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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2021

Hongkun Zhang, Xianyun Gong, Zan Li and Yang Wang

The epoxy resins need to be added with flame retardant to ensure safety in practical applications. There were a lot of highly toxic substances in the flame retardant used…

Abstract

Purpose

The epoxy resins need to be added with flame retardant to ensure safety in practical applications. There were a lot of highly toxic substances in the flame retardant used in the past, which caused greater harm to human body and the environment. Therefore, this study aims to propose a research on the synthesis of new phosphorous-containing flame retardant and the properties of flame retardant epoxy resins.

Design/methodology/approach

The flame retardant intermediate DOPO was synthesized using o-phenylphenol as the substrate. The intermediate was mixed with D4Vi under certain conditions to synthesize a new phosphorous-containing flame retardant. The flame retardant was added to the epoxy resins to prepare the flame retardant epoxy resins.

Findings

The experimental results show that the synthetic new phosphorous-containing flame retardant is far less harmful than the flame retardant used in the past and has extremely low toxicity, which is suitable for use in practical projects.

Originality/value

The new phosphorus-containing flame retardant synthesized by forms a more uniform and dense carbon layer in the combustion process, which well protects the underlying materials, thus improving the flame retardancy of epoxy resin materials. The harm of the new phosphorus-containing flame retardant is far less than that of ordinary flame retardant. The flame retardant used in the past has very low toxicity and is suitable for practical engineering.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 50 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 January 2022

Bekinew Kitaw Dejene, Terefe Belachew Fenta and Chirato Godana Korra

The potential for burn injuries arises from contact with a hot surface, flame, hot liquid and steam hazards. The purpose of this study is to develop the flame retardant

Abstract

Purpose

The potential for burn injuries arises from contact with a hot surface, flame, hot liquid and steam hazards. The purpose of this study is to develop the flame retardant acrylic and cotton blend textile finished with Enset Ventricosum pseudostem sap (EPS).

Design/methodology/approach

The two fabric was produced from (30% acrylic with 70% cotton) and (35% acrylic with 65% cotton) blend. The extracted sap was made alkaline and applied on two mordanted blend fabrics. The effect of blend ratio, the concentration of EPS and treatment time on flammability, Flame retardant properties of both the control and the treated fabrics were analyzed in terms of vertical flammability based on the design of the experiment software using central composite design. The air permeability and tensile strength of treated and controlled fabric were measured.

Findings

The blended fabrics at different blended ratios were flame retardant with an optimized result of burning time 2.902 min and 2.775 min and char length 6.442 cm and 7.332 cm in the warp and weft direction, respectively, at a concentration of 520 ml and time 33.588 min. There was a slight significant change in mechanical strengths and air permeability. The thermal degradation and the pyrolysis of the fabric samples were studied using thermogravimetric analysis and the chemical composition by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy abbreviated as Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The wash durability of the treated fabric at different blend ratios was carried out for the optimized sample and the test result shows that the flame retardancy property is durable up to 15 washes.

Originality/value

Development of flame retardant cotton and acrylic blend textile fabric finish with ESP was studied; this work provides application of EPS for flame resistance which is optimized statically and successfully applied for a flame retardant property on cotton-acrylic blend fabric.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Warunee Wattanatanom, Sireerat Churuchinda and Pranut Potiyaraj

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential use of the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly as an intumescent flame retardant for polyester, cotton and their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential use of the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly as an intumescent flame retardant for polyester, cotton and their blended fabrics.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, polyester (PET), cotton and their blends were applied with the flame retardant coating via the LbL assembly technique. The flame retardancy, melt dripping, thermal properties and morphology of coated polyester fabrics were then examined.

Findings

The scanning electron micrograph of uncoated and coated fabrics revealed that the LbL assembly coating on the fabric surface was successful. The assessment of the flame retardancy and thermal properties of the coated fabrics showed that the after-flame time and melt dripping during the vertical burning test decreased. The char residue at temperatures ranging from 450 to 800°C during thermogravimetric analysis was enhanced as compared with the uncoated fabric. Furthermore, the morphology of the char residual of coated fabrics was rougher and bulkier than the uncoated fabrics, suggesting the typical behavior of intumescence.

Social implications

The LbL technique generally uses much fewer chemicals, thus making this flame retardant finishing much more environmentally friendly. It is also expected that these fabrics will show better touch characteristics. These fabrics may be tested for their comfort compared to that of conventional coating to enable their use on an industrial scale.

