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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2021

Viju Subramoniapillai and G. Thilagavathi

The most widely recycled plastic in the world is recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rPET). To minimize the environmental related issues associated with synthetic fibers…

Abstract

Purpose

The most widely recycled plastic in the world is recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rPET). To minimize the environmental related issues associated with synthetic fibers, several researchers have explored the potential use of recycled polyester fibers in developing various technical textile products. This study aims to develop needle-punched nonwoven fabrics from recycled polyester fibers and investigate its suitability in oil spill cleanup process.

Design/methodology/approach

According to Box and Behnken factorial design, 15 different needle-punched nonwoven fabrics from recycled polyester fibers were prepared by changing the parameters, namely, needle punch density, needle penetration depth and fabric areal weight. Several featured parameters such as oil sorption, oil retention, oil sorption kinetics, wettability and reusability performance were systematically elucidated.

Findings

The maximum oil sorption of recycled nonwoven polyester is found to be 24.85 g/g and 20.58 g/g for crude oil and vegetable oil, respectively. The oil retention is about 93%–96% in case of crude oil, whereas 87%–91% in case of vegetable oil. Recycled polyester nonwoven possesses good hydrophobic–oleophilic properties with static contact angle of 138° against water, whereas 0° against crude oil and vegetable oil. The reusability test results indicate that recycled polyester nonwoven fabric can be used several times because of its reusability features.

Originality/value

There is no detailed study on the oil sorption features of needle-punched nonwoven fabrics developed from recycled polyester fibers. This study is expected to help in developing fabrics for oil spill cleanups.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2010

S. Awasthi and D. Agarwal

The purpose of this paper is to describe how to synthesise polyurethane resins by using different polyester polyols and HDI isocyanurate. The polyester polyols were…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe how to synthesise polyurethane resins by using different polyester polyols and HDI isocyanurate. The polyester polyols were prepared by reacting single diol with different diacids. The effects of these polyester polyols on the performance properties of the coating films are studied.

Design/methodology/approach

A series of hydroxyl‐terminated polyester polyols were synthesised by using 1,4‐cyclohexanedimethanol (1,4‐CHDM) with different diacids such as 1,3‐cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid (1,3‐CHDA), 1,4‐CHDA, adipic acid (AA), azelaic acid (AZA), and isophthalic acid (IPA). The general properties including acid number, hydroxyl number average molecular weight, polydispersity index, and viscosity of these polyester polyols were evaluated. Different coating formulations were developed by using polyester polyols and HDI isocyanurate. These coatings were applied on sand blasted mild steel panels and glass panels and were cured in hot air oven. Various mechanical, thermal and chemical resistance properties of the coating films were evaluated.

Findings

The paper shows that, the polyurethane coatings have good resistance to water and other chemicals and can be used safely in exterior applications. In polyester polyols for polyurethane coating, CHDA showed a good balance in mechanical properties, which may be attributed to its unique cycloaliphatic structure and 1,4‐substitution. The polyester polyol based on aromatic diacids provided polyurethane coatings with maximum hardness and high Tg.

Research limitations/implications

The polyurethane resins were prepared from polyester polyol (made up of cyclohexanedimethanol (CHDM) and CHDA, IPA, AA, and AZA). Besides, this, it can be synthesised from some other polyester polyols (having different acids and alcohols) or polyether polyols. In addition to this, some other isocyanates such as TDI, MDI, HMDI, etc. can also be used.

Practical implications

The paper has provided a better solution for developing high solid polyurethane coatings for exterior applications due to presence of cycloaliphatic compounds.

