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Book part
Publication date: 14 October 2011

Shannon K. Carter and Fernando I. Rivera

Previous research indicates that racial and ethnic prejudice continues to be prevalent in U.S. society; however, the social-psychological processes of prejudice are not…

Abstract

Previous research indicates that racial and ethnic prejudice continues to be prevalent in U.S. society; however, the social-psychological processes of prejudice are not fully understood. Furthermore, much research on prejudice focuses on white against black prejudice, at the exclusion of other minority groups. The purpose of this chapter is to explore white prejudice against Latinos using in-depth interview data with college students. Findings indicate that many participants describe instances in which they felt prejudice, yet they use creative mechanisms to justify their prejudice or construct it as something other than prejudice. Mostly, participants described their own prejudice as a “special type” of prejudice – including trait prejudice, situational prejudice, reciprocal prejudice, and recovered prejudice – that is distinct from ordinary prejudice. By describing their own prejudice as a “special type,” participants are able to construct themselves as nonprejudiced individuals while simultaneously acknowledging their prejudice.

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Studies in Symbolic Interaction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-156-5

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2020

Tala Abuhussein, Tamer Koburtay and Jawad Syed

This paper aims to use Ryff’s (1989) eudaimonic view to examine how prejudice toward female workers affects their psychological well-being.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to use Ryff’s (1989) eudaimonic view to examine how prejudice toward female workers affects their psychological well-being.

Design/methodology/approach

Responses were collected through face-to-face semi-structured interviews along with open-ended questions in a paper-based survey. In total, 24 female workers across various organizations in Jordan participated in this study.

Findings

The results show how prejudice against female workers can affect the six dimensions of their eudaimonic psychological well-being (Ryff, 1989). Specifically, the results show that prejudice may push women to work harder to prove they are capable of achieving their goals and, as a result, it may positively enhance their self-acceptance, sense of growth, purpose in life and autonomy. However, the study also shows that prejudice against women negatively affects their environmental mastery and relationships with others.

Practical implications

This study may help create greater sensitivity and awareness about gender prejudice and its effects on female workers’ psychological well-being. It also highlights women’s resilience which may be deemed valuable to develop women in leadership roles in organizations.

Originality/value

This study offers a fresh and nuanced understanding of the impact of gender prejudice on female workers’ psychological well-being.

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Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 2 July 2019

Michel Dion

The purpose of this paper is to see to what extent Hans-Georg Gadamer’s hermeneutic philosophy could be used to unveil how corporate discourse about financial crimes (in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to see to what extent Hans-Georg Gadamer’s hermeneutic philosophy could be used to unveil how corporate discourse about financial crimes (in codes of ethics) is closely linked to the process of understanding.

Design/methodology/approach

Corporate ethical discourse of 20 business corporations will be analyzed, as it is conveyed within their codes of ethics. The companies came from five countries (USA, Canada, France, Switzerland and Brazil). In the explanatory study, the following industries were represented (two companies by industry): aircrafts/trains, military, airlines, recreational vehicles, soft drinks, cigarettes, pharmaceuticals, beauty products, telecommunications and banks.

Findings

Historically-based prejudices in three basic narrative strategies (silence, chosen items and detailed discussion) about financial crimes are related to the mindset, to the basic outlook on corporate self-interest or to an absolutizing attitude.

Research limitations/implications

The historically-based prejudices that have been identified in this explanatory study should be analyzed in longitudinal studies.

Practical implications

The historically-based prejudices that have been identified in this explanatory study should be analyzed in longitudinal studies. Historically-based prejudices could be strengthened by the way corporate codes of ethics deal with financial crimes. They could, thus, have a deep impact on the organizational culture in the long-run.

