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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2023

Giuseppe Valenza, Marco Balzano, Mario Tani and Andrea Caputo

This paper aims to contribute to the scientific debate concerning the impact of equity crowdfunding on the performance of crowdfunded firms after campaigning. To this aim…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to contribute to the scientific debate concerning the impact of equity crowdfunding on the performance of crowdfunded firms after campaigning. To this aim, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the characteristics of the campaign and the subsequent firm innovativeness.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts a quantitative research approach to evaluate if the entrepreneurial choices affecting the characteristics of the equity crowdfunding campaigns have an impact on the post-campaign firm innovativeness.

Findings

The results of the models show that the campaign characteristics have a direct impact on the firm innovativeness, both in terms of offering and communication and the campaign performance.

Originality/value

This paper presents one of the first studies to investigate the relationship between the choice of campaign characteristics and the post-campaign firm innovativeness. As such, the study contributes to both the literature concerning start-up innovation and the literature about the impact of equity crowdfunding.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 January 2023

Jia Jia Chang, Zhi Jun Hu and Changxiu Liu

In this study, a dynamic contracting model is developed between a venture capitalist (VC) and an entrepreneur (EN) to explore the influence of asymmetric beliefs regarding…

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, a dynamic contracting model is developed between a venture capitalist (VC) and an entrepreneur (EN) to explore the influence of asymmetric beliefs regarding output-relevant parameters, agency conflicts and complementarity on the VC's posterior beliefs through the EN's unobservable effort choices to influence the optimal dynamic contract.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors construct the contracting model by incorporating the VC's effort, which is ignored in most studies. Using backward induction and a discrete-time approximation approach, the authors solve the continuous-time contract design problem, which evolves into a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE).

Findings

The optimal equity share that the VC provides to the EN decreases over time. In accordance with the empirical evidence, the EN's optimistic beliefs regarding the project's profitability positively affect its equity share. However, the interactions between the optimal equity share, project risk and both partners' degrees of risk aversion are not monotonic. Moreover, the authors find that the optimal equity share increases with the degree of complementarity, which indicates that the EN is willing to cooperate with the VC. This study’s results also show that the optimal equity shares at each time are interdependent if the VC is risk-averse and independent if the VC is risk-neutral.

Research limitations/implications

In conclusion, the authors highlight two potential directions for future research. First, the authors only considered a single VC, whereas in practice, a risk project may be carried out by multiple VCs, and it is interesting to discuss how the degree of complementarity affects the number of VCs that ENs contract. Second, the authors may introduce jumps and consider more general multivariate stochastic volatility models for output dynamics and analyze the characteristics of the optimal contracts. Third, further research can deal with other forms of discretionary output functions concerning complementarity, such as Cobb–Douglas and constant elasticity of substitution (See Varian, 1992).

Social implications

The results of this study have several implications. First, it offers a novel approach to designing dynamic contracts that are specific and easy to operate. To improve the complicated venture investment situation and abate conflict between contractual parties, this study plays a good reference role. Second, the synergy effect proposed in this study provides a theoretical explanation for the executive compensation puzzle in economics, in which managers are often “rewarded for luck” (Bertrand and Mullainathan, 2001; Wu et al., 2018). This result indicates a realistic perspective on financing and establishing cooperative relationships, which enhances the efficiency of venture investment. Third, from an empirical standpoint, one can apply this framework to study research and development (R&D) problems.

Originality/value

First, the authors introduce asymmetric beliefs and Bayesian learning to study the dynamic contract design problem and discuss their effects on equity share. Second, the authors incorporate the VC's effort into the contracting problem, and analyze the synergistic effect of effort complementarity on the optimal dynamic contract.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 January 2023

Nikhita Tuli, Kunal Shrivastava and Disha Khattar

This study aims to clarify the ambiguous nature of equity sensitivity and understand the associations between equity perceptions and the personality domain in…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to clarify the ambiguous nature of equity sensitivity and understand the associations between equity perceptions and the personality domain in organizational behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

The study reviews 56 articles that rendered associations between different HEXACO personality domains and equity sensitivity and proposed a possibility of equity sensitivity being a situation-activated trait.

Findings

The domains of Honesty-humility, Conscientiousness and Agreeableness are predominantly associated with equity sensitivity. The domain of Emotionality is also associated but not as significant as the aforementioned domains. Unexpectedly, Extraversion, the domain of social interactions, and Openness to experience showed little to no associations. The transient nature of equity sensitivity has been proposed that postulates that such nature might help predict an individual’s personality characteristics in a given context.

