, 2.9 ml/g and 2.3 ml/g respectively. The protein content of biscuits increased significantly from 7.3 per cent in control biscuits to 15.4 per cent in the 15 per cent RBPC supplemented biscuits with their fracture strength also significantly higher than the control biscuits (p<0.05). Replacement of refined wheat flour up to 10 per cent RBPC produced protein‐enriched biscuits with desirable overall acceptability.

Originality/value

Rice bran protein concentrate can be beneficially utilized to formulate protein enriched biscuits with enhanced nutritional value especially for malnourished or undernourished people.

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 May 2021

Loris Nanni and Sheryl Brahnam

Automatic DNA-binding protein (DNA-BP) classification is now an essential proteomic technology. Unfortunately, many systems reported in the literature are tested on only…

Abstract

Purpose

Automatic DNA-binding protein (DNA-BP) classification is now an essential proteomic technology. Unfortunately, many systems reported in the literature are tested on only one or two datasets/tasks. The purpose of this study is to create the most optimal and universal system for DNA-BP classification, one that performs competitively across several DNA-BP classification tasks.

Design/methodology/approach

Efficient DNA-BP classifier systems require the discovery of powerful protein representations and feature extraction methods. Experiments were performed that combined and compared descriptors extracted from state-of-the-art matrix/image protein representations. These descriptors were trained on separate support vector machines (SVMs) and evaluated. Convolutional neural networks with different parameter settings were fine-tuned on two matrix representations of proteins. Decisions were fused with the SVMs using the weighted sum rule and evaluated to experimentally derive the most powerful general-purpose DNA-BP classifier system.

Findings

The best ensemble proposed here produced comparable, if not superior, classification results on a broad and fair comparison with the literature across four different datasets representing a variety of DNA-BP classification tasks, thereby demonstrating both the power and generalizability of the proposed system.

Originality/value

Most DNA-BP methods proposed in the literature are only validated on one (rarely two) datasets/tasks. In this work, the authors report the performance of our general-purpose DNA-BP system on four datasets representing different DNA-BP classification tasks. The excellent results of the proposed best classifier system demonstrate the power of the proposed approach. These results can now be used for baseline comparisons by other researchers in the field.

Details

Applied Computing and Informatics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2634-1964

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Article
Publication date: 3 March 2021

Joop de Boer and Harry Aiking

A shift to a healthy and sustainable diet (as recommended by the EAT Lancet Commission) needs to have a strong societal legitimation. This makes it relevant to investigate…

Abstract

Purpose

A shift to a healthy and sustainable diet (as recommended by the EAT Lancet Commission) needs to have a strong societal legitimation. This makes it relevant to investigate to what extent countries are using their Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) in ways that can stimulate such a shift.

Design/methodology/approach

Given the pivotal role of protein, the authors examined what patterns of protein-related recommendations are used to guide consumers and how these patterns are related to specific contexts and societal priorities of the countries.

Findings

The analysis of data from 93 countries worldwide revealed two emerging patterns of recommendations. One pattern (found in a cluster of 23% of the countries) combined positive advice about key protein sources with limiting messages to reduce (or replace) the consumption of animal protein. The other pattern (found in a cluster of 24%) encouraged both animal and plant protein, thereby diversifying the set of protein sources, without negative advice on animal-based food sources. The two patterns of recommendations were differently associated with health and nutrition variables, including the countries' level of animal protein supply (in particular, dairy) and the prevalence of overweight individuals among adult men.

Social implications

For all stakeholders, it is of crucial importance to realize that an increasing number of countries in the world are moving in the direction of acknowledging and addressing the diet-health-environment nexus by adapting their patterns of recommendations for key protein sources.

Originality/value

This study is the first that reveals patterns in recommendations with respect to protein sources by different nations worldwide.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 10 March 2021

Ari Paloviita

The purpose of this study is to propose a matrix framework to understand the interdependencies of domains and scales of protein transition towards diets based on plants…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to propose a matrix framework to understand the interdependencies of domains and scales of protein transition towards diets based on plants and alternative sources of proteins.