Originality/value

The paper analyzes the way corporate codes of ethics use given narrative strategies to address financial crimes issues. It also unveils historically-based prejudices that follow from the choice of one or the other narrative strategy.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2017

Hans-Joachim Wolfram

Modern prejudice was examined as a potential predictor of overestimating proportions of minority employees in gender-typed occupations. Strength of conjunction error was…

Abstract

Purpose

Modern prejudice was examined as a potential predictor of overestimating proportions of minority employees in gender-typed occupations. Strength of conjunction error was considered as an indicator of distorted perceptions of these proportions. Furthermore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the association between modern prejudice and strength of conjunction error was weaker for gender-untypical than for gender-typical targets.

Design/methodology/approach

Modern prejudice was considered as a predictor of overestimations of black female employees in Study 1 (n=183) and black female older employees in Study 2 (n=409). Data were collected using internet-mediated questionnaires.

Findings

In Study 1, modern racism, but not modern sexism, was associated with greater strength of conjunction error when respondents were presented with gender-typical targets. In Study 2, using a sample scoring higher on modern prejudice than in Study 1, modern racism, but not modern sexism and modern ageism, was associated with greater strength of conjunction error, irrespective of target occupation. Furthermore, there was an unexpected association between lower sexism and greater strength of conjunction error for gender-typical targets, but not for gender-untypical targets.

Research limitations/implications

The findings lend support to the ethnic-prominence hypothesis in that modern racism, but not modern sexism or modern ageism, was associated with greater strength of conjunction error. Furthermore, empirical evidence suggests that target non-prototypicality can dilute the effect of modern prejudice on strength of conjunction error.

Originality/value

This is one of the rare studies examining attitudes and conjunction error in a work-relevant context, thereby bridging the gap between social cognition and applied psychology.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2004

Yuka Fujimoto and Charmine E.J. Härtel

The authors propose that the nature of prejudice differs across cultures. A model is introduced that proposes that the interpersonal perspective associated with…

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Abstract

The authors propose that the nature of prejudice differs across cultures. A model is introduced that proposes that the interpersonal perspective associated with individualist cultures (Westerners) leads to interpersonal prejudices, whereas the intergroup perspective associated with collectivist cultures (Easterners) leads to intergroup prejudices. These prejudices, in turn, are argued to impact on the outcomes of individuals working in intercultural teams. An organisational diversity climate of openness fostered by diversity oriented HRM and the combined use of individualist and collectivist HRM policies and practices is proposed to minimize the negative effects of such prejudices can be minimized.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Yuka Fujimoto and Charmine E.J. Härtel

Increasingly, organizations in the Asia‐Pacific region are recognizing the importance of cross‐cultural management to the sustainability of their competitive edge…

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Abstract

Purpose

Increasingly, organizations in the Asia‐Pacific region are recognizing the importance of cross‐cultural management to the sustainability of their competitive edge. Although the literature is replete with cross‐cultural studies of individualism and collectivism, little information is available on the factors that foster effective individualist–collectivist interaction (ICI) within organizations. This paper attempts to provide a theoretical description of individualists and collectivists at the individual level of analysis, which offers specific testable hypotheses about the effect of self‐representation on prejudice between individualists and collectivists (ICs).

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, a theoretical model is presented in which intergroup prejudices and interpersonal prejudices mediate the effects of ICI and bicultural orientation toward cross‐cultural experiences and, in which, the dissimilarity openness of the climate moderates the level and outcome of prejudices flowing from ICI.

Findings

The model depicts that the outcomes of ICI are mediated by the intergroup prejudices of collectivists and the interpersonal prejudices of individualists, which are moderated by the extent of diversity‐oriented HRM policies and practices and individuals’ orientation to cross‐cultural experiences. When workforces become culturally diverse, organizations should modify HRM practices to enable the full use of the range of skills and talents available from the diversity, and to ensure affective and behavioral costs are minimized. As globalization and international competition will continue to increase, organizations including those in the Asia‐Pacific region, should seriously re‐evaluate their HRM policies to adapt and take advantage of an increasingly culturally diverse workforce.

