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Article
Publication date: 29 September 2021

Foluké Abigail Badejo, Ross Gordon and Robyn Mayes

This study aims to introduce context-specific intersectionality and trauma-informed perspectives for transformative services theory and practice. While transformative…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to introduce context-specific intersectionality and trauma-informed perspectives for transformative services theory and practice. While transformative service research concerning vulnerable people has focused on well-being and alleviating suffering, there has been less attention paid to how the intersection of scales of social categorisation such as class, gender and cultural norms shapes experiences and outcomes. Likewise, there is a paucity of attention to how lived experiences of trauma among people, such as human trafficking survivors, can and should influence service interactions, delivery and outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors draw upon insights from a focused ethnographic study featuring narrative interviews with ten human trafficking survivors and seven rescue service industry stakeholders, as well as field observations, in Nigeria. Thus, this work enriches the limited scholarship on transformative services across Africa, where local cultural contexts have a significant influence on shaping service environments.

Findings

The authors identify how the intersections of socio-economic class, gender dynamics, cultural norms and trauma shape the service experience for survivors.

Originality/value

The authors argue for the criticality of intersectionality and trauma-informed perspectives to transformative services to improve the mental and economic well-being of survivors of human trafficking in the long term.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2021

Ronald E. Day

In this article the author would like to discuss information and the causal-temporal models as discussed in trauma theory and reports from trauma therapy. The article…

Abstract

Purpose

In this article the author would like to discuss information and the causal-temporal models as discussed in trauma theory and reports from trauma therapy. The article discusses two modes of temporality and the role of narrative explanations in informing the subject as to their past and present.

Design/methodology/approach

Conceptual analysis.

Findings

Information in trauma has different meanings, partly as a result of different senses of temporality that make up explanations of trauma in trauma theory. One important meaning is that of explanation itself as a cause or a therapeutic cure for trauma.

Research limitations/implications

The research proposes that trauma and trauma theory need to be understood in terms of the role of explanation, with explanation being understood as persuasion. This follows the historical genealogy of trauma theory from its origins in hypnosis and psychoanalysis.

Originality/value

The article examines the possibility of unconscious information and its effects in forming psychological subjectivity.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2021

Erin Richmond, Robert McColm, Marie McCaig and Vikki Binnie

In support of the national requirement “to ensure that Scotland has a workforce that is fully aware of the impact of trauma, and is equipped to respond appropriately to…

Abstract

Purpose

In support of the national requirement “to ensure that Scotland has a workforce that is fully aware of the impact of trauma, and is equipped to respond appropriately to people who have experienced trauma at any age”, Trauma Awareness Training was delivered to various public sector organisations across Dumfries and Galloway. Research has shown that trauma can significantly impact quality of life (Svanberg, Bonney and McNair, 2011; Bentall et al., 2014). A trauma-informed practice workshop was created and evaluated in response to a need for training within public services for individuals working with clients whom have experienced trauma.

Design/methodology/approach

From May 2018 to December 2019, 10 one-day Trauma-Awareness Training courses were delivered, engaging 224 public service workers from Police Scotland, Scottish Fire Service, Relationship Scotland, Shelter Scotland and DandG Council staff working with trauma-experienced individuals. The training was delivered via PowerPoint, short videos, whiteboard explanations/drawings and case examples. The morning workshop concentrated on defining psychological trauma, understanding the psychological process of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and the subsequent consequences. The afternoon session focussed primarily on complex PTSD, the role of adverse childhood experiences, attachment and emotional regulation/dysregulation and trauma-focused working with the wider multi-disciplinary workforce. The training concluded with participants developing strategies for coping with trauma. Participants were asked to complete three questionnaires: pre-training questionnaire on perceived knowledge of trauma and delivering trauma practice. Post-training questionnaire on perceived knowledge of trauma and delivering trauma practice to assess change and training evaluation. A third questionnaire was issued seven months after training to establish the impact of training on practice.

Findings

Findings evidence a positive impact on person-centred care. In terms of quality improvement, participants felt: The training was relevant across services and raised awareness of the importance of trauma-informed practice. They had a greater awareness of trauma-related issues with individuals. Confident in implementing learned skills to assist those who have experience of trauma. They could build better relationships with their service users, with patients feeling more understood.

Originality/value

Project findings identified a need for multi-organisational working and consultancy from psychological services to improve access to services. Ultimately, brief trauma-awareness training for staff can lead to more positive experiences for patients.

Details

The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-6228

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2021

Behice Humeyra Kara and Jaimee Stuart

Understanding the effects trauma has on refugee parents and consequently, their children, is the first step in interrupting the intergenerational transmission of trauma

Abstract

Purpose

Understanding the effects trauma has on refugee parents and consequently, their children, is the first step in interrupting the intergenerational transmission of trauma. This study aims to investigate the impacts of parental exposure to trauma pre-settlement on parent and child reports of developmental difficulties as mediated by parental post-traumatic stress symptomology and harsh parenting.

