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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2022

Chigozie Collins Okafor, Clinton Aigbavboa and Wellington Didibhuku Thwala

This study aims to promote the idea that social equity is a significant objective that needs to be achieved to attain a smart city and further reveal the current research…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to promote the idea that social equity is a significant objective that needs to be achieved to attain a smart city and further reveal the current research focus of smart city in relation to social equity. Also, it will propose determinants of social equity for smart city development.

Design/methodology/approach

The first part of this study was conducted by reviewing ten existing smart city models and assessing their elements, in a bid to find a relationship between the existing smart city models and social equity. These models were sorts from scholarly publications such as books, journals and other related articles sourced from google scholar and Scopus database. To give more credence to this study, a second aspect of this study was necessary; this was conducted using a bibliometric approach, and the data was gathered from the Scopus database. Keywords such as “smart-city” OR “Digital-city” OR “Intelligent-city” OR “Computer-city” OR “Technology-city” AND “Social-equity” were used for article extraction. VOSview was used to analyse the bibliographic data obtained.

Findings

This research revealed that studies that relate, link or discuss the idea that social equity is a significant objective that needs to be achieved to attain a smart city are low considering that only 48 articles were extracted, and most of the studies did not specifically focus on social equity in smart city development. Further findings revealed that the ten reviewed smart city models never linked or discussed the idea of social equity in smart city development. Additionally, this study revealed that emerging countries aiming to develop smart cities, particularly in Africa, are not paying much attention to the importance of creating social equity policies to attain smart cities.

Practical implications

This study revealed a knowledge gap in the study of smart cities in developing countries. Governments of various developing countries can implement the ideas from this study by creating and applying social equity policies to drive sustainable development, which will positively influence smart city attainment.

Originality/value

The contribution of this study is that it promotes the idea that social equity is a significant objective that needs to be achieved to attain smart cities. This study’s further originality and value lie in adopting a bibliometric approach of analysis that has not been used in this form in previous studies.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 13 December 2021

Hong Kim Duong, Marco Fasan and Giorgio Gotti

Previous literature provides mixed evidence about the effectiveness of a code of ethics in limiting managerial opportunism. While some studies find that code of ethics is…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous literature provides mixed evidence about the effectiveness of a code of ethics in limiting managerial opportunism. While some studies find that code of ethics is merely window-dressing, others find that they do influence managers' behavior. The present study investigates whether the quality of a code of ethics decreases the cost of equity by limiting managerial opportunism.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to test the hypothesis, the authors perform an empirical analysis on a sample of US companies in the 2004–2012 period. The results are robust to a battery of robustness analyses that the authors performed in order to take care of endogeneity.

Findings

Empirical results indicate that a higher quality code of ethics is associated with a lower cost of equity. In other words, firms with a more comprehensive code of ethics and better-designed implementation procedures limit managerial opportunism and pay a lower cost of equity because they are perceived by investors to be less risky.

Research limitations/implications

Practical implications

Social implications

Originality/value

The authors contribute to the literature in two ways. First, by looking at the market reaction to the code of ethics, thus capturing all its indirect possible benefits and second, by measuring not only the existence but also the quality of a code of ethics. Based on the results, policymakers may choose to further promote codes of ethics as an effective corporate governance mechanism.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 60 no. 13
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 December 2021

Ying Zhu, Jun Li, Lei Wang and Qiqi Xu

Based on an ensemble sample of multinational enterprises (MNEs), this study aims to explore the effect of the interactions between Chinese parent firms’ knowledge…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on an ensemble sample of multinational enterprises (MNEs), this study aims to explore the effect of the interactions between Chinese parent firms’ knowledge (including both technological and marketing knowledge), equity control and cultural distance on the business performance of their overseas branches under different subsidiary roles.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a data set compiled from 138 listed Chinese manufacturing enterprises and their 231 overseas subsidiaries to test the hypotheses regarding the interactive effects of transferred knowledge types and the subsidiary’s control mode.

Findings

The empirical results suggest that the moderating effects of equity control and cultural distance vary with the types of the parent firm’s knowledge and subsidiary roles. Specifically, equity control positively regulates the relationship between technological knowledge and subsidiary performance while negatively moderating the relationship between marketing knowledge and subsidiary performance. Cultural distance appears to negatively regulate the relationship between marketing knowledge and subsidiary performance. This binary relationship is shown to be more significant for the implementer subsidiaries.

Originality/value

Drawing on the literature on inter-firm governance and knowledge-induced innovation mechanisms, the authors develop a theoretical contingency framework to derive some managerial implications for inter-firm and infra-firm knowledge transfer in light of MNEs’ performance integrity.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 16 December 2021

Bipin Sony and Saumitra Bhaduri

The objective of this paper is to investigate the role of information asymmetry in the equity selling mechanisms chosen by the firms from an important emerging market…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this paper is to investigate the role of information asymmetry in the equity selling mechanisms chosen by the firms from an important emerging market, India. Specifically, the authors look into the choice between the two most popular mechanisms of equity issues – rights issue and private placement of equity.

Design/methodology/approach

This study introduces three analyst specific variables as proxies of information asymmetry as the conventional proxies are fraught with several disadvantages. First, the paper tests the choice between rights issue and private placement using a binary logistic model. In the second approach the authors use rights issue and segregate the private placements into preferential allotments and qualified institutional placements and test the impact of information asymmetry using a multinomial logistic regression.

Findings

The outcome of this empirical exercise shows that only those firms facing lesser information problems choose rights issue of equity. Private placements are chosen by firms facing higher information problems to circumvent information costs. The results remain invariant even after segregating the qualified institutional placements from private equity placement as the firms with information disadvantage choose to place equity privately.