Originality/value

The model provides a useful basis upon which organization researchers and practitioners can base their respective agendas.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2013

Khurram Parvez Raja

The unfair prejudice remedy as contained in s.290 of the Companies Ordinance 1984 entitles a member with a shareholding of twenty percent or more to petition to the court…

Abstract

Purpose

The unfair prejudice remedy as contained in s.290 of the Companies Ordinance 1984 entitles a member with a shareholding of twenty percent or more to petition to the court for suitable and appropriate court orders in circumstances where the member has been unfairly prejudiced. The major difficulties and complexities emerging from the examination of s.290 relates to (but not limited to) locus standi, high cost of litigation due to the length and complexity of the unfair prejudice litigations, lacunas in share valuation, cumbersome court procedures, low quality of pleadings, unethical conduct of lawyers, etc. The purpose of this paper is to shed light on these topical questions. It is contended that the legislature and the courts will have a strong role to play in providing clarity and certainty to the law.

Design/methodology/approach

The first part provides a brief overview of the statutory unfair prejudice remedy contained in s.290. The second part discusses the concept of unfair prejudice in the United Kingdom and its difficulties. The third part provides a framework of the unfair prejudice remedies available under s.290 and discusses the inefficiencies and shortcomings of the remedy.

Findings

This article concludes that the statutory unfair prejudice remedy in Pakistan is inefficient and inadequate to redress personal and corporate wrongs in an unfair prejudice petition. The deficiencies of the statutory unfair prejudice remedy pose a challenge to the minority shareholders and the overall corporate governance and corporate law regime in Pakistan.

Originality/value

This article sheds light on the complexity and difficulty of the statutory unfair prejudice remedy, as contained in s.290 of the Companies Ordinance 1984 from a comparative law perspective.

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2014

Elle Mae Boag and David Wilson

Research examining attitudes towards offenders assesses the attitudes of professionals working with offenders, rather than attitudes of those without any experience with…

Abstract

Purpose

Research examining attitudes towards offenders assesses the attitudes of professionals working with offenders, rather than attitudes of those without any experience with offenders. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether prejudice towards offenders would decrease after engagement with incarcerated serious offenders, and whether any improvement would be explained by increased empathic responding.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental field study was conducted. A repeated measures questionnaire assessed empathy and prejudice at two time points: before and after engagement with serious offenders.

Findings

As predicted experiencing actual engagement with convicted sex offenders and murderers within a prison environment did increase empathy and decrease prejudice towards ex-offenders.

Research limitations/implications

All participants were applied criminology students and (prison visited) is not representative of prisons within HM Prison Service. It could be argued that responding was influenced by previous knowledge of criminal justice and penal systems. Future research should consider examining the impact of engagement on empathy and prejudice with a larger, naïve sample and across different prisons.

Originality/value

As the first (to the authors knowledge) to empirically examine attitude change of individuals with no personal experience of offenders this research has value to any person considering how social exclusion may be reduced at a societal level.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

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Abstract

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The Aging Workforce Handbook
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-448-8

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Book part
Publication date: 3 October 2015

Flora Farago, Kay Sanders and Larissa Gaias

This chapter draws on developmental intergroup theory, parental ethnic-racial socialization literature, anti-bias curricula, and prejudice intervention studies to address…

Abstract

This chapter draws on developmental intergroup theory, parental ethnic-racial socialization literature, anti-bias curricula, and prejudice intervention studies to address the appropriateness of discussing race and racism in early childhood settings. Existing literature about teacher discussions surrounding race and racism is reviewed, best practices are shared, and the need for more research in this area is highlighted. The construct of parental ethnic-racial socialization is mapped onto early childhood anti-bias classroom practices. The chapter also outlines racial ideologies of teachers, specifically anti-bias and colorblind attitudes, and discusses how these ideologies may manifest in classroom practices surrounding race and racism. Colorblind ideology is problematized and dissected to show that colorblind practices may harm children. Young children’s interpretations of race and racism, in light of children’s cognitive developmental level, are discussed. Additionally, findings from racial prejudice intervention studies are applied to teaching. Early literacy practices surrounding race and racism are outlined with practical suggestions for teachers and teacher educators. Moreover, implications of teacher practices surrounding race and racism for children’s development, professional development, and teacher education are discussed.

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