Originality/value

This review is one of the first, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, to describe the associations between equity sensitivity and the HEXACO personality domains. Additionally, the situational nature of equity sensitivity and relationship with the personality traits is proposed.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 December 2022

Giovanni Manansala, Chris Niyi Arasanmi and Adedapo Oluwaseyi Ojo

This study aims to examine ethical practices in the banking sector by testing the relationships between customer perceptions of ethicality and brand attributes like…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine ethical practices in the banking sector by testing the relationships between customer perceptions of ethicality and brand attributes like affect, image and equity.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on the social exchange theory, the authors advance the consumer’s perspective in explaining brand equity in the banking sector. Following the survey technique, the authors used the Hayes’ Macro Process in analysing the data collected from 148 bank customers in New Zealand.

Findings

The findings suggest that customers’ perception of ethicality, brand image and affect are significantly associated with brand equity. Also, brand image and affect significantly mediate the relationship between customer’s perception of ethicality and brand equity.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of this study is the use of survey and cross-sectional methods. Future research may adopt mixed-method techniques to provide insightful information on how these variables influence brand equity.

Originality/value

The study demonstrates the mechanisms that facilitate brand equity and contributes to theory by analysing the factors of brand equity in the banking sector, which has been less investigated.

Details

International Journal of Ethics and Systems, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9369

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 January 2023

Alberto Bravo Velázquez, Haiming Hang and Shengnan Ren

The authors’ research examines the impact of cross-cultural difference in dialectical thinking on consumers' responses to androgynous brands and its implication for brand…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors’ research examines the impact of cross-cultural difference in dialectical thinking on consumers' responses to androgynous brands and its implication for brand equity. Their research also aims to see how consumers take both feminine and masculine attributes into consideration to form their judgments of androgynous brand equity and whether this process is moderated by brand positioning.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors did two experiments with 400 Chinese consumers (high in dialectical thinking) and 528 British consumers (low in dialectical thinking) to test our framework.

Findings

The authors’ experimental results suggest an androgynous brand has higher brand equity in China than in the UK. Furthermore, Chinese consumers rate higher feminine/masculine attributes of masculine/feminine brands. In addition, an androgynous brand's equity is mainly driven by its less dominant attributes. Finally, their results suggest that brand positioning moderates the mediating role of less dominant attributes, more evident when brand positioning matches (vs mismatches) an androgynous brand's more dominant attributes.

Originality/value

By focusing on cross-cultural differences in dialectical thinking, the authors’ research offers a novel approach to reconcile existing inconclusive results on androgynous brand equity. Second, to their best knowledge, their research is the first to examine how feminine and masculine attributes jointly decide androgynous brand equity. Finally, by focusing on brand positioning, their research highlights the importance of an androgynous brand's less dominant attributes in driving its brand equity and provides a tool international marketing managers can use to strengthen such influence.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 December 2022

Antonio Marín-García, Irene Gil-Saura, Maria-Eugenia Ruiz-Molina and Maria Fuentes-Blasco

The study of sustainability in retail has experienced an exponential interest in recent years as a result of greater awareness on the part of consumers of the negative…

Abstract

Purpose

The study of sustainability in retail has experienced an exponential interest in recent years as a result of greater awareness on the part of consumers of the negative effects of the current way of producing and consuming on society and the environment. This work examines the heterogeneous evaluation based on behavioural variables in retail trade and how consumer perceptions towards sustainable practices implemented in stores can influence the overall store equity.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors propose a theoretical model based on the literature, tested through a mixed regression model in a sample of 510 customers of food retail establishments.

Findings

The dimensions of sustainability are postulated as driving forces of brand equity towards the retail establishment. Specifically, social sustainability shows a greater impact on consumer perception, being the main factor in the development of the store's brand equity. Furthermore, the analysis of unobserved heterogeneity identifies three latent classes in which the effects of perceptions on sustainable retail activities vary across consumer segments.

