This chapter draws on developmental intergroup theory, parental ethnic-racial socialization literature, anti-bias curricula, and prejudice intervention studies to address…
This chapter draws on developmental intergroup theory, parental ethnic-racial socialization literature, anti-bias curricula, and prejudice intervention studies to address the appropriateness of discussing race and racism in early childhood settings. Existing literature about teacher discussions surrounding race and racism is reviewed, best practices are shared, and the need for more research in this area is highlighted. The construct of parental ethnic-racial socialization is mapped onto early childhood anti-bias classroom practices. The chapter also outlines racial ideologies of teachers, specifically anti-bias and colorblind attitudes, and discusses how these ideologies may manifest in classroom practices surrounding race and racism. Colorblind ideology is problematized and dissected to show that colorblind practices may harm children. Young children’s interpretations of race and racism, in light of children’s cognitive developmental level, are discussed. Additionally, findings from racial prejudice intervention studies are applied to teaching. Early literacy practices surrounding race and racism are outlined with practical suggestions for teachers and teacher educators. Moreover, implications of teacher practices surrounding race and racism for children’s development, professional development, and teacher education are discussed.
Black fathers, and specifically fathers who identify as African American, represent a group of parents who are at once not well understood and pervasively stereotyped in…
Black fathers, and specifically fathers who identify as African American, represent a group of parents who are at once not well understood and pervasively stereotyped in negative ways. In this chapter, we describe the risks and resilience of Black fathers and their children, with a special focus on mental health and coping with stress. We emphasize a cultural practices approach that takes into account both the risks specific to Black fathers’ capacity to parent their children and a theoretical foundation for understanding the inherent strengths of Black men and their families. Finally, we address the need for early childhood educators to partner with Black fathers as a means to best support children and their families.
The current study examines developing racial attitudes among a group of African American adolescents. Data for this study include 28 open-ended, qualitative interviews…
The current study examines developing racial attitudes among a group of African American adolescents. Data for this study include 28 open-ended, qualitative interviews with African American adolescents (64% girls, 36% boys) in Detroit, Michigan, and were drawn from a larger study in which these adolescents and their mothers were interviewed about racial socialization. Data analysis shows adolescents' racial attitudes to be ambivalent and influenced by the dissonance between “color-blind” rhetoric – the idea that “race doesn't matter” – and their everyday experiences, in which race does matter in important ways. Adolescents' reports of racial attitudes and experiences with racism frequently include travel anecdotes, which reveal how place, travel, and negotiating the color line influence their developing ideas about race. The findings suggest that sources beyond parental socialization strongly affect adolescents' developing racial attitudes and identities and that young people's voices should be further utilized in studies examining these issues.
Depressive symptoms are higher among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States. Many studies have evidenced associations between school disconnectedness and…
Depressive symptoms are higher among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States. Many studies have evidenced associations between school disconnectedness and depressive symptoms by race and ethnicity in adolescence (Joyce & Early, 2014; Walsemann, Bell, & Maitra, 2011). Given that adolescents spend most of their time at home when they are not at school (Larson & Richards, 2001), it is important to understand how mother-child relationships may moderate school disconnectedness, and how mother–child relationships may serve as a protective buffer for depressive symptoms in the transition to adulthood. I use data from Waves II and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) from 1995 to 2002 (n = 9,766) and OLS regression analysis to examine how school disconnectedness in adolescence is associated with depressive symptoms in the transition to adulthood, and how mother–child relationships in adolescence moderate these associations in the United States. I examine differences in these relationships across racial and ethnic groups. I find that school disconnectedness in adolescence is associated with increased depressive symptoms in the transition to adulthood, and that maternal warmth and communication moderates the association between school disconnectedness and depressive symptoms. Maternal relationship quality in adolescence serves as an important protective factor for mental health in the transition to adulthood.
Inequalities in education have existed since the beginning of formal education. Educational disparities often emerge as you compare groups of students based on race…
Inequalities in education have existed since the beginning of formal education. Educational disparities often emerge as you compare groups of students based on race, ethnicity, socioeconomic class, gender, and geography. This chapter seeks to stress the important role that early childhood experiences, including specific structures and processes during these foundational years play in potentially preventing the educational gaps of Black students. This requires intentional shifting from solely focusing on educational gaps to one that focuses on specific practices and policies that must be implemented to ensure that Black children are afforded the opportunities to meet their potential.
Purpose – This chapter problematizes the concept of the “American Dream” – important for Messner and Rosenfeld’s Intuitional Anomie Theory (IAT).
Purpose – This chapter problematizes the concept of the “American Dream” – important for Messner and Rosenfeld’s Intuitional Anomie Theory (IAT).
Design/methodology/approach – The author uses work from political science, specifically Adcock and Collier in conversation with Gerring to consider if the American Dream concept is “good.” The author continues by contending that the work on the state, its power and reach, can assist with the reconceptualization of IAT and the American Dream concept theoretically and methodologically.
Findings – The author finds that the American Dream concept, while not completely inadequate, significantly departs from Adams’ original definition in The Epic of America while also being associated with mixed findings as it relates to race and the likelihood of violence. The author concludes that through critical work (e.g., Moten’s “The Case for Blackness” and Ahmed’s “Phenomenology of Whiteness”) that in order to better develop this basis of desire in the American Dream concept there is a need to integrate a growing body of work that critically engages with the legacy of racial violence and racialized social conditioning. The author concludes that by studying the ontology/phenomenon of race, understandings of cultural desire may be understood in order to inform IAT.
