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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Wen Li, Zhongbin Bao, Lijun Chen and Dongshun Deng

At present, the conventional method of preparing cationic fluorinated acrylic latex is to emulsify copolymerised monomers with cationic surfactants. However, there has…

Abstract

Purpose

At present, the conventional method of preparing cationic fluorinated acrylic latex is to emulsify copolymerised monomers with cationic surfactants. However, there has been a wide concern about using Gemini surfactants to prepare cationic polymer latex to improve its properties. The purpose of this paper was to focus on the synthesis of novel self-crosslinked cationic fluorinated acrylic latex (SCFAL), during which the copolymerised monomers were initiated with a water soluble azo initiator and emulsified with mixed surfactants of Gemini emulsifier and alkyl polyglycoside (APG).

Design/methodology/approach

The novel SCFAL was prepared successfully by the semi-continuous seeded emulsion polymerisation of butyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, hexafluorobutyl methacrylate (HFMA) and hydroxy propyl methacrylate (HPMA) in aqueous medium.

Findings

The conversion is the maximum and the coagulation percentage the minimum when the amounts of emulsifier and initiator are 8 and 0.6 per cent, respectively. The average particle size of the latex is significantly reduced with the increase of the amount of emulsifiers used. However, the average particle size of the latex is increased with the increase of the amount of HPMA. The particle size of the latex is of a unimodal distribution, which means that the particle size was reasonably uniform. Contact angle is increased with the increase of the amount of the HFMA.

Practical implications

The novel SCFAL can be widely used as significant components in the field of coatings, leather, textile, paper, adhesives and so on.

Originality/value

SCFAL, which was emulsified with novel mixed surfactants of Gemini surfactant and APG, has been prepared successfully. Influences of amount of initiator, emulsifier, HPMA and HFMA on emulsion polymerisation and/or properties of novel latex are investigated in detail.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 45 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2011

Fatima Bensajjay, Saliha Alehyen, Mohammed El Achouri, Najat Hajjaji, Abdelkbir Bellaouchou, Lourdes Perez and Maria Rosa Infante

The purpose of this investigation is the evaluation of the inhibitive performance of a new “geminisurfactant in the series of bis‐quat: N, N, N′, N″, N″‐pentamethyl…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this investigation is the evaluation of the inhibitive performance of a new “geminisurfactant in the series of bis‐quat: N, N, N′, N″, N″‐pentamethyl diethyleneamine‐N, N″‐di‐[tetradecylammonium bromide] on the corrosion of iron in 1 M HCl by gravimetric, potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance measurements. The effect of the temperature on the corrosion behavior of iron in 1 M HCl without and with inhibitor is studied in the temperature range (298‐333 K). This work also attempts to correlate thermodynamic and kinetic parameters with the inhibition effect.

Design/methodology/approach

The inhibition efficiency of gemini synthesized is investigated by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and impedance spectroscopy methods.

Findings

The synthesized gemini bis‐quat acted as a good inhibitor in 1 M HCl, and inhibition efficiency increased with inhibitor concentration and temperature. Polarization curves showed that the surfactant was a mixed‐type inhibitor in hydrochloric acid. Impedance spectroscopy measurements showed that the inhibitor acted through the formation of a multilayer film at the iron surface. The adsorption of inhibitor on the iron surface obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm equation. The inhibition effect was satisfactorily explained by both thermodynamic and kinetic parameters.

Originality/value

The adsorption of surfactants in the metal surface can markedly change the corrosion resisting property of the metal. So the study of the relation between the adsorption and corrosion inhibition is of a great importance. This was the first attempt to study the inhibition properties of gemini surfactants at the host laboratory.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 58 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 17 March 2012

Hariom K. Sharma

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of some corrosion inhibition studies of brass in 3N HNO3 by gemini surfactants.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of some corrosion inhibition studies of brass in 3N HNO3 by gemini surfactants.

