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Article

Viju Subramoniapillai and G. Thilagavathi

The most widely recycled plastic in the world is recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rPET). To minimize the environmental related issues associated with synthetic fibers…

Abstract

Purpose

The most widely recycled plastic in the world is recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rPET). To minimize the environmental related issues associated with synthetic fibers, several researchers have explored the potential use of recycled polyester fibers in developing various technical textile products. This study aims to develop needle-punched nonwoven fabrics from recycled polyester fibers and investigate its suitability in oil spill cleanup process.

Design/methodology/approach

According to Box and Behnken factorial design, 15 different needle-punched nonwoven fabrics from recycled polyester fibers were prepared by changing the parameters, namely, needle punch density, needle penetration depth and fabric areal weight. Several featured parameters such as oil sorption, oil retention, oil sorption kinetics, wettability and reusability performance were systematically elucidated.

Findings

The maximum oil sorption of recycled nonwoven polyester is found to be 24.85 g/g and 20.58 g/g for crude oil and vegetable oil, respectively. The oil retention is about 93%–96% in case of crude oil, whereas 87%–91% in case of vegetable oil. Recycled polyester nonwoven possesses good hydrophobic–oleophilic properties with static contact angle of 138° against water, whereas 0° against crude oil and vegetable oil. The reusability test results indicate that recycled polyester nonwoven fabric can be used several times because of its reusability features.

Originality/value

There is no detailed study on the oil sorption features of needle-punched nonwoven fabrics developed from recycled polyester fibers. This study is expected to help in developing fabrics for oil spill cleanups.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

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Article

R. Rathinamoorthy and S. Raja Balasaraswathi

Microfiber is one of the major sources of microplastic emission into the environment. In recent times, research on microfiber has gained momentum, and research across…

Abstract

Purpose

Microfiber is one of the major sources of microplastic emission into the environment. In recent times, research on microfiber has gained momentum, and research across different disciplines was performed. However, no complete study was performed from the viewpoint of textiles to analyse the microfiber shedding behaviour by relating the properties textiles. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the microfiber shedding behaviour in textiles.

Design/methodology/approach

Articles on the microfiber shedding across different disciplines were collected and analysed systematically to identify the influencing factor. The influence of laundry parameters is found to be majorly discussed section, yet very few research data is found on the effect of yarn and fabric properties on the microfiber shedding.

Findings

Most of the articles listed laundry detergent addition, higher temperature, use of softeners, type of washing machines used and amount of liquid used as the major factors influencing the fiber shedding. Concerning the fiber and yarn characteristics, yarn twist, fiber type (staple/filament), method of production, fabric structure and specific density are reported as influencing factors. Some articles highlighted the influence of ageing of textiles on the fiber shedding.

Originality/value

The review identified the research gap in the textile sector and reports that so far, no research performed on microfiber shedding with the textile parameters. The review further urges the importance of research works to be performed in the textile by considering the fabric and yarn properties.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article

Qinguo Fan, Hongxia Xue and Yong K. Kim

Woven and knitted polyester fabrics were pretreated with formulations containing waterborne UV curable resins and silica particles to improve inkjet print quality. The…

Abstract

Woven and knitted polyester fabrics were pretreated with formulations containing waterborne UV curable resins and silica particles to improve inkjet print quality. The selected formulations were applied with low add-on to reduce the adverse effect on fabric hand without sacrificing the print quality. A print pattern with block areas and lines in cyan, magenta, yellow, and black colors was designed and inkjet printed on the pretreated fabrics with a wide-format inkjet printer (Encad Novajet 750) to investigate the effects of the UV curable pretreatment on the inkjet print color qualities including color depth, color gamut and color lightness.

Experimental results show that both the color depth and gamut of prints on the pretreated taffeta and knitted polyester fabrics were enhanced compared to those on untreated polyester fabrics. However, both the color depth and gamut of the prints on the pretreated satin polyester fabrics were reduced. The lightness change of the inkjet printed colors on pretreated knitted fabrics is similar to that of untreated fabrics whereas the lightness change of prints on pretreated satin and taffeta fabrics shows some differences. All colors have increased lightness on pretreated satin fabrics. However, magenta and black have decreased lightness on the pretreated taffeta fabrics.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

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Article

Rachel H. McQueen, James J. Harynuk, Wendy V. Wismer, Monika Keelan, Yin Xu and A. Paulina de la Mata

Fibre content can influence the intensity of odour that develops within clothing fabrics. However, little is known about how effective laundering is at removing malodours…

Abstract

Purpose

Fibre content can influence the intensity of odour that develops within clothing fabrics. However, little is known about how effective laundering is at removing malodours in clothing which differ by fibre type. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether a selected cotton fabric differed in odour intensity following multiple wear and wash cycles compared to a polyester fabric.