Originality/value

In contrast to the conventional studies that focus on the debt-equity framework, the authors argue that the impact of information asymmetry is applicable even at disaggregated levels of equity selling mechanism.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2000

Arthur Cheng‐Hsui Chen and Shaw K. Chen

Examines the negative impacts of brand extension failure upon the original brand by calibrating the difference of brand equity. Using data collected from college students…

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7460

Abstract

Examines the negative impacts of brand extension failure upon the original brand by calibrating the difference of brand equity. Using data collected from college students in Taiwan, establishes four hypotheses to identify various effects of a failed brand extension in diluting the original brand’s equity. Analyzes the different effects among four types of equity‐source brands for both close and distant extensions. Equity‐source and equity level of the original brand is identified first. All components of brand equity‐source are then used to evaluate the performance of a brand extension. Finds that an unsuccessful brand extension dilutes the original brand for all three high equity‐source brands. Effects of brand dilution differ according to the type of equity source possessed by the original brand, but there is no difference in brand dilution effects from close and distant extension failures.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1986

JON ROBINSON

This paper synthesises the mortgage‐equity capitalisation technique, often used in property investment analysis and valuation practice in the United States of America, and…

Abstract

This paper synthesises the mortgage‐equity capitalisation technique, often used in property investment analysis and valuation practice in the United States of America, and the equated yield technique used in the United Kingdom. The mortgate‐equity technique considers two components of value, namely, debt and equity. It is usually applied to the nett income receivable in the first year, (conventional income capitalisation). Equated yield is a form of cash flow analysis which allows for the assessment of rental income projections. The combination of the two techniques, where debt capital is treated as an actual series of cash flows, leads to a discounted cash flow rate of return being available for equity capital. This measure should be of interest to property companies and occupying investors. The approach is demonstrated using a simple example, and some sample tables of equated yield on equity are appended.

Details

Journal of Valuation, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7480

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1995

Walfried Lassar, Banwari Mittal and Arun Sharma

Brand equity is very important to marketers of consumer goods andservices. Brand equity facilitates in the effectiveness of brandextensions and brand introductions. This…

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145636

Abstract

Brand equity is very important to marketers of consumer goods and services. Brand equity facilitates in the effectiveness of brand extensions and brand introductions. This is because consumers who trust and display loyalty toward a brand are willing to try to adopt brand extensions. While there have been methods to measure the financial value of brand equity, measurement of customer‐based brand equity has been lacking. Presents a scale to measure customer‐based brand equity. The customer‐based brand equity scale is developed based on the five underlying dimensions of brand equity: performance, value, social image, trustworthiness and commitment. In empirical tests, brands that scored higher on the customer‐based brand equity scale generally had higher prices. Discusses the implications for managers.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1992

Andrew Hede

One of the worldwide movements for reform of public administrationhas been the implementation of equal employment opportunity programmes.Reports on a longitudinal study of…

Abstract

One of the worldwide movements for reform of public administration has been the implementation of equal employment opportunity programmes. Reports on a longitudinal study of executive attitudes towards the equity reforms introduced in an Australian public service. Results show that, over a three‐year period, there was a decrease in the perceived observance of merit and equity principles in Government agencies, and an increase in the proportion of executives experiencing discrimination. Although there was greater commitment among executives towards merit and equity, there was no improvement in their attitude towards an equity programme for women. Implications for the Equity Reform process are discussed.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

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Article
Publication date: 23 February 2010

Ilias Kapareliotis and Anastassios Panopoulos

The purpose of this paper is to determine the variables of brand equity measurement for Greek companies quoted in the Greek exchange stock market.

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3318

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the variables of brand equity measurement for Greek companies quoted in the Greek exchange stock market.

Design/methodology/approach

The measurement of brand equity has been a hot issue both for marketing and financial practitioners. Different attempts to measure brand equity have been made by both sides. The present study, by the use of Tobin's Q methodology, tries to measure brand equity for Greek firms in the stock market. The present study tries to adopt both a methodology related to marketing and financial literature.

Findings

Tobin's q can be a measure of brand equity for firms in the stock market. The variables which need to be examined are related to research and development but also to financial and marketing activities.

Originality/value

Simone and Sallivan tried to measure brand equity throughout Tobin's q. The present paper is an international attempt to measure brand equity thorough Tobin's q in Greece. Another attempt related to Simon and Sallivan's research had never been done, either in marketing or financial literature.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 November 2021

Furkan Amil Gur, Adrien Bouchet, Brian R. Walkup and Jonathan A. Jensen

The purpose of this study is to understand the structure and dynamics of minority equity sponsorship agreements and the motivations for organizations to go beyond…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to understand the structure and dynamics of minority equity sponsorship agreements and the motivations for organizations to go beyond traditional sponsorships by acquiring minority equity in the sponsored organization.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts a qualitative methodology and presents interview data from key actors involved in minority equity sponsorship agreements.

Findings

The findings of the paper include major characteristics of minority equity sponsorship agreements including the motivations, dynamics and resources exchanged by sponsoring firms and clubs in these relationships, based on the experiences of key actors from firms, clubs and other key stakeholders, and a conceptual model for forming and maintaining these relationships.

Practical implications

Sponsorships are increasingly evolving into minority equity sponsorship agreements, particularly in the European market. The findings of this study assist sponsoring firms and the executives of clubs in better understanding the dynamics and stakeholder-related consequences of these relations.

Originality/value

The findings of this paper illustrate the differences between minority equity sponsorship agreements and both traditional sponsorships and minority equity alliances. The findings also identify major characteristics of these relationships and the interdependencies among these characteristics.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

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