Design/methodology/approach

Gemini surfactants namely: N‐trimethyl butane‐diyl‐1,2‐ethane‐bis‐ammonium bromide (BEAB), N‐hexane‐diyl‐1,2‐ethane‐bis‐ammonium bromide (HEAB), N‐dodecane‐diyl‐1,2‐ethane‐bis‐ammonium bromide (DDEAB) and N‐hexadecane‐diyl‐1,2‐ethane‐bis‐ammonium bromide (HDEAB) were synthesized in the laboratory and their influence has been investigated for controlling the dissolution of brass in 3N HNO3. Weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance have been employed for the study. Weight loss experiments were performed as per standard method (ASTM, 1987). Potentiodynamic polarization studies were carried out using EG&G PARC potentiostat/galvanostat (model 173), universal programmer (model 175) and X‐Y recorder (model RE 0089) and impedance measurements were carried out with an EG&G PAR (model 5301 A) lock‐in‐amplifier, using an IBM computer.

Findings

The inhibition efficiency for all the gemini surfactants increases with increase in concentrations. The maximum inhibition efficiency of each inhibitor was achieved at 250 ppm concentration. The inhibition efficiency of all the inhibitors decreases on increasing the temperature from 30 to 50°C. The results of potentiodynamic polarization studies revealed that all the compounds were mixed type inhibitors and inhibit the corrosion of brass by blocking the active sites of the metal. The adsorption of the compounds on brass surface in 3N HNO3 has been found to obey the Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

Originality/value

The paper provides information regarding corrosion inhibition of brass in 3N HNO3, the mechanism of the inhibition on the basis of molecular structures of the inhibitors, activation energy and free energy of adsorption.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 59 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2021

Jose-Gonzalo Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Andres Carmona Hernandez, E. Vázquez-Vélez, A. Contreras-Cuevas and Jorge Uruchurtu Chavarin

This paper aims to use an imidazole-based n-ionic Gemini surfactant derived from palm oil to inhibit the sulfide stress corrosion cracking of a supermartensitic stainless steel.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to use an imidazole-based n-ionic Gemini surfactant derived from palm oil to inhibit the sulfide stress corrosion cracking of a supermartensitic stainless steel.

Design/methodology/approach

The slow strain rate testing technique, hydrogen permeation tests and potentiodynamic polarization curves have been used.

Findings

Addition of the inhibitor below the critical micelle concentration (CMC) decreased the corrosion current density (icorr), but not enough to avoid embrittlement due to the entry of hydrogen into the steel. Instead, the addition of the inhibitor close to the CMC decreased the icorr, suppressed the entry of hydrogen and inhibited the sulfide stress cracking of steel. Finally, the addition of inhibitor above the CMC led to a slight increase of icorr and promoted localized corrosion, however, the sulfide stress cracking of steel was inhibited.

Originality/value

A green sulfide stress corrosion cracking inhibitor of a supermartensitic stainless steel has been obtained.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Paulo Renato de Souza, Jean Vicente Ferrari and Isabel Correia Guedes

Surfactants have been reported to have high inhibition efficiencies for corrosion of steel. This paper aims to study the performance of a low toxic copolymer of…

Abstract

Purpose

Surfactants have been reported to have high inhibition efficiencies for corrosion of steel. This paper aims to study the performance of a low toxic copolymer of polydimethylsiloxane and polyoxyalkylene (POA) surfactant named as POPS, as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel (ASTM 1005) in hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution at 25°C.

Design/methodology/approach

To evaluate POPS efficiency as a corrosion inhibitor, the following techniques were used: surface tension measurements, weight loss measurements, open circuit potential monitoring, potentiodynamic polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurements.

Findings

Results indicated that POPS acted as a mixed corrosion inhibitor and led to a hydrophobic protector film on the metal surface. The adsorption process obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm by chemisorption. The maximum efficiency of the surfactant studied was achieved in a concentration around the critical micelle concentration.

Originality/value

Surfactant (POPS) of low level of toxicity acts as a mixed corrosion inhibitor in HCl medium. Inhibitor film formation was characterized by EIS results. A mechanism for corrosion inhibition is proposed.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 63 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Ali Yousefi, Saeed Amir Aslanzadeh and Jafar Akbari

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the surface properties, particle sizes and corrosion inhibition performance of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in the presence of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the surface properties, particle sizes and corrosion inhibition performance of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in the presence of imidazolium-based ionic liquid as an additive. Up to now, different properties of alone surfactants and ionic liquids have been studied. However, few studies have been devoted to mixed ionic liquid and surfactant. The significance and novelty of this research is the investigation of 1-methylimidazolium trinitrophenoxide ([MIm][TNP]) as ionic liquid effects on SDS corrosion behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

The inhibition effect of [MIm][TNP], SDS and their mixtures on mild steel surface in 2 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution was examined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization (PDP), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy and quantum chemical calculations as well as dynamic light scattering (DLS) and surface tension measurements to discuss surface properties of studied solutions.