Design/methodology/approach

The study included 414 refugee children (age M = 14.04, SD = 2.00; 48.3% female) and their caregivers (age M = 41.78, SD = 5.24, 77% female). The sample was drawn from the Building a New Life in Australia study, a large, representative cohort study of resettled refugees in Australia. Only data collected where both parents and their children could be matched were used in this study.

Findings

Results indicated that trauma was significantly associated with increased parental post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in all models and was negatively, albeit weakly, associated with lower levels of harsh parenting in the overall model which combined parent and child reports. Trauma also had a weak, positive indirect effect on developmental difficulties via parental PTSD in both the overall model and the model assessing parent-rated developmental difficulties. In all models, harsh parenting was associated with increased developmental difficulties, although harsh parenting did not act as a significant mediator of the effects of trauma or parental PTSD.

Originality/value

Results suggest that prior traumas had less of an adverse effect on parenting and child adjustment as was expected. Parenting, however, was strongly associated with poor child adjustment, indicating that this may be a key factor to encourage positive adjustment for refugee children.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2021

Daryl Mahon

Organisations are increasingly understanding the need to be trauma informed. However, how trauma therapies in such organisations apply the principles of choice and…

Abstract

Purpose

Organisations are increasingly understanding the need to be trauma informed. However, how trauma therapies in such organisations apply the principles of choice and collaboration is less understood. The present paper applies two trans-theoretical methods for involving clients in their therapy through preference accommodation and feedback-informed treatment (FIT). A case vignette is provided demonstrating how to involve clients in trauma therapy by listening to their preferences, needs and by providing them with a voice on their experience of the process and outcome of care.

Design/methodology/approach

A focused review of the literature was conducted, with relevant randomised control trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses sourced. The resulting information informed the design and this model for working with those in trauma therapy.

Findings

The research regarding trauma-specific therapies being more effective is far from conclusive. At the same time, early attrition and negative outcomes make up a large percentage of those seeking therapy. Using preference accommodation and FIT is one possibly way to mitigate against these experiences in therapy and to provide choice, preference and collaboration consisting with the principles of trauma-informed approaches.

Research limitations/implications

Methods to improve the experiences of those seeking trauma therapy have been identified and discussed. According to the author’s knowledge, this is the first known paper aligning trauma therapy and trauma-informed approaches with preference accommodation and FIT. Future empirical studies may wish to examine the relative effectiveness of this approach.

Practical implications

Methods to improve outcomes for those seeking trauma therapy are at the disposal of practitioners. Improving outcomes, while also providing choice, voice and collaboration is a clinical setting.

Originality/value

This is a novel paper adding to value and extending how practitioners can use principles of trauma-informed approaches within trauma therapy.

Details

Mental Health and Social Inclusion, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-8308

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Article
Publication date: 22 July 2021

Daryl Mahon

Practitioners, organisations and policy makers in health and social care settings are increasingly recognising the need for trauma-informed approaches in organisational…

Abstract

Purpose

Practitioners, organisations and policy makers in health and social care settings are increasingly recognising the need for trauma-informed approaches in organisational settings, with morbidity and financial burdens a growing concern over the past few years. Servant leadership has a unique focus on emotional healing, service to others as the first priority, in addition to the growth, well-being and personal and professional development of key stakeholders. This paper aims to discuss Trauma Informed Servant Leadership (TISL).

Design/methodology/approach

A targeted review of the servant leadership and trauma-informed care literature was conducted. Relevant studies, including systematic review and meta-analysis, were sourced, with the resulting interpretation informing the conceptual model.

Findings

Although there are general guidelines regarding how to go about instituting trauma-informed approaches, with calls for organisational leadership to adapt the often cited six trauma-informed principles, to date there has not been a leadership approach elucidated which takes as its starting point and core feature to be trauma informed. At the same time, there is a paucity of research elucidating trauma outcomes for service users or employees in the literature when a trauma-informed approach is used. However, there is a large body of evidence indicating that servant leadership has many of the outcomes at the employee level that trauma-informed approaches are attempting to attain. Thus, the author builds on a previous conceptual paper in which a model of servant leadership and servant leadership supervision are proposed to mitigate against compassion fatigue and secondary trauma in the health and social care sector. The author extends that research to this paper by recasting servant leadership as a trauma-informed model of leadership that naturally operationalises trauma-informed principles.

Research limitations/implications

A lack of primary data limits the extent to which conclusions can be drawn on the effectiveness of this conceptual model. However, the model is based on robust research across the differential components used; therefore, it can act as a framework for future empirical research designs to be studies at the organisational level. Both the servant leadership and trauma-informed literatures have been extended with the addition of this model.