Originality/value

This work demonstrated the ability to apply an effective intumescent coating on polyester, cotton and blend fabric. In order to maintain fabric handle property, the Lbl coating technique is also employed.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Zhishi Li, Huajin Wang, Sheng Zhang, Wei Zhao, Qinghuai Jiang, Mingqiang Wang, Jun Zhao and Wei Lu

– This paper aims to discuss how acrylic resin influences the smoke generation of intumescent flame retardant coatings.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss how acrylic resin influences the smoke generation of intumescent flame retardant coatings.

Design/methodology/approach

Thermal decomposition kinetics is used in this study to simulate the burning process. The thermal decomposition of acrylic resin can be identified in the intumescent coatings through the multi-peak fitting of derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) curves. The dormant influence of acrylic resin, combined with the smoke density, is calculated.

Findings

Multiple peaks fitting method of DTG curves helps estimate the decomposition process of acrylic resin in flame retardant coating. Combining DTG data with the smoking curve, smoking generation of acrylic resin during the combustion could be evaluated. The decomposition conversion rate of acrylic resin is 21.13 per cent. Acrylic resin generates 34.64 per cent of the total amount of smoke produced during the combustion of intumescent flame retardant coatings.

Research limitations/implications

All the other intumescent flame retardant coating systems could be studied using the same approach as that used in this work to achieve an improved understanding of the smoke generation process during combustion.

Practical implications

The method developed here provided a simple and practical solution to analyse the decomposition and smoking generation of acrylic resin in the coating mixtures. It also can be used to analyse any thermal decomposition process of any mixed compounds.

Originality/value

The analysis method to evaluate resin’s smoking generation of coating’s total generation is novel, and it could be applied in all kinds of coatings and mixtures to estimate the smoking generation of one composition.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Ana Marija Grancaric, Lea Botteri, Jenny Alongi and Anita Tarbuk

The cotton and its blends is the most commonly used textile material in the design and production of protective clothing. However, as the cellulose textiles are the most…

Abstract

Purpose

The cotton and its blends is the most commonly used textile material in the design and production of protective clothing. However, as the cellulose textiles are the most flammable materials it is necessary to improve its flame retardancy. The government regulations have been the driving force for developing durable flame retardants finishes for textile, to improve its performance and to reduce the negative impact on the environment. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper investigates the effect of silica precursor (tetraethoxysilane – TEOS) added in bath with conventional flame retardant urea/ammonium polyphosphate in full and half concentration for achieving environmental-friendly cotton flame retardancy. Silica precursors have excellent thermal stability and high heat resistance with very limited release of toxic gases during the thermal decomposition. Synergistic effect between urea/ammonium polyphosphate and TEOS has been calculated. Thermal properties of treated cotton fabrics were determined by limiting oxygen index (LOI), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC).

Findings

TEOS, significantly improves the flame retardancy of cotton when added in the bath with conventional flame retardants urea/ammonium polyphosphate by increasing the LOI values and other thermal properties as increasing char residue measured by TGA and higher heat release rate measured by MCC.

Originality/value

This paper represent a good synergistic effect between urea/ammonium polyphosphate and TEOS. This phenomena is evident in better thermal properties when TEOS was added in the bath with conventional flame retardant especially for half concentration of urea/ammonium polyphosphate.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 September 2020

Emad S. Shafik, Medhat L. Tawfic and Adel F. Younan

The purpose of this study is to manufacture composites from sawdust and polymer high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with different loading from alum as natural and cheap flame

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to manufacture composites from sawdust and polymer high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with different loading from alum as natural and cheap flame retardant and subsequently characterized using standard analytical tools.

Design/methodology/approach

Artificial wood plastic composites (WPCs) were prepared by mixing HDPE with sawdust as a filler with constant ratio (2:1) using hot press. Polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PE-g-MAH) used as a coupling agent between two parents of the composites with different ratios (2.5, 5, 7 and 10). Alum as a flame retardant was incorporated into HDPE with 5 phr polyethylene grafted with maleic anhydride (PE-g-MAH) with different ratios (10, 15 and 20). Flame retardant efficiency was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry, thermal gravimetric analysis and the technique of ASTM E162.

Findings

The results revealed that the composite containing 5 phr from (PE-g-MAH) exhibited higher mechanical properties and this proved that (PE-g-MAH) act as an efficient coupling agent using the aforementioned ratio. The results also revealed that incorporation of alum as a flame retardant increased the thermal stability of the composites.