Originality/value

In this paper, cyclohexyl dibasic acids have been used as the replacement for the aromatic dibasic acids. In aromatic dibasic acids, the phenyl ring readily absorbs UV‐light limiting the photo‐oxidative stability of the polyesters. So, these studies will help to develop high‐solid polyurethane coatings which could find numerous industrial applications in surface coatings.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2021

Seung-Eun Lee

This study aims to explore whether fabric contents, specifically cotton and polyester, possess particular personality dimensions, as posited by Aaker (1997). The author…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore whether fabric contents, specifically cotton and polyester, possess particular personality dimensions, as posited by Aaker (1997). The author examined both explicit (conscious, deliberate) and implicit (unconscious, automatic) perceptions of brand personality traits of cotton and polyester.

Design/methodology/approach

The convenience sample of this study included 51 students from different merchandising classes in a Midwestern university. Participants were first directed to the multidimensional implicit association test (md-IAT) and their implicit perceptions were measured for the content of the two fabrics (cotton and polyester) on five different personality attribute dimensions (sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication and ruggedness). After the IAT, participants completed the post-IAT survey, including explicit measures of brand personality attributes of cotton and polyester.

Findings

The findings of this study show that fabric contents can be successfully described and differentiated by Aaker’s brand personality dimensions. Compared with polyester, the distinctive brand personality of cotton was the favorable association between cotton and sincerity. This association was significantly higher than all other personality dimensions in both consumers’ implicit and explicit perceptions. Neither cotton nor polyester was significantly associated with the exciting, competent and sophisticated personality dimensions.

Originality/value

A unique contribution of this study is that it examines implicit perceptions of the brand personality traits of cotton and polyester. The use of the md-IAT in this study allowed the assessment of consumers’ automatic associations with cotton and polyester of which they may not be aware.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2020

R. Rathinamoorthy and S. Raja Balasaraswathi

Microfiber is one of the major sources of microplastic emission into the environment. In recent times, research on microfiber has gained momentum, and research across…

Abstract

Purpose

Microfiber is one of the major sources of microplastic emission into the environment. In recent times, research on microfiber has gained momentum, and research across different disciplines was performed. However, no complete study was performed from the viewpoint of textiles to analyse the microfiber shedding behaviour by relating the properties textiles. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the microfiber shedding behaviour in textiles.

Design/methodology/approach

Articles on the microfiber shedding across different disciplines were collected and analysed systematically to identify the influencing factor. The influence of laundry parameters is found to be majorly discussed section, yet very few research data is found on the effect of yarn and fabric properties on the microfiber shedding.

Findings

Most of the articles listed laundry detergent addition, higher temperature, use of softeners, type of washing machines used and amount of liquid used as the major factors influencing the fiber shedding. Concerning the fiber and yarn characteristics, yarn twist, fiber type (staple/filament), method of production, fabric structure and specific density are reported as influencing factors. Some articles highlighted the influence of ageing of textiles on the fiber shedding.

Originality/value

The review identified the research gap in the textile sector and reports that so far, no research performed on microfiber shedding with the textile parameters. The review further urges the importance of research works to be performed in the textile by considering the fabric and yarn properties.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 12 May 2020

Pu Tian, Ruosi Yan, Yabiao Tong, Lixia Jia and Jiming Yao

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of alkali treatment on adhesion of industrial thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer (TPU)/polyester woven fabric…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of alkali treatment on adhesion of industrial thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer (TPU)/polyester woven fabric inter-ply hybrid composites.

Design/methodology/approach

Inter-ply hybrid composites were exposed to varying concentration of sodium hydroxide at different temperature and time and their mechanical properties including differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscope, tensile and peeling strength evaluated to determine optimal treatment parameters.

Findings

Modified polyester fabrics treated with alkali had higher tensile and peeling strengths. Accordingly, alkali treatment roughened the surface of polyester fabric, decreasing warp and weft densities, thus increasing fiber surface energy. The fabric had the highest peeling strength of 3.23 N/mm at treatment of 25% concentration of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Short-term exposure to ultraviolet had little effect on interfacial adhesion of alkali-treated conveyor belt.

