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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2007

H.Y. Mostafa, A.M.A. Nada, A.M.M. Elmasry and M.E. Mahdi

The purpose is to focus on improving the water or metal ion uptake of modified cellulose.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose is to focus on improving the water or metal ion uptake of modified cellulose.

Design/methodology/approach

Grafting copolymerisation of hydrophilic monomers such as acrylamide or hydrophobic monomers as acrylonitrile onto cotton linters was performed.

Findings

The grafting process has two advantages. The first is to replace the hydroxyl group of C6 of the glucose units in the substrate by carboxyl group that attract the metal ions from the solution. The second is to decrease the number of the hydroxyl groups in the cotton linters so that the hydrogen bonding between the cotton linters strands decreases and so the crystallinity index of substrate decreases by introduction of this hydrophilic group so it becomes more chemically active.

Research limitations/implications

Partial substitution of hydroxyl groups of cellulose by more hydrophilic ones via grafting reaction followed by alkaline hydrolysis was performed. The effects of different conditions such as temperature, time, initiator concentration, monomer concentration and kind of substrate were studied. The polymerisation per cent, grafting per cent, the grafting efficiency and the nitrogen per cent of the grafted samples were determined. The molecular structures of cotton linters, grafted cotton linters with acrylamide and its hydrolysis product were studied using infrared spectroscopy, which indicates the fixation of the monomers on the cotton linters. Sodium binding capacity and the metal ion uptake of some metal ions by the product were determined.

Originality/value

The water or metal ion uptake of the modified cellulose was improved.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 March 2007

D.P. Chattopadhyay, R.B. Chavan and J.K. Sharma

Fibre reactive dyes are very popular for cellulosic garments as they are environmentally safe and having good overall fastness properties. But application of these dyes…

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Abstract

Purpose

Fibre reactive dyes are very popular for cellulosic garments as they are environmentally safe and having good overall fastness properties. But application of these dyes requires a very high concentration of salt. The salt released from garment dyeing increases salinity in drain water stream which has a negative impact on environmental ecology. The present work aims to eliminate the usage of salt during dyeing of cotton goods with reactive dyes.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology adopted here, for the elimination of salt in cotton dyeing, was based on the principle of cationisation (to develop a positive charge) of cotton. The same was achieved by subjecting the caustic pretreated cotton fabric samples to a treatment of 1, 2 dichloroethane followed by methylamine to introduce amino groups in the cellulose structure. The treated cotton when dyed from slightly acidic bath generates positive sites due to protonation in the amino group. The reactive dyes being anionic (negatively charged) in solution get attracted to the positive charges on the fibre which eliminates the salt requirements for satisfactory dye exhaustion.

Findings

The investigation was conducted for cold brand, hot brand and highly exhaustive reactive dyes. The modified cotton showed excellent dye exhaustion for all the dyes in the absence of salt. The treatment was found to improve the dye fixation also. The modification was assessed through elemental analysis.

Research limitations/implications

This study may be further extended to viscose material after suitably modifying the treatment conditions.

Practical implications

A pretreatment to cotton which could eliminate the usage of salt in its dyeing with reactive dyes is revealed.

Originality/value

The study explored a newer technique of cotton dyeing without salt usage. Both garment dyeing units and fabric/yarn finishing industries would thus be helpful.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 December 2018

Ashwini A. Patil, Saptarshi Maiti and Ravindra V. Adivarekar

Cotton being an anionic fiber can be dyed with direct, reactive, vat and sulfur dyes but cannot be dyed with acid dyes due to their chemical differences. But there are…

Abstract

Purpose

Cotton being an anionic fiber can be dyed with direct, reactive, vat and sulfur dyes but cannot be dyed with acid dyes due to their chemical differences. But there are certain advantages of acid dyes like acid dyeing is the simplest method than the other classes of dyes; and it offers various intense and bright shades. So, the purpose of this paper is to focus on acid dyeing of cotton fabric after its chemical modification.

Design/methodology/approach

Such modification of cotton fabric has been achieved using poly(amido)amine dendrimer (PAMAM) treatment. The current work is based on the synthesis of a full-generation PAMAM dendrimer (G0) and its application onto the cotton fabric for modifying the cotton substrate by the exhaust and padding method.

Findings

The treatment of the dendrimer on cotton fabric has been analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The dyeing results in terms of color strength of the treated cotton fabrics are compared with those of conventional acid dyed silk fabric. The fastness assessments such as wash, light and rubbing fastnesses after dyeing of treated cotton fabrics are also performed and found to be satisfactory.

