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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2016

Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Antonio Sifuentes-Alvarez and Carlos Salas-Martinez

We sought to evaluate the capacity of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in discriminating mental disorders other than depression in pregnant women in…

Abstract

We sought to evaluate the capacity of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in discriminating mental disorders other than depression in pregnant women in northern Mexico. Three hundred pregnant women attending prenatal consultations in a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico submitted a validated EPDS and were examined for mental disorders other than depression using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 4th Ed. (DSM-IV) criteria. Sensitivity and specificity of cut-off points of the EPDS, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Of the 300 pregnant women studied, 21 had mental disorders other than depression by the DSM-IV criteria. The best EPDS score for screening mental disorders other than depression was 8/9. This threshold showed a sensitivity of 52.4%, a specificity of 67.0%, a positive predictive value of 11.5%, a negative predictive value of 95.4%, and an area under the curve of 0.643 (95% confidence interval: 0.52-0.76). The EPDS can be considered for screening mental disorders other than depression in Mexican pregnant women whenever a cut-off score of 8/9 is used. However, the tool showed small power to separate pregnant women with and without mental disorders other than depression.

Details

Mental Illness, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2036-7465

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Sue Holttum

The purpose of this paper is to discuss two recent studies on depression in members of ethnic minorities, one based in the UK with older people, and one in the USA. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss two recent studies on depression in members of ethnic minorities, one based in the UK with older people, and one in the USA. The aim was to examine what might lead to depression in these groups, and what might protect people from it.

Design/methodology/approach

The UK-based study examined depression and physical health in older members of the two largest ethnic minority groups in the UK: African Caribbean and South Asian. The US-based study examined whether a sense of belonging to the population group African Americans protected people from depression, as one social theory might predict, or whether racism prevented this protection, as predicted by another theory.

Findings

In London-based older South Asians, depression was explained by their poorer physical health compared to white Europeans. In older people of black Caribbean origin, depression was linked to their social disadvantage. The researchers did not measure people’s experience of discrimination, and other research suggests this can explain both physical illness and depression. The US-based study reported better well-being for people who identified with other African Americans, but not if they also felt negative about African Americans. However, these were weak links, so other things may affect well-being more, such as day-to-day relationships and a range of group memberships.

Originality/value

The London-based study was new in studying depression in older people belonging to the two largest ethnic minority groups in the UK and in white Europeans. The US study tested two competing social theories with different predictions about depression in relation to belonging to an ethnic minority. Both studies highlight the need for more research on discrimination and how to reduce it and its negative effects on both mental and physical health.

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Mental Health and Social Inclusion, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-8308

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Article
Publication date: 20 August 2021

Muhammad Aqeel, Jaffar Abbas, Kanwar Hamza Shuja, Tasnim Rehna, Arash Ziapour, Ishrat Yousaf and Tehmina Karamat

Since the emergence of a coronavirus disease (2019-nCoV) in December 2019, the whole world is in a state of chaos. Isolation strategy with quarantine is a useful model in…

Abstract

Purpose

Since the emergence of a coronavirus disease (2019-nCoV) in December 2019, the whole world is in a state of chaos. Isolation strategy with quarantine is a useful model in controlling transmission and rapid spread. As a result, people remained at home and disrupted their outside daily activities. It led to the closure of educational institutes, which is a source of many students to cope with numerous personal and familial issues. This study aims to focus on exploring the relationships and potential mediational pathways between mental health problems, illness perception, anxiety and depression disorders.

Design/methodology/approach

The study incorporated snowball sampling techniques through a cross-sectional, Web-based survey and recruited 500 students from different universities of twin cities, Rawalpindi and Islamabad from March 23 to April 15, 2020, during the coronavirus outbreak lockdown. The study used four instruments, Beck Depression Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire and The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale for assessing depression, anxiety, illness perception and mental health disorders.

Findings

The findings indicated normal (43.2%), mild (20.5%), moderate (13.6%) and severe (22.7%) levels of anxiety prevalence in students. Results specified a normal (65.9%), mild (9.10%), moderate (9.12%) and severe (15.90%) depression prevalence and findings stipulated that anxiety disorder prevalence was higher than depression disorder. The correlational results specified a negative and significant relationship between mental health, illness perception, anxiety and depression symptoms. The multiple regression analysis stated that anxiety and depression disorders mediated the relationship between mental health and present illness perception. The perception of illness exhibited a relation to depression and anxiety disorders.

Originality/value

The study proposed a model to address mental health problems during the lockdown. The (2019-nCoV) illness perception developed mental disorders, including anxiety and depression, which has declined individuals’ mental health. There is an urgent need for ongoing clinical examination and management to address psychological disorders and findings suggest assessing mental health to combatting the pandemic worldwide. Findings recommend developing strategies to promote mental health-care facilities during COVID-19 wide-ranging disasters. These results highlight the impending importance of devising strategies to treat mental health problems.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2021

Nicola Walker, Madeleine Vernon-Smith and Michael Townend

No current psychotherapeutic intervention is designed to enhance job retention in employees with moderate–severe recurrent depression. The aim of this study is to test the…

Abstract

Purpose

No current psychotherapeutic intervention is designed to enhance job retention in employees with moderate–severe recurrent depression. The aim of this study is to test the feasibility of a new, interdisciplinary work-focused relational group cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) treatment programme for moderate–severe depression.