Research limitations/implications

Polyester fabric, applied in reinforcing industrial conveyor belts, is never degreased, roughened, sensitized or activated. In this paper, one-step treatment of polyester fabric was performed to increase its adhesion with polyester inter-ply hybrid composites, providing a reference for practical industrial application.

Practical implications

The method developed in this research is simple and provides a solution to improving the interfacial adhesion of TPU/polyester conveyor belt.

Originality/value

The novel alkali treatment technology has many applications in the interfacial performance of composite materials.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 49 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 7 May 2020

Sushant S. Pawar and Ravindra Adivarekar

Textile industry is considered to be one of the largest consumers of water. There needs to be an alternative for water in textile wet processing. Solvent dyeing can be an…

Abstract

Purpose

Textile industry is considered to be one of the largest consumers of water. There needs to be an alternative for water in textile wet processing. Solvent dyeing can be an approach to replace the use of water in dyeing for water conservation.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the dyeing of polyester was carried out using conventional and solvent dyeing methods. The solvent used was non-aqueous, deep eutectic solvent (DES) prepared using choline chloride and urea. Dyeing parameters such as time, temperature and pH were optimized for a concentration of dye using the solvent and were compared with the conventional dyeing.

Findings

The prepared solvent was characterized in terms of Fourier-transform infrared resonance and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance to analyze the reaction between choline chloride and urea. Dyeing performance in terms of K/S and fastness properties of dyed fabrics were evaluated and found to be at par against conventional dyeing.

Originality/value

Use of DES as a dyeing medium is a novel approach in the textile industry.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2014

Rachel H. McQueen, James J. Harynuk, Wendy V. Wismer, Monika Keelan, Yin Xu and A. Paulina de la Mata

Fibre content can influence the intensity of odour that develops within clothing fabrics. However, little is known about how effective laundering is at removing malodours…

Abstract

Purpose

Fibre content can influence the intensity of odour that develops within clothing fabrics. However, little is known about how effective laundering is at removing malodours in clothing which differ by fibre type. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether a selected cotton fabric differed in odour intensity following multiple wear and wash cycles compared to a polyester fabric.

Design/methodology/approach

Eight (male and female) participants wore bisymmetrical cotton/polyester t-shirts during 20 exercise sessions over a ten-week trial period. Odour was evaluated via a sensory panel, bacterial populations were counted and selected odorous volatile organic compounds were measured with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection. Analysis occurred both before and after the final (20th) wash cycle.

Findings

Findings showed that laundering was effective in reducing overall odour intensity (p0.001) and bacterial populations (p0.001) in both cotton and polyester fabrics. Odour was most intense on polyester fabrics following wear, not just before, but also after washing (p0.001); although, no differences in bacterial counts were found between fibre types (p>0.05). Chemical analysis found C4-C8 chained carboxylic acids on both types of unwashed fabrics, although they were more prevalent on polyester.

Originality/value

The findings suggest that the build-up of odour in polyester fabrics may be cumulative as important odorants such as the carboxylic acids were not as effectively removed from polyester compared to cotton.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Soheir Youssef Tawfik, Magdy Wadid Sabaa and Ramzy Takawy Botros

The purpose of this paper is to prepare cheap and environmentally friendly water soluble polyester coatings through the glycolysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) waste.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to prepare cheap and environmentally friendly water soluble polyester coatings through the glycolysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) waste.

Design/methodology/approach

A secondary value-added polyester coatings were prepared from PET waste. The first step was the de-polymerisation of PET waste by 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediol with different molar ratios in the presence of different concentrations of zinc acetate as trans-esterification catalyst. The de-polymerised product was characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HNMR), differential scanning calorimetry and hydroxyl values. The polyesters were successfully synthesised by esterification of the glycolysed product with adipic acid, isophthalic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediol and trimellitic anhydride in different ratios. FTIR and 1HNMR were used qualitatively and quantitatively to elucidate the structure of the prepared polyesters. Hydroxyl value and the physical properties of the prepared polyesters were also investigated. Two different curing agents were used to prepare the coatings based on the prepared polyesters.