Originality/value

This paper can be used in the application of synthesized poly(amido)amine dendrimer in acid dyeing of cotton.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2008

A.R. Moghassem

Grey cotton fibers with a mean fiber length and fineness of 29 mm and 4.2 micronair was pretreated, scoured and dyed. Three ring yarns were spun separately from 100% grey…

Abstract

Grey cotton fibers with a mean fiber length and fineness of 29 mm and 4.2 micronair was pretreated, scoured and dyed. Three ring yarns were spun separately from 100% grey cotton (R.R.Y.), 50% dyed and 50% grey cotton blend (M.R.Y.) and 100% dyed cotton (D.R.Y.). The extent of fiber damage was assessed by measuring the length and the mechanical characteristics of cotton fibers after passing the fibers through the lap machine and the draw frame II. Properties of R.R.Y., M.R.Y. and D.R.Y. samples were examined. In terms of tenacity and elongation at break, grey and dyed cotton fibers, which were selected after being processed by the lap machine and the draw frame II, were very similar. The fiber length by number and weight of grey cotton was longer than that of dyed cotton, while the amount of fiber nep and short fiber content of dyed cotton were more than those of grey cotton.

The three yarn samples were the same in terms of elongation at break. The tenacity of R.R.Y. was the highest but the yarn sample was the lowest in terms of coefficients of mass variation (Cv%), imperfection and hairiness in comparison with the M.R.Y. and D.R.Y. samples.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2015

Karthikeyan M Ramasamy

Organic cotton, which is produced without any chemical fertilizers and pesticides, is playing a vital role in creating a less harmful environment. An investigation of the…

Abstract

Organic cotton, which is produced without any chemical fertilizers and pesticides, is playing a vital role in creating a less harmful environment. An investigation of the properties of weft knitted fabrics produced from organically made cotton vis-à-vis regular cotton knitted fabric is reported. The yarn is made with both organically produced and regular cotton, and the fabric is knitted by using single jersey machines. The fabrics are subsequently dyed by using natural dyes. The naturally dyed knitted fabrics are examined for shrinkage, bursting strength, abrasion resistance, and colour fastness properties. The result shows that the knitted fabrics produced from organically grown cotton is superior in performance in comparison with fabrics produced from regular cotton.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2022

A. Gayathri, P. Varalakshmi and M. G. Sethuraman

This study aims to develop multifunctional, namely, superhydrophobic, flame-retardant and antibacterial, coatings over cotton fabric, using casein as green-based…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to develop multifunctional, namely, superhydrophobic, flame-retardant and antibacterial, coatings over cotton fabric, using casein as green-based flame-retardant and silver nanoparticles as antibacterial agent by solution immersion method.

Design/methodology/approach

The cotton fabric is first coated with casein to make it flame-retardant. AgNPs synthesized using Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark extract is coated over the casein layer. Finally, stearic acid is used to coat the cotton to make it superhydrophobic. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy analysis and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy are used to investigate the produced AgNPs. The as-prepared multifunctional cotton is characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and attenuated total reflection-infrared studies. Flame test, limiting oxygen index test and thermogravimetric analyzer studies have also been performed to study the flame-retardant ability and thermal stability of treated fabric, respectively. The antibacterial effect of the coatings is evaluated by disc-diffusion technique. Water contact angle is determined to confirm the superhydrophobic nature of cotton fabric.

Findings

The outcomes of this study showed that the prepared multifunctional cotton fabric had maximum contact angle of greater than 150° with good flame retardancy, high thermal stability, greater washing durability and high antibacterial activity against the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter indicus. Additionally, the as-prepared superhydrophobic cotton showed an excellent oil–water separation efficiency.

Research limitations/implications

The trilayered multifunctional cotton fabric has limiting washing durability up to 20 washing cycles. Treated functional fabric can be used as an antibacterial, therapeutic, water repellent and experimental protective clothing for medical, health care, home curtains and industrial and laboratory purposes.

Originality/value

The study brings out the robustness of this method in the development of multifunctional cotton fabrics.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 July 2022

Ashis Mitra

Cotton fibre lots are graded and selected for yarn spinning based on their quality value which is a function of certain fibre properties. Cotton grading and selection has…

Abstract

Purpose

Cotton fibre lots are graded and selected for yarn spinning based on their quality value which is a function of certain fibre properties. Cotton grading and selection has created a domain of emerging interest among the researchers. Several researchers have addressed the said issue using a few exponents of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) technique. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a cotton selection problem using a recently developed measurement of alternatives and ranking according to compromise solution (MARCOS) method which can handle almost any decision problem involving a finite number of alternatives and multiple conflicting decision criteria.

Design/methodology/approach

The MARCOS method of the MCDM technique was deployed in this study to rank 17 cotton fibre lots based on their quality values. Six apposite fibre properties, namely, fibre bundle strength, elongation, fineness, upper half mean length, uniformity index and short fibre content are considered as the six decision criteria assigning weights previously determined by an earlier researcher using analytic hierarchy process.