Design/methodology/approach

Eight (male and female) participants wore bisymmetrical cotton/polyester t-shirts during 20 exercise sessions over a ten-week trial period. Odour was evaluated via a sensory panel, bacterial populations were counted and selected odorous volatile organic compounds were measured with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection. Analysis occurred both before and after the final (20th) wash cycle.

Findings

Findings showed that laundering was effective in reducing overall odour intensity (p0.001) and bacterial populations (p0.001) in both cotton and polyester fabrics. Odour was most intense on polyester fabrics following wear, not just before, but also after washing (p0.001); although, no differences in bacterial counts were found between fibre types (p>0.05). Chemical analysis found C4-C8 chained carboxylic acids on both types of unwashed fabrics, although they were more prevalent on polyester.

Originality/value

The findings suggest that the build-up of odour in polyester fabrics may be cumulative as important odorants such as the carboxylic acids were not as effectively removed from polyester compared to cotton.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article

R. Rathinamoorthy and G. Thilagavathi

Odour formation in textile material is mainly based on the fibre content and also the constituent fibres’ chemical and physical structures. Polyester fibre materials are…

Abstract

Purpose

Odour formation in textile material is mainly based on the fibre content and also the constituent fibres’ chemical and physical structures. Polyester fibre materials are very profound to form odour after being worn due to their highly oleophilic nature. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the odour formation characteristics of polyester fabric after surface modification through alkali treatment.

Design/methodology/approach

Five male participants were allowed to use the alkali-treated and untreated polyester fabrics, which were fixed in the axilla region of their vest. Subjective and objective odour analyses were performed for the worn samples. The odour was evaluated in terms of intensity rating, bacterial population (CFU/ml) and bacterial isolation.

Findings

The results showed that alkali treatment was effective in odour reduction in polyester fabric (p<0.005). The bacterial population density was also reduced significantly (p<0.005) in the alkali-treated polyester fabric compared to the untreated polyester fabric after the wear trial. The alkali treatment affected the surface structure of the polyester fabric and thus changed it from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. This was confirmed by the moisture management test results.

Originality/value

The odour formation in the polyester fabric can be controlled by simple surface modification process like alkali treatment, and thus the value of the product can be increased in the apparel sector.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article

Warunee Wattanatanom, Sireerat Churuchinda and Pranut Potiyaraj

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential use of the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly as an intumescent flame retardant for polyester, cotton and their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential use of the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly as an intumescent flame retardant for polyester, cotton and their blended fabrics.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, polyester (PET), cotton and their blends were applied with the flame retardant coating via the LbL assembly technique. The flame retardancy, melt dripping, thermal properties and morphology of coated polyester fabrics were then examined.

Findings

The scanning electron micrograph of uncoated and coated fabrics revealed that the LbL assembly coating on the fabric surface was successful. The assessment of the flame retardancy and thermal properties of the coated fabrics showed that the after-flame time and melt dripping during the vertical burning test decreased. The char residue at temperatures ranging from 450 to 800°C during thermogravimetric analysis was enhanced as compared with the uncoated fabric. Furthermore, the morphology of the char residual of coated fabrics was rougher and bulkier than the uncoated fabrics, suggesting the typical behavior of intumescence.

Social implications

The LbL technique generally uses much fewer chemicals, thus making this flame retardant finishing much more environmentally friendly. It is also expected that these fabrics will show better touch characteristics. These fabrics may be tested for their comfort compared to that of conventional coating to enable their use on an industrial scale.

Originality/value

This work demonstrated the ability to apply an effective intumescent coating on polyester, cotton and blend fabric. In order to maintain fabric handle property, the Lbl coating technique is also employed.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article

K. Vellingiri, T. Ramachandran and P. Senthilkumar

Any change in physical performance of the fibre corresponds to a change in its molecular structure. Basically polyester is hydrophobic in nature due to the absence of…

Abstract

Purpose

Any change in physical performance of the fibre corresponds to a change in its molecular structure. Basically polyester is hydrophobic in nature due to the absence of attracting polar groups and the dense packing in its polymeric structure. Due to the dense packing in polymeric structure and lack of hydroxyl groups of polyester it does not absorb water hence breathability is poor. The possibility of using air and oxygen plasma treatments for fibre surface activation to facilitate the improvement of hydrophilicity is attempted and has been improved. The purpose of this paper is to study the possibility of engineering the multifunctional of fabrics.

Design/methodology/approach

The treated fabric is evaluated through measuring the ultraviolet protection factor, thermal resistance, and antibacterial activity properties. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy graphs show deposition of nano particles (NPs) of Chitosan, TiO2 and ZnO onto the fibre after washing several times.