Originality/value – This chapter provides a framework for evaluating concepts with interdisciplinary conversations with political science. The author’s findings also add to a body of work that, through cross-disciplinary conversations, work to tease out the socio-ecological and historical conditions that influence the interaction of structure and culture that lead to anomie and ultimately deviance.
Six African-American, heterosexual couples with a toddler son in a southeastern United States county were interviewed about their beliefs and practices. Couples shared…
Six African-American, heterosexual couples with a toddler son in a southeastern United States county were interviewed about their beliefs and practices. Couples shared reflections of joys and challenges in their lives right before and during the pregnancy, delivery and right after the birth of their son. Through thematic analysis, results showed that most parents shared similar experiences of planning the pregnancy, breastfeeding from birth, and both being involved in caregiving. However, variability in preparation, emotions, and adjustment existed during this period. Although differential pregnancy outcomes could be race-related (i.e. gestational period length and preterm delivery), other aspects of this universal experience were similar to the average couple in the United States. This study aims to consider the implications for how race might impact the variability across families.
Discrimination is defined as negative or harmful behavior toward a person because of his or her membership in a particular group (see Jones, 1997). Unfortunately…
Discrimination is defined as negative or harmful behavior toward a person because of his or her membership in a particular group (see Jones, 1997). Unfortunately, experiences with discrimination due to racial group membership appear to be a normal part of development for African American youth. Discrimination experiences occur within a variety of social contexts, including school, peer, and community contexts, and with increasing frequency as youth move across the adolescent years (Fisher, Wallace, & Fenton, 2000; Seaton et al., 2008). Recent research with a nationally representative sample of African American 13–17-year olds revealed that 87% had experienced at least one racially discriminatory event during the preceding year (Seaton et al., 2008). Most of the research on the consequences of youths’ encounters with racial discrimination has focused on mental health outcomes (Cooper, McLoyd, Wood, & Hardaway, 2008), with surprisingly little work examining whether and through what mechanisms discrimination affects achievement motivation.
– This study aims to explore perceptions of discrimination among ten African American youths as part of a larger qualitative investigation.
This study aims to explore perceptions of discrimination among ten African American youths as part of a larger qualitative investigation.
The qualitative methodology utilized the “Prove them Wrong Syndrome” as a theoretical framework. Individual interviews and biographical questionnaires were the primary sources of data collection.
Four major themes emerged from data analysis: perceived discrimination from others, perceived discrimination from members of one’s own racial group, responses to perceived discrimination and buffers against perceived discrimination.
Implications for educators including teachers, school psychologists and school counselors are discussed.
This paper attempted to fill the void in the literature, as it explored the perceptions of discrimination among African American youth, their responses to perceived discrimination and the identification of buffers to compensate for negative experiences with discrimination. Prove them Wrong Syndrome emerged as a major finding in this study as a response to perceived discrimination; nonetheless, it should be further evaluated, as limited research has been conducted in this area. Teachers must be aware of issues students of color may experience at school such as discrimination and how this can harm them emotionally and academically. Moreover, school psychologists and school counselors should be utilized as mental health service providers to combat the potentially negative outcomes of discrimination.
Learning by making is being recognized as an efficient technique for students to develop knowledge and skills simultaneously. However, one of the most urgent challenges…
Learning by making is being recognized as an efficient technique for students to develop knowledge and skills simultaneously. However, one of the most urgent challenges that schools are facing nowadays is to reach every student in their individual profile and potential. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to offer an integrated approach for re-thinking the role of Makerspace in a context of inclusion: the characteristics of this learning strategy, in contrast to the traditional currents, can offer promising paths to successfully build shared ideas.
This paper critically analyses a Makerspace workshop implemented during a whole academic year in an Italian state primary school. This exploratory and instrumental qualitative approach (Baxter and Jack, 2008) included two channels that have been developed simultaneously, namely, technological skills and social competences.
Stemming from a long tradition of inclusion of children with various educational needs in the mainstream school system, the authors aim to share a success story of academic and social achievements: all the participants were able to develop at their own pace, sharing tools, reaching a balance between the demands of the task and their planning and negotiation skills.
Small group size and the reiterated daily interactions with differences embodied in students with special needs, immigration background, low SES, gifted.
Through ad-hoc training, relatively marginalized pedagogical components (such as the ability to work in low-control situations, flexibility, student-centered learning environments) should be given a more prominent role and can be introduced in the desirable professional development. In addition, national and school policies are prompted to consider its inclusion as a slow-process that cannot be fully achieved in the presence of time and space constraints.
The curricular approach discussed above has shown the importance of inclusion of all students within mainstream schools. Pupils with atypical development can interact with other children, and in this way, they can have first-hand experience of how social dynamics unfold in a real environment. Moreover, they can act in a challenging context where, more often than not, they are pushed to achieve goals exceeding their supposed cognitive abilities. The other pupils are also gaining from these interactions: they can understand different points of view, thus developing empathy, and they can appreciate original ways to approach a task, with cognitive and emotional benefits. In addition, the constant relationship helps them to control their reactions to behavioral problems that sometimes classmates with special needs display and so they deepen their knowledge of and tolerance for others’ peculiarities.
Based on the foundational principles of Papert’s powerful ideas and meaningful context, this paper describes the design principles of a successful makerspace, its integration in the school curriculum, and the achieved inclusion of children with Special Education Needs in a group of peers where adults became observers. Recommendations are discussed on how school practitioners can promote young children’s learning through making.