Originality/value

Artificial WPCs are ecofriendly materials with a wide range of applications in the constructions field. Moreover, they have high mechanical and physical properties with low cost. Evaluate alum as a natural and cheap flame retardant.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 50 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 January 2022

Ahmet Akar, Berrin Değirmenci and Nesrin Köken

The purpose of this paper is the production of fire retardant and smoke suppressant rigid polyurethane foam (RPUF) with lower toxicity by using several fire-retardant combinations.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is the production of fire retardant and smoke suppressant rigid polyurethane foam (RPUF) with lower toxicity by using several fire-retardant combinations.

Design/methodology/approach

Fire-retardant additives with cooling effect, barrier ash formation effect, gas-phase inhibition effect and smoke suppressant effect combined to produce an optimum outcome on RPUF. The additive amount and burning time correlation were studied to find out the minimum amount of fire-retardant to obtain fire-retardant polyurethane foam.

Findings

Zinc borate powder was coated with 1.5 wt % of stearic acid and hydroxy stearic acid. Polyammonium diborates (PABs) were synthesized and used as a fire-retardant and smoke suppressant for rigid PU foam. Fire-retardant rigid polyurethane foams (FR-RPUF) composites formed by using several combinations of zinc borate, aluminum trihydroxide, trischloroisopropyl phosphate (TCPP), PABs, zinc borate coated with stearic acid and hydroxy stearic acid. Produced FR-RPUF were horizontal burning grade, and burning time was in the range of 1–10 s.

Research limitations/implications

There were limitations during the mixing of fire-retardant powders with polyol due to the high viscosity of the mixture.

Practical implications

FR-RPUF foam with lower toxicity can be produced industrially with these fire-retardant combinations.

Social implications

FR-RPUF could be produced by using non-toxic additives. During a fire, these additives do not evolve toxic gases. The TCPP content of RPUF foam was reduced, and fire-retardant PU with lower toxicity was produced.

Originality/value

Coated zinc borate and the combinations of the fire-retardants were successful in producing non-toxic fire-retardant and smoke suppressant PU foam.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2021

Md Delwar Hossain, Md Kamrul Hassan, Anthony Chun Yin Yuen, Yaping He, Swapan Saha and Waseem Hittini

The purpose of this study is to review and summarise the existing available literature on lightweight cladding systems to provide detailed information on fire behaviour…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to review and summarise the existing available literature on lightweight cladding systems to provide detailed information on fire behaviour (ignitibility, heat release rate and smoke toxicity) and various test method protocols. Additionally, the paper discusses the challenges and provides updated knowledge and recommendation on selective-fire mechanisms such as rapid-fire spread, air cavity and fire re-entry behaviours due to dripping and melting of lightweight composite claddings.

Design/methodology/approach

A comprehensive literature review on fire behaviour, fire hazard and testing methods of lightweight composite claddings has been conducted in this research. In summarising all possible fire hazards, particular attention is given to the potential impact of toxicity of lightweight cladding fires. In addition, various criteria for fire performance evaluation of lightweight composite claddings are also highlighted. These evaluations are generally categorised as small-, intermediate- and large-scale test methods.

Findings

The major challenges of lightweight claddings are rapid fire spread, smoke production and toxicity and inconsistency in fire testing.

Originality/value

The review highlights the current challenges in cladding fire, smoke toxicity, testing system and regulation to provide some research recommendations to address the identified challenges.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 25 May 2010

58

Abstract

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Article
Publication date: 22 May 2007

Lei Nie, Michael Pecht and Richard Ciocci

This paper seeks to investigate the electronics industry's reaction to environmental regulations specifically in terms of lead‐free solders and halogen‐free flameretardants (FRs).

662

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to investigate the electronics industry's reaction to environmental regulations specifically in terms of lead‐free solders and halogen‐free flameretardants (FRs).

Design/methodology/approach

This work achieves its objective by discussing the various international environmental regulations pertaining to electronics manufacturing and relating the industry reactions to those regulations. It also provides the market trends related to lead‐ and halogen‐free products. The electronics industry is pursuing lead‐free solders and halogen‐free FRs, in part due to regulations. However, the paper includes examples of how the industry is successful in implementing environmentally friendly changes.

Findings

The authors compared regulations from Japan, the European Union, the USA, and China. While the regulations themselves vary in scope, industry actions to find alternatives do have common purposes. Electronics manufacturers recognize that environmentally motivated changes are beneficial in terms of waste minimization.

Research limitations/implications

Electronics manufacturers that are interested in green design will benefit from understanding present regulations. They will also benefit from the included examples of product and process improvement for the purpose of environmental compatibility.

Originality/value

This paper derives its perspective from a similar review of literature and company findings that the authors completed in 2006. As refinement of the regulations has continued, the electronics industry has developed improvements in basic materials and processes.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

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