Originality/value

The study analyses in a single model the effect of sustainability dimensions on store equity from the consumer's perspective, analysing the differences between these relationships as a consequence of the unobserved heterogeneity of consumers.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 2000

Arthur Cheng‐Hsui Chen and Shaw K. Chen

Examines the negative impacts of brand extension failure upon the original brand by calibrating the difference of brand equity. Using data collected from college students…

7693

Abstract

Examines the negative impacts of brand extension failure upon the original brand by calibrating the difference of brand equity. Using data collected from college students in Taiwan, establishes four hypotheses to identify various effects of a failed brand extension in diluting the original brand’s equity. Analyzes the different effects among four types of equity‐source brands for both close and distant extensions. Equity‐source and equity level of the original brand is identified first. All components of brand equity‐source are then used to evaluate the performance of a brand extension. Finds that an unsuccessful brand extension dilutes the original brand for all three high equity‐source brands. Effects of brand dilution differ according to the type of equity source possessed by the original brand, but there is no difference in brand dilution effects from close and distant extension failures.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1986

JON ROBINSON

This paper synthesises the mortgage‐equity capitalisation technique, often used in property investment analysis and valuation practice in the United States of America, and…

Abstract

This paper synthesises the mortgage‐equity capitalisation technique, often used in property investment analysis and valuation practice in the United States of America, and the equated yield technique used in the United Kingdom. The mortgate‐equity technique considers two components of value, namely, debt and equity. It is usually applied to the nett income receivable in the first year, (conventional income capitalisation). Equated yield is a form of cash flow analysis which allows for the assessment of rental income projections. The combination of the two techniques, where debt capital is treated as an actual series of cash flows, leads to a discounted cash flow rate of return being available for equity capital. This measure should be of interest to property companies and occupying investors. The approach is demonstrated using a simple example, and some sample tables of equated yield on equity are appended.

Details

Journal of Valuation, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7480

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2022

Yilong Zheng, Yiru Wang and Sarfraz A. Mian

Tracking trends in new technology funding patterns is essential for venture scaling. The emerging advanced digital technologies (ADT) such as virtual reality (VR)…

Abstract

Purpose

Tracking trends in new technology funding patterns is essential for venture scaling. The emerging advanced digital technologies (ADT) such as virtual reality (VR), artificial intelligence (AI), blockchain and Internet-of-things (IoT) promote business innovation adaptations, and in turn, reshape the industrial landscape. To attract nascent funding for such prospective projects among the public, well-articulated project pitches that are equipped with effective marketing communication convey the projects' importance and marketability. Specifically, when the entrepreneurs and the crowdfunding platform users interact via different types of crowdfunding platforms, pitch framing, including the signaling of ADT terms, project location and fundraising goal, becomes imperative to help facilitate crowdfunding success.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on data collected from six leading US-based equity and reward-based crowdfunding platforms in 2020, an empirical study was performed. Using the text analysis approach, the authors examined the positive effects of incorporating technology orientation on crowdfunding success. While the effect between the project description's signaling of geographic location, fundraising goal and articulation style on fundraising success, while controlling for project and platform characteristics.

Findings

The results suggested that the technology-orientated projects are more likely to achieve better fundraising outcomes. Taking crowdfunding platform types, project locations, minimum fundraising goals and articulation with analytical and authentic into consideration, the results still hold.

Originality/value

Building on the theoretical framework of signaling theory, the authors consider the crowdfunding-specific contextual factors to enhance the understanding of the positivity impact of technology orientation. By such addition, it facilitates more effective strategic composition of entrepreneurs' fundraising conversations.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 November 2022

Peter M. Krysta, Janina Jauch-Degenkolb and Dominik K. Kanbach

Facing increased asset prices and growing competition, private equity firms needed to innovate their established business model and shift from focusing on financial…

Abstract

Purpose

Facing increased asset prices and growing competition, private equity firms needed to innovate their established business model and shift from focusing on financial engineering to creating operating value. Yet, the authors understand little about how private equity firms increase the value of companies in their portfolios. This paper aims to shed light on organizational strategies, activities and governance principles that private equity firms use to create value.

Design/methodology/approach

This investigation combines several qualitative research approaches. Using in-depth interviews with executives in 35 private equity firms, the authors define industry-specific design principles for value creation using a Gioia methodology. They then use the Eisenhardt methodology to make in-depth case comparisons among sample firms.

Findings

Private equity firms employ one of four strategies – labeled “Infiltrator,” “Consultant,” “Organizer” or “Investor” – to create value in portfolio companies, each with a different organizational structure, level of cooperation between investor and portfolio firm and specific configuration of design elements.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to focus on private equity value creation strategies from an organizational perspective. To their knowledge, no other publication has tapped this deeply into the interface between the private equity firm and the portfolio company to define the exact approach taken by the firm. This study contributes to the emerging discussion around the nonfinancial inputs to value creation. In addition, this qualitative research design is underrepresented in private equity research.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

Keywords

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