Design/methodology/approach

The abductive research approach is used in building the framework, and the proposed framework is illustrated using the regional food system in Central Finland as an example. Focus groups and interviews were used to collect qualitative data from 28 respondents.

Findings

This study provides a framework for protein transition, with five domains and five scale levels. Interactions between public and private governance activities at different scales, domains and governed niche and regime levels are discussed. The study shows how micro-level activities at individual or community levels are linked with broader governance activities.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the relatively narrowed set of empirical data, further research is required to test the framework in different regional and cultural settings.

Practical implications

This paper presents a practical illustration of the matrix framework, and considering this, the paper discusses the possible implications of matrix interdependencies for protein transition management.

Social implications

This study proposes that understanding the coevolution of domains and scales, with the help of accurate policies and business models, can lead to effective protein transition.

Originality/value

This study fulfils an identified need to study protein transition in a broader frame, which highlights the structural activity interdependencies between different scale levels and domains.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 13
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 23 February 2021

María Laura Mediza Romero, Mariana von Staszewski and María Julia Martínez

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of green tea polyphenols addition on physicochemical, microbiological and bioactive characteristics of yogurt.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of green tea polyphenols addition on physicochemical, microbiological and bioactive characteristics of yogurt.

Design/methodology/approach

Two incorporation methods of polyphenols were evaluated: direct addition or incorporated within protein particles of whey protein concentrate and gelatin. During yogurt’s shelf life, structure characteristics (water holding capacity, textural and rheological parameters), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) viability and polyphenols antioxidant activity were analyzed. Also, polyphenol bioaccesibility after in vitro digestion was evaluated.

Findings

Polyphenols addition (by the two methods used) did not affect the dynamics of the fermentation process, nor the LAB viability during storage. The color parameter a* for the yogurts with the highest polyphenol concentrations showed positive values (tending to red), but not visible to the naked eye. Because of the ability of polyphenols to interact with milk proteins, yogurts with polyphenols presented higher values in firmness and cohesiveness with respect to the control. Additionally, the incorporation of polyphenols in protein particles increased even more these parameters because of the higher protein content of these formulations. After simulated digestion, a high polyphenol bioaccesibility was observed, and the antioxidant activity was retained, which could be explained by the “protector” effect of the milk matrix.

Practical implications

Yogurt supplementation with green tea polyphenols is feasible for the development of functional food. However, the use of protein particles would not provide an extra benefit because milk proteins already act as protective molecules of polyphenols.

Originality/value

This study shows not only the physico-chemical implications of including polyphenols in yogurt but also their bioaccesibility after an in vitro digestion, revealing a suitable manner for delivery of antioxidants in a dairy product like yogurt.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2019

Milena Casagranda, Priscila Berti Zanella, Alexandra Ferreira Vieira and Rodrigo Cauduro Oliveira Macedo

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the acute effect of milk proteins supplementation, compared to another nitrogen compound on muscle protein synthesis.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the acute effect of milk proteins supplementation, compared to another nitrogen compound on muscle protein synthesis.

Design/methodology/approach

The search was conducted on MEDLINE® (via PUBMED®), Cochrane and Embase databases, using the terms “whey proteins,” “caseins,” “milk proteins,” “protein biosynthesis,” “human” and its related entry terms. The selected outcome was fractional synthetic rate (FSR) before (0) and 3 h after consumption of milk proteins, compared to supplementation with other protein sources or isolated amino acids.

Findings

The results were expressed as mean difference (MD) of absolute values between treatments with confidence interval (CI) of 95 per cent. Of the 1,913 identified studies, 4 were included, with a total of 74 participants. Milk proteins generated a greater FSR (MD 0.03 per cent/h, CI 95 per cent 0.02-0.04; p <0.00001), compared to control group. Acute consumption of milk proteins promotes higher increase in FSR than other protein sources or isolated amino acids.