Findings

Based on the results, ionic liquid/SDS mixtures significantly indicated better inhibition properties than pure surfactant solution. PDP curves indicated that the studied compounds act as mixed-type of inhibitors. The critical micelle concentration, surface properties and particle sizes were investigated from the surface tension measurements and DLS results.

Originality/value

Adsorption of the inhibitors on the steel surface obeyed the Villamil adsorption model. SEM was used for surface analysis and verified the inhibition efficiency of mixed IL/SDS system. Quantum chemical calculations were performed using density functional theory, and a good relationship between experimental and theoretical data has been obtained.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 65 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2020

Ku Esyra Hani Ku Ishak and Mohammed Abdalla Ayoub

The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of the fabricated liquid–liquid hydrocyclone (LLHC) with dimensions similar to those of one of the Malaysian…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of the fabricated liquid–liquid hydrocyclone (LLHC) with dimensions similar to those of one of the Malaysian oilfields with the presence of an anionic surfactant, S672. The effect of salinity and initial oil concentration were also investigated following the actual range concentration.

Design/methodology/approach

The current control system’s pressure drop ratio (PDR) does not necessarily lead to an efficient LLHC. Therefore, rather than using the PDR, the efficiency of the LLHC was analyzed by comparing the concentration of oil in the effluents with the concentration of oil at the feed of the LLHC. An LLHC test rig was developed at Centre of Enhanced Oil Recovery, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS. Emulsions were prepared by mixing the brines, S672 and oil by using Ultra Turrax ultrasonic mixer. The emulsion was pumped into the LLHC at different feed flowrate and split ratio. The brines concentration, initial oil concentration and S672 concentration were also varied in this study. Samples were taken at the underflow of the LLHC and the oil in water concentration analysis was done for the samples using TD-500D equipment.

Findings

It was found that the efficiency of oil removal decreased with an increase in S672 concentration but increased with the increase in salinity and initial oil concentration.

Originality/value

The optimum feed flowrate for the LLHC of 45 mm diameter and length of 1,125 mm with the presence of S672 surfactant was found to be 40 L/min with a split ratio of 14%. This study can be used as a guidance for future optimization of the LLHC in the presence of the surfactant.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2018

L.M. Quej-Ake, A. Contreras and Jorge Aburto

The purpose of this research is to study different extra-heavy crude oil-in-water emulsions that can be found in practice for corrosion process of X52 steel adding 60…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to study different extra-heavy crude oil-in-water emulsions that can be found in practice for corrosion process of X52 steel adding 60 mg.L-1 of non-ionic surfactant and a corrosion inhibitor (CI). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel plots are carried out. Thus, Bode-modulus and Bode-phase angle plots are discussed. Adsorption isotherms obtained from corrosion rate (CR) values are taken into account.

Design/methodology/approach

Two-electrode arrangement is used to characterize the pseudo-capacitance values for X52 steel exposed to water and crude oil phases, mainly. Electrochemical evaluations for X52 steel exposed to extra-heavy crude oil-in-water emulsions are recorded in a conventional three-electrode cell to study the corrosion process as was documented in detail by Quej-Ake et al. (2015). Therefore, all electrodes are placed as close as possible to eliminate the iR-drop.

Findings

Pseudo-capacitance analysis shows that X52 steel immersed in oilfield produced water was more susceptible to corrosion than that immersed in ocean water solution and extra-heavy crude oil phase. After being analyzed, the X52 steel surface coverage and adsorption process for surfactant and CI could be concluded that surfactant could protect the metal surface. In a coalescence extra-heavy crude oil-in-water emulsion, the water medium generated a new solution that was more corrosive than the original water phase. Wash crude oil process was provoked in emulsion systems to sweep up the salts, mainly. Thus, corrosive species that can be recovered inside extra-heavy crude oil may appear, and in turn a new more corrosive solution could be obtained. Taking into account the straight line obtained in Bode-modulus plot for X52 exposed to extra-heavy crude oil, it is possible to point out that the negative value of the slope or R2 can be related to a coefficient (Jorcin et al., 2006). It is important to mention that electrochemical responses for X52 steel exposed to extra-heavy crude oil-in-water under coalescence emulsions revealed that corrosion and diffusion processes exist. Therefore, a possible good inhibitor is surfactant in emulsion systems.