Practical implications

TISL can complement the trauma-informed approach and may also be viable as an alternative to trauma-informed approaches. This paper offers guidelines to practitioners and organisations in health and social care on how to operationalise important trauma-informed principles through leadership.

Social implications

This conceptual model may help reduce the burden of trauma and re-traumatisation encountered by practitioners and service users in health and social care settings, impacting on morbidity.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is a novel approach, the first of its kind.

Details

Mental Health and Social Inclusion, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-8308

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 16 June 2021

Elanor Lucy Webb, Annette Greenwood, Abbey Hamer and Vicky Sibley

Forensic health-care workers are frequently exposed to behaviours that challenge and traumatic material, with notably high levels in developmental disorder (DD) services…

Abstract

Purpose

Forensic health-care workers are frequently exposed to behaviours that challenge and traumatic material, with notably high levels in developmental disorder (DD) services. The provision of support is key in alleviating distress and improving work functioning. This paper aims to incite clarity on whether staff in DD services are more likely to access trauma support. The prevailing needs and outcomes for this population are also explored.

Design/methodology/approach

Data was extracted retrospectively from a database held by an internal trauma support service (TSS) for staff working in a secure psychiatric hospital. Overall, 278 permanent clinical staff accessed the TSS between 2018 and 2020, 102 (36.7%) of whom worked in an adult DD forensic inpatient service.

Findings

Staff working in DD services were over-represented in referrals to the TSS with a greater number of referrals per bed in DD services than in non-DD services (0.94 vs 0.33). DD staff were comparatively more likely to access support for non-physical, psychologically traumatic experiences. Psychological needs and outcomes following support were comparable between staff across services.

Practical implications

The findings highlight the more frequent need for trauma support of staff in forensic inpatient DD settings. Embedding a culture of safety and openness, and establishing appropriate and responsive models of staff support reflect key priorities for inpatient DD health-care providers, for the universal benefit of the organisation, workforce and service users.

Originality/value

This study offers novel insight into levels of access to support for staff working with people with DDs.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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Article
Publication date: 7 May 2021

Sue Holttum

This paper aims to highlight emerging research relating to the need to recognise and address trauma in mental health service users.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to highlight emerging research relating to the need to recognise and address trauma in mental health service users.

Design/methodology/approach

The author searched for papers on trauma-informed care, published in the past two years.

Findings

One paper reports ideas of service users and family members for trauma-informed mental health services. A second paper describes an online survey seeking agreement between staff and service users of early intervention services for psychosis about practices of trauma-informed care. Both papers feature themes about safety and staff having training and support for asking about and responding to trauma. A third paper reports on specific therapies for trauma with people who experience psychosis. It found some evidence for talking therapies but noted that people with a psychosis diagnosis are rarely offered such therapies.

Originality/value

These papers highlight an emerging consensus about essential components of trauma-informed care and the need for staff training and support to realise it. The exclusion of people with a psychosis diagnosis from specific trauma therapies might begin to be addressed if services were more able to recognise trauma. There is some evidence that talking therapies for childhood trauma can be helpful for people who have a psychosis diagnosis. However, evidence reviews should be broadened to include a range of distressing experiences recognised to follow childhood trauma irrespective of whether the person has a psychosis diagnosis.

Details

Mental Health and Social Inclusion, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-8308

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Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2021

Brittany R. Raymond

This chapter reflects on the author's unexpected responses to Young Adult (YA) literature as a cathartic and healing experience. It also focuses on the role of YA…

Abstract

This chapter reflects on the author's unexpected responses to Young Adult (YA) literature as a cathartic and healing experience. It also focuses on the role of YA literature in reaching the emotional needs of both students and educators as they face their own buried trauma. It is necessary for educators to understand the role trauma plays in the classroom and to develop ways to broach these difficult subjects within a structured lesson to support the development of student resilience. Additionally, it is necessary for educators to challenge their own beliefs surrounding the selection of appropriate texts for classroom use and select texts that reflect student experiences. Through this chapter, the reader will gain practical ways to embrace YA literature in the classroom, as well as practical ways to grow through difficult life experiences and healthy methods to foster resilience in educational spaces.

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Book part
Publication date: 5 September 2018

Matthew R. Leon, Holly K. Osburn and Thomas Bellairs

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects both civilian and military populations following wartime experiences. However, despite an abundance of research investigating…

Abstract

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects both civilian and military populations following wartime experiences. However, despite an abundance of research investigating civilian and military populations separately, much less focus has been given to synthesizing and integrating findings to describe how civilian and military war survivors are comparatively affected by PTSD. This review is broken down into three sections covering (1) risk factors associated with PTSD, (2) relationships between PTSD and mental health outcomes, and (3) protective factors that can attenuate PTSD and its effects. Each section covers findings for civilians and military personnel and highlights similarities and differences between groups.

Details

Occupational Stress and Well-Being in Military Contexts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-184-7

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