Findings

Air plasma-nano Chitosan treatment affects positively the antibacterial activity, thermal resistance of the fibre and air plasma-nano TiO2 and ZnO the fibre protection against ultraviolet rays. Furthermore, the plasma treatment solves an environmental problem which offers safe production process and working place and decreases the unit cost.

Originality/Value

The authors are confident that textiles will adopt this technology in the future.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article

R. Rathinamoorthy

The utilisation of softener after laundering of textile became one of the mandatory activities among the consumers. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to determine the…

Abstract

Purpose

The utilisation of softener after laundering of textile became one of the mandatory activities among the consumers. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to determine the influence of repeated rinse cycle softener treatment on the comfort characteristics of cotton and polyester woven fabric.

Design/methodology/approach

The selected cotton and polyester fabrics were treated using three different softeners types and three different numbers of rinsing times, namely 5, 10 and 15. The impact of repeated rinse cycle softener treatment on the comfort characteristics like absorbency, air permeability, wicking, thermal conductivity and flammability was analysed and the changes in the properties were confirmed using two-way ANOVA.

Findings

The number of rinse cycle softener treatment has a significant impact on the absorbency, air permeability and wicking ability of the cotton and polyester fabrics. The thermal conductivity and flammability characteristics of the fabrics mostly altered based on the type of fabric softener used. For all the type of fabric, the burning time reduced after the softener treatment.

Social implications

The consumer expects the softness and fragrance smell developed by the rinse cycle softener and they intend to use it more frequently after every laundry process to achieve that feel. This repeated the application of softener causes a negative impact on the fabric performances. This research result provides an evidence for the changes in physiological comfort aspects of textiles.

Originality/value

This analysis enlightens the negative impact of the repeated use of commercial fabric softener and their types on the common fabrics used in apparel endues.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article

Varadaraju Ramakrishnan and Srinivasan Jagannathan

The purpose of this paper is to optimize the linear densities of polyester yarn and filament for inner layer and elastane for middle layer with cotton yarn outer layer in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to optimize the linear densities of polyester yarn and filament for inner layer and elastane for middle layer with cotton yarn outer layer in plain knitted plated structure for hot and dry environment clothing.

Design/methodology/approach

Three levels of polyester yarn linear densities (11.1, 8.4 and 5.6 Tex), filament linear densities (0.8, 1.55 and 2.3 Decitex) and elastane (0, 4 and 8 percent) with 14.75 Tex cotton yarn have been used to knit 15 single jersey plated fabrics based on Box and Benhens experimental design with same loop length. Three cotton–elastane core-spun fabrics were also produced. All the fabrics were analyzed for moisture and ergonomic comfort properties and wet fabric coefficient of friction.

Findings

The increase in elastane content and yarn linear density decreases water vapor and air permeability; the increase in filament linear density decreases wicking rate and water absorbency. The optimum solution is 5.55 Tex polyester yarn of 0.8 Decitex filament as inner layer and 14.75 Tex cotton yarn as outer layer which gives good heat and moisture transfer without stickiness.

Research limitations/implications

The implication of this paper is to study thinner polyester, polypropylene and polyethylene fabrics with more micro pores as skin contact layer for quicker heat and moisture transfer.

Practical implications

Outward wickability of sweat from the skin is the prime requirement of all skin contact layer fabrics.

Social implications

It shifts the social attitude of most comfortable fabric to polyester–cotton plated for hot and dry climate.

Originality/value

This paper employs a more practical method for the selection of fabric.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article

Nilhan Niles, Sandun Fernando, Nipuni Rathnayake, Ayesha Hewamalavi and Samudika Weerasinghe

Woven fabrics have been popularised in use owing to their superior properties and functionality. Today, weavers strive to add value to their product to be competitive and…

Abstract

Purpose

Woven fabrics have been popularised in use owing to their superior properties and functionality. Today, weavers strive to add value to their product to be competitive and to secure profit in performance fabrics such as technical fabrics, smart fabrics and sportswear fabrics. Over the years, fabrics with special properties such as moisture management have gained higher demand. In this context, multi-layer fabrics provide a reasonable solution to the demand.

Design/methodology/approach

An attempt was made to develop two-layer fabrics with different compositions and properties. A two-layer woven fabric was produced using handloom weaving, with a hydrophobic inner layer and hydrophilic outer layer, the two layers being attached together using different stitching methods. Different fabric structures and yarn counts were used to achieve the objectives.

Findings

Experiments carried out verified the suitability of the developed fabric for effective moisture management. It was found that a fabric with a 100% cotton outer layer and 100% polyester inner layer, both layers of 2 × 2 matt weave, showed the best properties.

Practical implications

In the present COVID-19 pandemic situation, the use of masks in public has become mandatory in many countries. This research will help handloom manufacturers meet the need using simple methods.

Originality/value

This research uses handloom fabric. As such it provides an opportunity for small and medium enterprises to use available low-cost technology to develop fabric with superior properties.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

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