Design/methodology/approach

The programme was based on a theoretical integration of occupational stress, psychological, social/interpersonal and bio-medical theories. It consisted of up to four 1:1 psychotherapy sessions; 12 work-focused, full-day, weekly CBT sessions facilitated by a cognitive behavioural therapist and occupational therapist; and up to four optional 1:1 sessions with an occupational therapist. Depression severity (primary outcome) and a range of secondary outcomes were assessed before (first CBT session) and after (twelfth CBT session) therapy using validated instruments.

Findings

Eight women (26–49 years) with moderate–severe depression participated. Five were on antidepressant medication. While there was no statistically significant change in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale depression scores after therapy (n = 5; p = 0.313), Beck Depression Inventory-II depression scores significantly decreased after therapy (n = 8; –20.0 median change, p = 0.016; 6/8 responses, 7/8 minimal clinically important differences, two remissions). There were significant improvements in the secondary outcomes of overall psychological distress, coping self-efficacy, health-related quality of life and interpersonal difficulties after therapy. All clients in work at the start of therapy remained in work at the end of therapy. The intervention was safe and had 100% retention.

Research limitations/implications

A major limitation was recruitment shortfall, resulting in a small sample of middle-aged women, which reduces representativeness and increases the possibility of methodological weaknesses in terms of the statistical analysis. A definitive trial would need much larger samples to improve statistical power and increase confidence in the findings. Another major limitation was that two of the authors were involved in delivering the intervention such that its generalisability is uncertain.

Practical implications

This novel programme was evaluated and implemented in the real world of clinical practice. It showed promising immediate positive outcomes in terms of depressive symptoms, interpersonal difficulties and job retention that warrant further exploration in a longer-term definitive study.

Social implications

Empirical studies focused on enhancing job retention in employees with moderate–severe recurrent depression are lacking, so this study was highly relevant to a potentially marginalised community.

Originality/value

While limited by a recruitment shortfall, missing data and client heterogeneity, this study showed promising immediate positive outcomes for the new programme in terms of depressive symptoms, interpersonal difficulties and job retention that warrant exploration in a definitive study.

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2021

Naeem Aslam, Araib Khan, Nida Habib and Ammar Ahmed

This study aims to see the role of life satisfaction in the relationship between burnout and depression among nurses to highlight the human rights norms for institutions…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to see the role of life satisfaction in the relationship between burnout and depression among nurses to highlight the human rights norms for institutions, as well as practitioners within the health sector to improve life satisfaction among nurses.

Design/methodology/approach

This was a survey-based study. Data was collected by using well-established questionnaires. The sample (N = 250) comprising nurses taken from different public and private hospitals of Islamabad. Participants were both male (n = 125) and female nurses (n = 125), with age range 20–51 (M = 29.95, SD = 4.95) years. The data was collected by using the convenient sampling technique from different government and private hospitals of Islamabad from September 2017 to December 2017.

Findings

Bivariate correlation analysis revealed that burnout was positively associated with depression and negatively associated with life satisfaction. Moreover, depression was negatively associated with life satisfaction. Moderation analysis demonstrated that life satisfaction moderated the relationship between burnout and depression. Female nurses scored high on burnout as compared to male nurses.

Research limitations/implications

The use of self-report measures and the cross-sectional nature of the study design are the limitations of the study. The findings contribute by recognizing the various factors affecting the performance of nursing staff specifically in developing countries such as Pakistan.

Practical implications

This study demonstrated the vital implication of factors reducing depression among nursing staff through life satisfaction. Health care organizations should take measures to condense the level of burnout, make and boost a caring and fair working atmosphere to improve the level of life satisfaction, and therefore, reduce the negative emotions associated with burnout. It is concluded that life satisfaction may buffer the effect of burnout and subsequent depression.

Originality/value

This study has extended the prevailing literature by recognizing the moderating role of life satisfaction in the relationship between burnout and depression among nursing staff specifically highlighting their human rights in the Pakistani context.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2021

Mekonnen Tsehay, Shimelis Girma, Almaz Mamaru and Mubarek Abera

Dietary patterns are important for the physical and psychological development of adolescents. The purpose of this study is to determine magnitude and severity of depression

Abstract

Purpose

Dietary patterns are important for the physical and psychological development of adolescents. The purpose of this study is to determine magnitude and severity of depression and its relation with diet diversity score (DDS) among adolescent high school students.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional study was conducted among 546 adolescents selected from schools using multistage sampling technique. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 24-h dietary recall, and depression severity and prevalence were assessed by PHQ-9A. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Linear regression analysis was used, and unstandardized beta (ß) coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed to determine the association of depression and its severity with dietary diversity score.