Findings

Useful coating products were obtained by chemical (glycolysis) of post consumed PET wastes. The 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediol was found to be good glycol in the glycolysis of PET. It was noticed that the rate of glycolysis increases with increasing the amount of catalyst, time of glycolysis and amount of 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediol. N,N-Dimethylethanol amine was a good neutralising agent used for the preparation of water soluble coatings based on glycolysed product of PET.

Practical implications

The use of waste products like PET waste in water soluble coating systems will bring down the costs of the coatings and will also open a new market of recycled plastic materials and, hence, may provide a potential solution to the problems of solid waste management. It is an attractive option for environmentally friendly and efficient disposal of plastic waste.

Originality/value

The paper provides a potential way to use undesirable PET waste as industrial raw material. The coatings prepared are eco-friendly, soluble in water that can replace other expensive polyester coatings that are soluble in organic solvents and not environmentally coatings.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 46 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 3 January 2017

Yong-Hee Lee, Jung-Hun Lee and Hyun-Joong Kim

Formability is an important property of automotive pre-coated metals (PCMs). The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of long alkyl chains of…

Abstract

Purpose

Formability is an important property of automotive pre-coated metals (PCMs). The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of long alkyl chains of polycarbonatediol to control the formability of polyester coatings.

Design/methodology/approach

Polyester resins with long alkyl chains were synthesized using different contents of polycarbonatediol. These resins were characterised by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The polyester coatings were characterised according to their viscoelastic behaviour, formability, flexibility and anti-corrosion property.

Findings

The tensile strength of PCM should be larger than 5.6 MPa of the compressive stress at a strain of 23.4 per cent to overcome the harsh condition of deep drawing. To analyse the formability, Fε (forming coefficient based on strain) and FU (forming coefficient based on strain energy) were calculated. When Fε and FU were larger than 1, the polyester coatings exhibited good formability.

Research limitations/implications

Long alkyl chains of polycarbonatediol gave flexibility and good formability to the polyester coatings.

Practical implications

There are two conditions that lead to the good formability of PCM. One is tensile strength and the other is forming coefficients based on strain and strain energy.

Originality/value

Long alkyl chains of polyester were a major factor to improve flexibility and formability. Thus, to have good formability, the tensile strength of PCM should be larger than 5.6 MPa, and the forming coefficients should be larger than 1.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 46 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2014

Kadir Bilisik and Bekir Yildirim

– The aim of this study was to understand the stick-slip properties of single and multiple yarn pull-out in dry and treated polyester satin woven fabric in boundary regions.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study was to understand the stick-slip properties of single and multiple yarn pull-out in dry and treated polyester satin woven fabric in boundary regions.

Design/methodology/approach

Polyester satin pattern woven fabric was used to conduct the pull-out tests in order to examining the kinetic region of the force-displacement curve. Data generated from this research help the authors to obtain stick-slip force and accumulative retraction force.

Findings

It was found that stick-slip force and accumulative retraction force depend on the number of pulled ends in the fabric, fabric sample dimensions and softening treatments. Stick-slip forces of polyester satin fabric in the multiple yarn pull-out test were higher than those of the single yarn pull-out test. Stick-slip force in single and multiple yarn pull-out tests in the dry polyester satin fabric was generally higher than those of the softening treated polyester satin fabric. In addition, the warp directional single and multiple yarn stick-slip and accumulative retraction forces in the dry and softening treated polyester fabrics were generally higher than those in the weft direction in the fabric edges due to fabric density. On the other hand, the amount of stick-slip force was related to the number of interlacement points in the fabric, whereas the amount of accumulative retraction force was related to fabric structural response.

Originality/value

The mechanism of stick-slip and accumulative retraction force of dry-treated polyester satin pattern woven fabrics were explained. This research could be valuable for development of multifunctional fabrics in technical textiles and ballistic.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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