Originality/value

This paper is a systematic review of the effects of milk proteins supplementation, which is considered an important subject because of its large consumption among athletes and physical exercise practitioners.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2020

Jian Pei Kong, Basmawati Baharom, Norshariza Jamhuri, Khalizah Jamli, Siti Farah Zaidah Mohd Yazid, Norafidza Ashiquin, Lina Isnin, Chooi Wah Leow and Siew Mee Lim

The provision of meals has long been regarded as an essential part of treatment of hospitalized patients complementing medical procedures and nursing management. Today…

Abstract

Purpose

The provision of meals has long been regarded as an essential part of treatment of hospitalized patients complementing medical procedures and nursing management. Today, despite changes in the health-care landscape, which focused on improving the quality and efficiency of hospital care, malnutrition among inpatient was still a common worldwide concern.

Design/methodology/approach

This was a multi-centre, randomized study conducted in 21 study sites comprising 21 state and specialist government hospitals under the Ministry of Health, Malaysia. The sample size for this study was calculated with purposive sampling method, followed by proportionate sampling to determine the random sample size of each of the study sites. The total sample size required for this study was 2,759 subjects. A validated data collection form was used in the study.

Findings

Only 32.2 % and 37.6 % of subjects achieved adequate energy and protein intake, respectively, during their admission to medical ward. The study result showed that the overall mean energy and protein intake was 794.6 ± 487.8 kcal and 35.2 ± 24.3 g, respectively. The estimated energy (p = 0.001) and protein (p = 0.001) intake of all study sites was significantly lower compared to the adequacy value.

Research limitations/implications

The adequacy intake in this study was only carried out in medical wards, thus reproducible result among other wards in different study sites could not be confirmed. Besides, this study assumed that the portion eaten by subjects during lunch and dinner was the same, and therefore, either one was recorded together with breakfast and either lunch or dinner to represent a subject’s daily intake.

Originality/value

This was the first nationwide study to report the adequacy of energy and protein intake of patients receiving therapeutic diets in the government hospital setting in Malaysia.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2019

Nurul Hazwani Daud, Siti Nurbaya Oslan, Thean Chor Leow and Abu Bakar Salleh

The main purpose of this study is to demonstrate the development of an enzyme-based sensor for haloalkane detection. Haloalkane is a toxic compound that is found as…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this study is to demonstrate the development of an enzyme-based sensor for haloalkane detection. Haloalkane is a toxic compound that is found as genotoxic impurities in pharmaceutical products and contaminants in waste. The need to investigate the genotoxic level in pharmaceutical manufacturing is very crucial because of its toxicity effects on human health. The potential of mini protein as an alternative bioreceptor was explored with the aim to be more effective and stable under extreme conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

Mini proteins of haloalkane dehalogenase (HLD) were computationally designed and experimentally validated. Tapered multimode fiber (TMMF) was bio-functionalized with a bioreceptor either native (positive control) or mini protein. The absorbance-based sensor resulting from the binding interaction of mini protein with haloalkane was monitored through a wavelength range of 200-1,300 nm.

Findings

An increment of the UV absorption is observed at 325 nm when haloalkane interacted with the immobilized bioreceptors, native or mini protein. Both biosensors displayed a continuous response over the range of 5-250 µM haloalkane. They also had the capability to detect haloalkanes below 1 min and with an operational stability of up to seven days without significant loss of sensitivity.

Practical implications

The results indicate the potential viability of the enzyme HLD-based sensor to monitor the existence of haloalkane in both pharmaceutical and environmental products.

Originality/value

The paper describes an outcome of experimental work on TMMF-based biosensor coated with HLD for label-free haloalkane detection. Mini protein can be used as an effective bioreceptor with some structural modification to improve functionality and stability.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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