Findings

In all, 546 questionnaires were filled completely and consistently making a response rate of 97.3%. The dietary diversity score in 97 (17.8%) of the adolescents were between 1 and 3 (low dietary diversity score) but 259 (47.4%) scored greater than 6 (high dietary diversity score). Chi-square test revealed that with a decrease in DDS from highest to lowest level, the percentage of moderate to severe and severe depression slightly increased (3.4%). In addition, the percentage of moderate to severe and severe depression who consumed meat, fish and milk and dairy products slightly increased (3% and 3.2%). Multivariate adjusted regression analysis demonstrated that dietary diversity score was found to be inversely associated with depression severity and prevalence.

Originality/value

It was found that linear association between diet diversity and depression severity, and prevalence after adjustment for relevant con-founders. The study provided epidemiological evidence of a robust association of dietary pattern with depression symptoms' severity and prevalence in adolescents.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

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Article
Publication date: 19 March 2021

Kwanjai Ritkumrop, Amaraporn Surakarn and Chatchai Ekpanyaskul

This study investigated the effectiveness of a new counseling program integrating cognitive behavioral therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy to promote emotional…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigated the effectiveness of a new counseling program integrating cognitive behavioral therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy to promote emotional regulation (ER) among undergraduate students with depression.

Design/methodology/approach

An interventional mixed method design was employed with the development of a qualitative method-based program using experimental and qualitative research. The sample consisted of 792 third-year undergraduate students at a public university in Bangkok. A total of 34 students with depression voluntarily enrolled and were divided into 2 groups. The 17 students in the experimental group received integrated counseling, while those in the control group received brochures. The effectiveness was evaluated using the self-assessment section on the ER scale and the Beck Depression Inventory form before and after counseling. When the program ended, qualitative research was conducted using in-depth interviews. In terms of quantitative research, the data were analyzed using one-way MANOVA and the qualitative research data used content analysis.

Findings

The mean scores for ER and depression in the experimental group before and after counseling were significantly different (p-value <0.05). Results were also significantly different from the control group (p-value <0.05). Students with depression showed improvements in ER in all six components after joining the program, including awareness, clarity, acceptance, impulse, goals and strategies.

Originality/value

Integrated counseling is an effective program that can increase ER and reduce depression among adolescents and can be an alternative program for depressive patients or other mood-regulating problems to promote ER.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0857-4421

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Abstract

Details

Mad Muse: The Mental Illness Memoir in a Writer's Life and Work
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-810-0

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Book part
Publication date: 28 December 2006

Sarah McCue Horwitz, Julia Bell and Rebecca Grusky

Depression is a prevalent, debilitating condition that will replace cancer as the second leading cause of morbidity within the next decade and, according to the Global…

Abstract

Depression is a prevalent, debilitating condition that will replace cancer as the second leading cause of morbidity within the next decade and, according to the Global Burden of Disease Study, ranks number one in disability-adjusted life years for females 5 years and older worldwide (Blehar & Oren, 1997; Murray & Lopez, 1996). Depression in the workplace has been linked to increased absenteeism and productivity loss, is equal to the costs of diabetes and hypertension, and these costs are almost equal to the direct costs of depression treatment (Kessler et al., 1999; Marlowe, 2002; Druss, Rosenheck, & Sledge, 2000; Elinson, Houck, Marcus, & Pincus, 2004). A national study of individuals 15–54 years documented a lifetime prevalence of 17.1% and found that depression was more common in females, young adults, and those with less education (Blazer, Kessler, McGonagle, & Swartz, 1994; Kessler, McGonagle, Swartz, Blazer, & Nelson, 1993; Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2000; Kessler et al., 1994a, 1994b; Bebbington et al., 2003).

Details

Research on Community-Based Mental Health Services for Children and Adolescents
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-416-4

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Book part
Publication date: 13 October 2014

Tetsushi Fujimoto, Sayaka K. Shinohara and Tsuyoshi Oohira

This study examines the impact of work-to-family conflict (WFC) on depression for employed husbands and wives in Japan, the moderating role of own psychological family…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the impact of work-to-family conflict (WFC) on depression for employed husbands and wives in Japan, the moderating role of own psychological family involvement in the relationship between WFC and depression, and the moderating role of spouses’ family and job involvement in the relationship between WFC and depression.

Methodology/approach

We use a matched sample of Japanese employed husbands and wives to examine the relationships between inter-spousal dynamics about work–family conflict and psychological well-being.

Findings

We found that (1) the effect of WFC on depression was larger for wives, (2) husbands’ and wives’ own psychological family involvement did not moderate the relationship between WFC and their depression, and (3) spousal family and job involvement operated as a moderator only for husbands. While WFC reduced husbands’ depression when their wives were highly involved in their jobs psychologically and behaviorally, WFC increased husbands’ depression when their wives were highly involved in family at both psychological and behavioral levels.

Practical implications

Employers need to take into account the importance of looking simultaneously at the ways employed husbands and wives work when trying to understand how workplace conditions may be changed to ameliorate psychological well-being for spouses.

Originality/value of chapter

This study suggests that an experience of conflict between work and family is likely to deteriorate the psychological well-being for employed husbands and wives in non-Western contexts like Japan. Furthermore, spousal involvements in family and work domains are likely to play moderating roles in the relationship between WFC and depression.

Details

Family Relationships and Familial Responses to Health Issues
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-015-5

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