Originality/value

CR and anodic and cathodic slopes suggest that the surfactant acted as mixed CI. Of these, susceptible anodic (MnS and perlite or cementite) and cathodic (ferrite) sites on steel surface could be affected, due to which physicochemical adsorption could happen by using electrochemical parameters analysis. Thus, no stable emulsions should be taken into account for extra-heavy crude oil transportation, because corrosion problems in atmospheric distillation process of the crude oil due to stable emulsion cannot be easily separated. In this manner, coalescent emulsions are more adequate for transporting extra-heavy crude oil because low energy to separate the water media is required.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 65 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Samy Shaban, Abd Elaziz Fouda, Mohamed Elmorsi, Tarek Fayed and Omar Azazy

The purpose of this study is to inspect the corrosion inhibition of API N80 steel pipelines in uninhibited solution and inhibited with a synthesized surfactant compound…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to inspect the corrosion inhibition of API N80 steel pipelines in uninhibited solution and inhibited with a synthesized surfactant compound [N-(3-(dimethyl octyl ammonio) propyl) palmitamide bromide] (DMDPP), which is prepared through a simple and applicable method.

Design/methodology/approach

Weight loss was inspected at five different temperatures of 25°C, 30°C, 40°C, 50°C and 60°C Potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and electrochemical frequency modulation were used at room temperature. Density functional theory was used to study the relation between the molecular structure and inhibition theoretically.

Findings

Adsorption of the prepared DMDPP fits the Langmuir isotherm model. The inhibition efficiency of the prepared DMDPP amphipathic inhibitor is directly proportional to temperature increase. Polarization results reveal that the investigated DMDPP amphipathic compound behaves as a mixed-type inhibitor. EIS spectra produced one individual capacitive loop.

Originality/value

The originality is the preparation of cationic surfactants through a simple method, which can be used as corrosion inhibitors in oil production. The synthesized inhibitors were prepared from low-price materials. The work studied the behavior of the synthesized surfactants in inhibiting the corrosion of the steel in an acidic medium. Electrochemical and theoretical studies were presented, besides gravimetric and surface examination.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 65 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Lijun Chen, Zhongbin Bao, Zhengrong Fu and Wen Li

The purpose of this research was to synthesize a novel cross-linked latex copolymerised by butyl acrylate (BA), isobornyl methacrylate (IBOMA), hydroxy propyl methacrylate…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research was to synthesize a novel cross-linked latex copolymerised by butyl acrylate (BA), isobornyl methacrylate (IBOMA), hydroxy propyl methacrylate (HPMA) and dodecafluoroheptyl methacrylate (DFMA). IBOMA is a very useful functional monomer. Its molecular structure not only contains bornyl acetate alkoxy but also includes a double bond, which can be copolymerised with other unsaturated monomers via free radical polymerization. The large nonpolar bicyclic alkyl in bornyl acetate alkoxy offers the polymer chain strong space steric protection, which endows the polymer with some special properties.

Design/methodology/approach

The semi-continuous seeded emulsion polymerisation technology was adopted to copolymerise BA, IBOMA, HPMA and DFMA in the water phase, which was initiated with potassium persulfate (KPS) and emulsified with the mixed surfactants of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and OP-10.

Findings

The particle size of the latex decreases with an increase in the amount of IBOMA. All the latexes have good mechanical stability and calcium ion stability. The latex has good film-forming property when the IBOMA amount is controlled moderately. The optimal IBOMA amount is 10.00 g. The thermal stability and water resistance of the film are improved.

Practical implications

The latexes can be applied as a binder of coatings and adhesions.

Originality/value

The effect of the amount of IBOMA and BA on the properties of the resultant latex and its film were investigated in detail. In comparison with the latexes copolymerised without IBOMA, the novel latex has better thermal stability and water resistance.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 44 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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