Findings

Among the 17 alternatives, C9 secured rank 1 (the best lot) with the highest utility function (0.704) and C7 occupied rank 17 (the worst lot) with the lowest utility function (0.596). Ranking given by MARCOS method showed high degree of congruence with the earlier approaches, as evidenced by high rank correlation coefficients (Rs > 0.814). During sensitivity analyses, no occurrence of rank reversal is observed. The correlations between the quality value-based ranking and the yarn tenacity-based rankings are better than many of the traditional methods. The results can be improved further by adopting other efficient method of weighting the criteria.

Practical implications

The properties of raw cotton have significant impact on the quality of final yarn. Compared to the traditional methods, MCDM is reported as the most viable solution in which fibre parameters are given their due importance while formulating a single index known as quality value. The present study demonstrates the application of a recently developed exponent of MCDM in the name of MARCOS for the first time to address a cotton fibre selection problem for textile spinning mills. The same approach can also be extended to solve other decision problems of the textile industry, in general.

Originality/value

Novelty of the present study lies in the fact that the MARCOS is a very recently developed MCDM method, and this is a maiden application of the MARCOS method in the domain of textile, in general, and cotton industry, in particular. The approach is very simple, highly effective and quite flexible in terms of number of alternatives and decision criteria, although highly robust and stable.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2012

Inna Rudenko, Utkur Djanibekov, Kudrat Nurmetov and John P.A. Lamers

Intensive agricultural production in the countries of the Aral Sea Basin has resulted in undesirable ecological and social consequences, including the drying of the Aral…

Abstract

Intensive agricultural production in the countries of the Aral Sea Basin has resulted in undesirable ecological and social consequences, including the drying of the Aral Sea. Water has become scarce due to a score of internal and external factors including the growing demand for water resources by the upstream countries, expansion of the irrigated areas to ease food insecurity, and the poor condition of irrigation and drainage networks. To cope with environmental consequences and regional water challenges, it is vital to look for pathways of improved integrated water resource management, higher water use efficiencies, and reducing overall water use.

A combination of value chain and water footprint analyses of the dominant crop, cotton, was applied to assess water use in different sectors of the Uzbekistan economy and to seek water saving and improved water management and efficiency options.

The findings show that reduction in water use could be achieved by diversifying the economy and moving from water intensive agricultural production to less water consuming industrial sectors by introducing water saving irrigation technologies and by raising awareness of the population about the real value of water.

The combined findings of the economic based value chain analysis and ecologically oriented water footprint analysis gave an added value for better informed decision-making to reach land, water, and ecosystem sustainability and to contribute to the Millennium Development Goals of eradicating poverty and hunger and achieving food and water security.

Details

Disaster by Design: The Aral Sea and its Lessons for Sustainability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-376-6

Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2011

Carl E. Pray, Latha Nagarajan, Jikun Huang, Ruifa Hu and Bharat Ramaswami

Since the 1980s agricultural biotech investments by the public sector have increased substantially in both China and India. In the last two decades there has also been a…

Abstract

Since the 1980s agricultural biotech investments by the public sector have increased substantially in both China and India. In the last two decades there has also been a dramatic increase in private section investment in agricultural biotechnology particularly in India. The promise of major benefits of Bt cotton identified in early socioeconomic studies of Bt cotton has proven to be true. Bt cotton has spread to at least 66% and 85% of total cotton areas of China and India, respectively – wherever bollworm is a major problem. Bt cotton continues to control bollworm in both countries, and farmers continue as major beneficiaries rather than biotech or seed companies. The major impacts have been yield increases in India and reduced pesticides consumption in China. In China, evidence also suggests that Bt cotton has suppressed the bollworm population so that non-Bt cotton growers and producers of other crops that are susceptible to bollworm are also benefitting.

The chapter also provides evidence that in the near future Bt rice and Bt eggplant could have major positive impacts by reducing pesticide use and farmers’ exposure to chemical pesticides and increasing yields. Both crops were approved for commercial production by government biosafety regulators, but are not yet available for commercial cultivation.

Details

Genetically Modified Food and Global Welfare
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-758-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 December 2020

Ritambhara Singh

The aim of this chapter is to develop a strong research base for the academia and the industry to understand the importance of data analytics in International Trade. This…

Abstract

The aim of this chapter is to develop a strong research base for the academia and the industry to understand the importance of data analytics in International Trade. This chapter focuses on the case of cotton trade from India and explores different methodologies developed by the World Bank and International Trade Center to analyze the Big Data available on export and import. Through Big Data analysis, this chapter attempts to find out the export performance, market demand, export potential, and attractive markets for Indian cotton. This chapter also explores the trade competitiveness of Indian cotton over the years. The data through appropriate analysis can address some simple yet complicated questions in trade like what export potential the commodity holds, if the commodity is competitive or not in international market, what are new markets to look up to, and other similar questions. In other words, this information could make huge difference in decision-making of traders and policymakers directly, and farmers indirectly.

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